• Environmental Contamination from Glove Disposal Practices

      Munoz, Kimberley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Purpose: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provides a barrier between health professionals and pathogens. Misconceptions related to PPE and its role in environmental contamination, may lead to risky behaviors and/or perceptions in healthcare professionals due to broken barriers of protection. Evidence suggests that doffing and disposal of used PPE can lead to environmental contamination. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the potential for environmental contamination when medical gloves are flung, tossed, or thrown; while using a harmless PR772 bacteriophage and fluorescent dye tracers. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure the overall spread of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye from glove disposal to the surrounding environment; 2) determine the contamination along the glove flight path and the distance from the health professional; and 3) compare the occurrence of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye in the vicinity of glove disposal. Methods: Fifteen Health Professionals flung, tossed, or threw PR772 and fluorescent dye contaminated gloves into a wastebasket, located 1.22 m away. Twenty designated sample areas were set up along the glove flight path, along a wall behind the wastebasket and outside the flight path that represented equipment within a patient room. Following each glove disposal trial, designated Sample Areas were: 1) visually inspected with a blacklight to quantify the fluorescent dye stains and 2) swabbed with a 3M Letheen Broth sponge to quantify PR772. Results: The mean of PR772 contamination from all sample areas was 4.22 log10 PFU/mL. The area closest to the participant (<0.30 m) had the highest PR772 concentrations (mean = 2.61 log10 PFU/mL; range -0.3 to 6.32 log10 PFU/mL). The sample areas within the first 0.61 m of the health professional were statistically higher (p< 0.05) than ≥0.61 m for PR772 and all sample areas, < 0.61 m, were positive for both tracers. Based on the fluorescent dye’s ability to predict the presence absence of viral tracers, it was found to be an appropriate surrogate when used as a teaching tool for PPE disposal scenarios. Conclusion: Among medical personnel, gloves are used every workday and have the potential to contaminate the surrounding surfaces during improper disposal practices. Therefore, proper disposal techniques are required to minimize pathogen transmission. Due to limited education/training, and non-compliance with glove disposal recommendations, health professionals flinging gloves into the wastebasket can contribute significant pathogen contamination within 0.61 m around themselves, with a possibility of contaminating up to 1.52 m. Establishing industry-wide policies, adequate training and education to health professionals on appropriate glove disposal can reduce the spread of microbial contaminants and reduce exposure risks to patients and personnel.
    • Solar Power Utilization as an Alternative Energy Resource for Disaster Relief

      Manqerios, Wael (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The world is facing a significant energy crisis, and it differs from one country to another. Many industries strive to achieve a better greener solution for energy production by using non-depleting sources like the Sun, the wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal power plants. We find that the most common resource around the world is the sun. And the most common way to collect solar radiation is PV panels, as they are available around the world, relatively easy to install, and many people are already familiar with them. Global warming, ozone layer depletion, ocean acidification, droughts and heat waves are often associated with climate changing and temperature rising. All of which is playing a significant factor in the new danger we are facing, the natural disasters frequency occurrence hitting several areas simultaneously. The primary challenge happens after a disaster strike is losing electricity because of power lines cut. Loss of electricity leads to many needs going unmet. Can solar power, along with other environmental strategies, be utilized to replace the use of traditional generators in long-term disaster relief? This research looks at environmental strategies (passive & active) which can make a big difference in the long-term recovery process for people who lost their homes. The strategies that are discussed can be applied to many long-term structures to help reduce the energy needs in a green environmental way. Energy needs, conservation, and use are the primary focus here as we compare traditional approaches to available innovative environmental approaches in the disaster relief process, mainly in long-term housing. The ultimate goal is to meet people’s energy needs after a disaster without harming the environment.
    • A Baroque Denouement: The Direct Influence of Theatre on Bernini's Artistic Work

      Francesco, Amelia Rose (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Gian Lorenzo Bernini is the most prominent architect of the High and Late Baroque periods and there is a vast amount of scholarship addressing his architectural, sculptural, and pictorial works. However, studies on the other aspects of his life and work are underdeveloped, especially that of his long and dedicated involvement with the theatre. As scholars Robert Fahrner and William Kleb note in a 1973 essay published in the Educational Theatre Journal, “Art historians seem interested in it [Bernini’s theatrical activity] only in general, as an ‘influence’ on Bernini’s more important (and tangible) sculptural and architectural achievements. Theatre historians seem to have ignored it almost entirely.” This vast oversight, caused by the arbitrary separation of the visual and performing arts, has greatly hindered any scholarly attempts at a fully realized understanding of the Baroque master. In this thesis, I discuss the traditions and styles in 17th century theatre of Italy and France as well as Bernini’s involvement in and use of theatrical conventions in his sculpture and architecture. By tracing both his theatrical activity and artistic career, the connections become extremely evident, shedding new light on Bernini’s life and legacy.
    • Mercantilización Cultural, Gourmetización y Gentrificación de los Espacios Culinarios de Madrid como Consecuencia de la Estadounidensificación de la Ciudad

      Vázquez Blázquez, Laura (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This dissertation explores the key role food has in transforming Madrid. It uses the relationships between food, culture and capital as a way to examine food effects on the urban process. The first two chapters highlight the connection between urban transformation, gourmetization of traditional and ethnic culinary spaces, and the concept of “selling place” in relation to the commodification of culture and urban regeneration. The first chapter focuses on the evolution and transformation of three food markets in Madrid. Some of these traditional food markets have been transformed into gourmet niches that satisfy the needs of foodies, residents, visitors, and tourists. The second chapter explores the emergence of Gourmet Mexican restaurants along with the new dynamics that take place within the postmodern city, in terms of consumption and production. This helps illustrate how the growth of many new and gourmetized Mexican restaurants operate as cultural venues to enhance the symbolic economy of Madrid, leading, in some cases, to a culinary and commercial gentrification, specially when these establishments are centrally located. My last chapter examines how the aforementioned urban processes are articulated in visual cultural artifacts. I particularly focus on two films where two major chefs and their high-end restaurants operate as part of the symbolic capital of different postindustrial cities. The analysis of Fuera de Carta (2008) and Chef ( 2014 )– among other secondary examples that are discussed– focuses on the gourmetization of culinary urban space , where food and chefs are the protagonists that help recreate the culinary imaginary.
    • Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Alters Phase I Drug Metabolism

      Li, Hui (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Variable drug responses (VDRs) are dependent on inter-individual variability in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. As the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been identified as a source of significant inter-individual variation in hepatic drug metabolism. A previous ex vivo study demonstrated significant changes in hepatic CYP activity in adult human NASH. To evaluate the current model in reflecting the hepatic CYP alterations in humans with NASH, the expression profile and the in vivo activities of multiple CYP isoforms were assessed in the prominent diabetic NASH mouse models. Although significant alterations in the profile of CYP expression and function were shown in the diabetic NASH mouse model, a comparison revealed that this model only partially recapitulates the human ex vivo CYP alteration pattern. Therefore, in vivo determination of the effects of NASH on CYP activity should be conducted in human, and more appropriate models are required for future drug metabolism studies in NASH. Compared to adults, children present age-related differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The following study determined the impact of fatty liver disease severity on the activity of a variety of CYPs in adolescents using the in vivo approach established in the first study. The CYP2C19 enzymatic activity is decreased by 60% in NASH adolescents. A comparison between the in vivo pediatric studies and a previous ex vivo study in adult indicates distinct differences in the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9, which demonstrate that pediatric NASH presents an altered pattern of CYP activity and NASH should be considered as a confounder of drug metabolism for certain CYPs. Furthermore, hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) play critical roles in alcohol metabolism and other cellular metabolism processes, as well as the metabolism of clinical drugs. The alterations in alcohol metabolism processes in response to human NASH progression were investigated using human liver samples. ADH and ALDH expression and function are significantly altered in the progression of NASH, which may have a notable impact on ADH and ALDH associated cellular metabolism processes and lead to significant alterations in drug metabolism mediated by these enzymes. Overall, the major phase I drug metabolizing enzymes are profoundly altered in the progression of human NASH, which may significantly increase the incidence of VDRs. Therefore, the disease state of NASH should be taken into consideration in dosage recommendations and appropriate dose adjustment. Future studies will be needed to translate these findings to guide actual clinical practice.
    • Marginal Coexistence: Anabaptists between Persecution and Toleration in Reformed Zurich, 1585-1650

      Neufeld, David Yoder (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      For more than a century after the genesis of an Anabaptist movement in Zurich in 1525, participants in this prohibited religious culture continued to live in rural lands under the city- republic’s control. This dissertation examines the character of the coexistence of members of the Anabaptist minority and representatives of the Reformed majority in this territory between 1585, when the city council promulgated a new set of anti-Anabaptist mandates, and c. 1650, when official coercion eliminated the presence of nonconformist communities from the area. Drawing on a diverse body of archival evidence, the author concludes that Anabaptist-Reformed coexistence during this period occurred under conditions of repression. This phrase describes relations between a subordinate but active minority and a dominant majority when the latter both desired and took concrete steps to eliminate religious diversity as a notable feature of public life. Under such conditions, manifestations of Anabaptist religious culture—illicit mobility, recounting of conversion experiences, selective withdrawal from parish life, and courtship and marriage practices—often triggered a repressive response. These actions, by rendering nonconformity visible, violated cultural norms and boundaries that representatives of the Reformed majority considered worthy of defense. While levels of Anabaptist activity remained relatively stable, the severity of conflict between these groups vacillated markedly, influenced by varying configurations of governmental power, understandings of communal space, solidarities of kinship and neighborliness, and practices of record-production and record-keeping. Although repression pushed Anabaptists into marginal spaces, it did not provoke widespread dissimulation. Rather, dissidents generally remained willing, if not eager, to incur costs for the articulation of religious difference. The fact and nature of long-term Anabaptist-Reformed coexistence in Zurich’s lands expands appreciation of the breadth of possibilities for religious diversity in early modern Europe. At the same time, it shows how tenuous and cruel coexistence could be when stamped by conflict, domination, and human suffering.
    • Identification of Gene Regulatory Networks Controlling Cell Differentiation in Maize Endosperm

      Zhan, Junpeng (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The endosperm of cereal grains accumulates large amounts of storage compounds such as carbohydrates and proteins that are essential for seed germination. These compounds also constitute a principal source of human food, animal feed, and industrial raw material globally. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the cell differentiation of cereal endosperm remain largely unknown. This dissertation has been focused on identification of the gene regulatory networks associated with the differentiation of basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), the starchy endosperm (SE), and the aleurone (AL) of the maize (Zea mays) endosperm, which are the main cell types involved in nutrient uptake from the maternal tissue and the synthesis and deposition of storage compounds. As a first step toward characterizing the gene networks associated with cell differentiation of the maize endosperm, the mRNAs in five major cell types of the differentiating endosperm and in the embryo and four maternal compartments of the maize kernel were profiled using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons of these mRNA populations revealed the diverged gene expression programs between filial and maternal compartments. Gene coexpression network analysis identified coexpression modules associated with single or multiple kernel compartments including modules for the endosperm cell types. Detailed analyses of a coexpression module strongly associated with BETL identified a regulatory module activated by the MYB-Related Protein-1 (MRP-1), a previously reported regulator of BETL differentiation. To understand the interplay between the endosperm cell differentiation programs and the storage program which is activated immediately after the main cell types become distinguishable, direct and indirect target genes of Opaque-2 (O2), which is a bZIP family transcription factor (TF) that has been known as a major regulator of the endosperm storage program, were identified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) coupled with RNA-Seq. The analysis identified 1,863 O2-modulated genes, including 186 putative direct targets and 1,677 indirect targets, whose known/putative gene functions suggest a broad role for O2 in the regulation of cell differentiation, storage product deposition, maturation, and stress response of maize endosperm. Temporal examination of the expression patterns of O2 targets in the developing endosperm of an o2 mutant vs. wild type revealed at least two distinct modes of O2-mediated gene activation. Target-gene co-activation and protein-protein interaction studies identified two transcription factors—bZIP17 and NAKED ENDOSPERM2 (NKD2)—that are encoded by O2-activated genes, which can in turn co-activate other O2-network genes with O2. An ultrastructural analysis of AL cells of an o2 mutant showed that the mutant differs from the wild type in cell wall thickness and in the abundance and size distribution of lipid bodies and protein storage vacuoles, suggesting that O2 is required for proper differentiation of AL. The NKD1 and NKD2 genes encode paralogous INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) family TFs that have previously been shown to play critical roles in regulating many endosperm developmental processes, including the differentiation of AL and SE. To understand the individual functions of each NKD gene and to gain insights to the gene networks regulating endosperm development, a time-course transcriptome analysis of endosperm isolated from the single mutants and a double mutant of NKD1 and NKD2 was performed with comparison to a wild type using RNA-Seq. The analysis identified 11,554 genes differentially expressed between the mutants and the wild type. Comparison of genes dysregulated in the single and double mutants revealed that NKD1 and NKD2 regulate partially overlapping downstream gene sets. A detailed analysis of the NKD-regulated genes associated with the nkd mutant phenotype suggested that the double mutant phenotype is primarily associated with the loss of NKD1 function. Nonetheless, the analysis also uncovered a unique role for NKD2 in regulation of a subset of the mutant-phenotype-associated genes. An analysis of gene coexpression networks identified gene sets that are regulated by the NKDs in a highly coordinated manner, possibly in combination with or through regulation of other TFs. Together, the analyses of the MRP-1, O2, and NKD-regulated gene networks provided significant insights into the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying differentiation of the maize endosperm cell types. Because some components of the gene networks identified here are conserved across certain cereal species as well as eudicots, the resulting data sets have the potential to guide future improvement of grain yield and quality in maize and other economically important seed crops.
    • Eclectic Compositional Styles in the Piano Works of Craig Walsh

      Ko, Chia-Chun (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Craig Walsh (b. 1971) is an American composer whose music has earned him a worldwide reputation. His versatile output includes electronic music, instrumental music and the combination of the two. While modernism and pop music engage his compositional attention, a wider variety of musical styles that evoke many prominent composers of the twentieth century contribute to and enrich his musical language. An eclectic tendency is present in much of Walsh’s music, and the fusion of styles is distinct in each work. The purpose of this study is to examine the eclectic styles found in the three solo piano works by Craig Walsh: Rhapsody, Black Scissors for prepared piano, and Lines. The research will provide a formal analysis and a detailed investigation into the stylistic characteristics of each work. The discussion on Rhapsody will focus on the influences of Igor Stravinsky and Cecil Taylor, as well as the resemblance between this work and Aaron Copland’s Piano Variations. The study of Black Scissors will examine the disparate musical influences Walsh absorbed in New York City in the 1990s, including the music of the minimalists, Morton Feldman, John Cage, Gamelan orchestra, and the funk music style of James Brown. The investigation into Lines will demonstrate Walsh’s organic compositional approach, the post-composition examination of the Golden Mean, and its diverse compositional settings including impressionistic textures and the Messiaen-like chords.
    • One-Step Optimization of Adaptive SPECT Systems

      Ghanbari, Nasrin (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In this dissertation a method for one-step optimization of an adaptive Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system is presented. Adaptive imaging systems can quickly change their hardware configuration in response to data being generated in order to improve image quality. The approach to assessment of image quality is based on the usefulness of images for performing a given task. The performance is measured by calculating a scalar quantity known as the figure of merit. The optimization algorithm, which aims at finding the optimal figure of merit, could either alter the system continuously during acquisition, or it could apply the one-step adaptation method presented by Barrett et al. which is adopted in this work. Prior to the optimization, the adaptive SPECT system is modeled by a ray tracing module. The system matrices for a selection of imaging configurations are simulated and stored. Access to this information expedites the optimization process, however it limits the solution space to a discrete set of adaptations. Depending on the size of the solution space we utilize either the grid search or the genetic algorithm to find the optimum adaptation. The optimization strategy is to find the adaptation that maximizes the performance on a signal estimation task. To start with, a simulated object model containing a spherical signal is imaged with a scout configuration. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique utilizes the scout data to generate an ensemble of possible objects consistent with the scout data. This object ensemble is imaged by numerous simulated hardware configurations and for each system estimates of signal activity, size and location are calculated via the Scanning Linear Estimator (SLE). A figure of merit, based on a Modified Dice Index (MDI), quantifies the performance of each imaging configuration. This figure of merit is calculated by multiplying two terms: the first term uses the definition of the Dice similarity index to determine the percent of overlap between the actual and the estimated spherical signal, the second term utilizes an exponential function that measures the squared error for the activity estimate. The MDI combines the error in estimates of activity, size, and location, in one convenient metric and it allows for simultaneous optimization of the SPECT system with respect to all the estimated signal parameters. The average MDI for the object ensemble is a scalar value that quantifies the performance of a particular imaging configuration. The results of our optimizations indicate that adaptive systems perform better than non-adaptive in conditions where the diagnostic scan has a low photon count which makes this method suitable for conducting dynamic studies. Furthermore, this method can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of design trade offs prior to the construction of adaptive systems. Examples of design trade-off include fixing the number of projection angles or adding multiplexing capability to the pinhole apertures. The most important contribution, which makes all the subsequent optimization results and design analysis possible, is the parallel implementation of SLE that can compute a figure of merit for a single configuration in 30 to 60 seconds.
    • Parasocial Mediated Contact’s Effects on Intergroup Relations between Minority Groups in the Multi-Racial Group Context

      Kim, Chanjung (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In this dissertation, I explored how mass mediated contact’s effects on intergroup bias would change in the multi-group context. The dissertation suggested parasocial outgroup-outgroup contact as a new form of multi-group contact, and tested its impact on intergroup bias. Parasocial outgroup-outgroup contact is contact between members of two outgroups; in the context of the current study I specifically examine a minority (Hispanic) group member’s perceptions observing contact between another minority group member (African American or Native American) and a majority (White) group member. I speculated that, unlike traditional parasocial contact, the effects of parasocial outgroup-outgroup contact would be influenced by the social status of the minority outgroup. I hypothesized that parasocial outgroup-outgroup contact would exacerbate prejudice toward a relevant minority outgroup (one of a similar status to a minority perceiver), but would not exacerbate prejudice towards an irrelevant minority outgroup (one of a substantially lower status than the minority perceiver). Also, I hypothesized that the underlying mechanism would be positive social identity threat from the minority outgroup. Findings, however, showed that parasocial outgroup-outgroup contact contributed to improving attitudes toward relevant minority outgroup, and positive social identity threat was not the mechanism of the contact effect. The speculative reasons for, and implications of the unexpected findings were discussed.
    • Money for Prestige: A Geopolitical Transaction

      Arroyo Perez, Adrian (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This study explored how political and economic forces influence internationalization activities in Brazil and the United States. Eighteen international officers and faculty members at two public research universities in the United States and Brazil were interviewed to understand how internationalization activities have changed given new political and economic circumstances in these countries. This study found that the major forces influencing internationalization activities in higher education in Brazil and the US are federal and state policies, institutional internationalization strategies, and the pursuit of money and prestige. Furthermore, this study found that Brazilian higher education increased its internationalization activities and prestige pursuit through federal policies encouraging mobility programs that brought the standardization and formalization of such activities at the institutional level. Additionally, US higher education institutions are increasingly engaging in entrepreneurial behaviors regarding internationalization activities. The interaction of these forces have resulted in a geopolitical transaction: money for prestige.
    • Responding to Refugee Students in K-12 Education: The Role Principals Play in the Integration and Education of Refugee Students

      Bailey-Jones, Tsuru (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The United States has a long history of resettling refuges in the country. Research indicates that refugee students enter the country and ultimately schools with varied educational experiences including little to no formal education, language barriers to learning, and discrimination (Block, Cross, Riggs, & Gibbs, 2014; Dryden-Petersen, 2015; McBrien, 2005; Roxas, 2011a; Rutter, 2006; Taylor & Sidhu, 2012). Couple this with the differences of culture, the classroom can be an intimidating place for students newly arriving in the country and the educational system responsible for meeting the learning, social and emotional needs. This qualitative exploratory case study illustrates how principals in a large urban school district responded to the needs of newly arrived refugee students and the strategies employed by the principals to integrate and successfully educate these students. One of the largest school districts in Arizona was selected because of its high number of refugee students. In depth interviews were conducted with six participants from a purposive sample identified by the school district. Using the constant comparative method to analyze the interview data and public documents, this study detailed what actions are currently occurring within this school district. Using the findings of this study and Taylor and Sidhu’s (2012) model of good practice in refugee education, a responsiveness model for refugee education was created. The principals focused on the learning, social, and emotional needs of refugee students within their schools. They did not foster their own partnerships with outside agencies but used the partnerships established by the district. An important strategy was creating a welcoming, supportive environment with an emphasis on social justice and inclusiveness. Principals concentrated on acclimating students to the school rules and environment, building relationships with students and parents, promoting refugees in a positive light, and trying to find instructional strategies to better meet the learning needs. Clearly, the principal plays a critical role in creating the environment that can be supportive to the social, emotional, as well as academic learning needs of refugee students. An unintended finding of the study revealed principals were not aware of the district supports such as professional development offerings to address refugee needs. One suggestion for practitioners is to address this disconnection in the district with disseminating information as it most likely affects other areas, not just refugee issues. This study adds to the field of research, as there is a dearth of research on K-12 refugee education from the perspective of the principal.
    • The Seasonal Predictability of Extreme Wind Events in the Southwest United States

      Seastrand, Simona Renee (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Extreme wind events are a common phenomenon in the Southwest United States. Entities such as the United States Air Force (USAF) find the Southwest appealing for many reasons, primarily for the an expansive, unpopulated, and electronically unpolluted space for large-scale training and testing. However, wind events can cause hazards for the USAF including: surface wind gusts can impact the take-off and landing of all aircraft, can tip the airframes of large wing-surface aircraft during the performance of maneuvers close to the ground, and can even impact weapons systems. This dissertation is comprised of three sections intended to further our knowledge and understanding of wind events in the Southwest. The first section builds a climatology of wind events for seven locations in the Southwest during the twelve 3-month seasons of the year. The first section further examines the wind events in relation to terrain and the large-scale flow of the atmosphere. The second section builds upon the first by taking the wind events and generating mid-level composites for each of the twelve 3-month seasons. In the third section, teleconnections identified as consistent with the large-scale circulation in the second paper were used as predictor variables to build a Poisson regression model for each of the twelve 3-month seasons. The purpose of this research is to increase our understanding of the climatology of extreme wind events, increase our understanding of how the large-scale circulation influences extreme wind events, and create a model to enhance predictability of extreme wind events in the Southwest. Knowledge from this paper will help protect personnel and property associated with not only the USAF, but all those in the Southwest.
    • From Melodrama to Vocalizing Pianist – The Evolution of a Genre

      Chau, Mingyui Kevin (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Works featuring a solo pianist playing the piano while reciting text and performing vocalized effects emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This genre, known as vocalizing pianist, became popular among contemporary composers, and many of them began exploring the different possibilities of this genre. The genre of vocalizing pianist did not appear suddenly at the end of the twentieth century, but evolved from Romantic melodramas during a hundred years of profound change – musical, cultural, and technological. Romantic melodramas evolved in a multitude of ways and developed different techniques as time passes, while allowing later composers to embrace the musical influence around them to create a new genre. It is through a multi-pronged evolution that vocalizing pianist is created. From the genesis of late Romantic melodramas created through the combination of the early French and German melodramatic tradition, to the invention of Sprechstimme by Arnold Schoenberg and the experimentation of vocal events for the pianist by George Crumb and John Cage, the vocalizing pianist genre comes to its maturation in the 1990s in the hands of Frederic Rzewski and Jerome Kitzke. This study will investigate how the vocalizing pianist genre appeared and how it adopted earlier genres and techniques.
    • Auditor Expertise in the SEC Review Process: Evidence from IPO Registrations

      Xiao, Xia (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Practice suggests auditors provide extensive audit-related services in initial public offering (IPO) registrations, especially in helping IPO firms to achieve the initial regulatory compliance in accounting and financial reporting. In this paper, I investigate whether auditor IPO expertise measured at the audit office level is associated with how efficiently an IPO registration will proceed through the review process by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Using a sample of U.S. IPOs audited by Big 4 audit firms, I find that the initial registration statement attracts a lower extent of accounting comments from the SEC when auditor IPO expertise is higher. Further, I find that IPO firms with greater auditor IPO expertise resolve the given comments with a lower extent of follow-up comments and in fewer review rounds. Lastly, I find that auditor IPO expertise is negatively associated with the duration of the SEC review process. Overall, the results suggest that auditors play an important role in navigating their IPO clients through the SEC review process, and IPO expertise improves an auditor’s ability to perform this role.
    • Assessments of Tumor Metabolism with CEST and DCE MRI

      Goldenberg, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation begins with a comprehensive review of the assessment of tumor metabolism highlighting the various applications of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI. The acidoCEST MRI technique is shown to be the imaging application suffering from the least amount of pitfalls in the quantitative assessment of tumor metabolism. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MR imaging modalities can be simultaneously and successfully synergized to study tumor metabolism during a course of a mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor drug therapy in the treatment of pancreatic tumors in mouse models. Intramodal imaging with endogenous MRI or acidoCEST MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can also be sequentially performed to evaluate specific tumor biomarkers and tumor cell perfusion and uptake of gadolinium-based contrast agents or T2ex-based contrast agents in gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance®, Bracco Imaging Inc., Milan, Italy) and D-maltose. Machine learning-based classification of tumor models, as well as other pathological conditions, is a valid and helpul approach to CEST and DCE MR analysis. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor models varying in levels of hypoxia such as Hs 766T, MIA PaCa-2 and SU.86.86, have been classified using specific training classifiers on endogenous CEST MRI and DCE MRI datasets. Intramodal MR imaging has also been applied to other pathologies: namely, in imaging of bacterial infections and inflammation. Immunocompetent CBA/J mouse models of infections and MDA-MB-231 mouse models of breast cancer were injected and infused with the T2ex contrast agent D-maltose for DCE MRI. D-maltose infusion has shown to differentiate bacterially infected pathology from inflamed tissue pathology.
    • Dual Comb Spectroscopy from IR and XUV Application

      Wu, Tsung-Han (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In this thesis, we utilized dual comb spectroscopy to demonstrate broadband, high resolution and time-resolved measurement in a LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) for the first time. It is enable to investigate time resolve dynamics and monitor multiple species simultaneously. As a first demonstration, we simultaneously detect trace amounts of Rb and K in solid samples with a single laser ablation shot, with transitions separated by 5 THz (10 nm) and spectral resolution sufficient to resolve isotopic and ground state hyperfine splittings of the Rb D2 line. This new spectroscopic approach offers the broad spectral coverage found in the powerful techniques of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) while providing the high-resolution and accuracy of cw laser-based spectroscopies. In order to extend dual comb spectroscopy to the VUV and XUV region, We implemented a fully phase-coherent dual comb spectroscopy consisting of two identical enhance-cavity for high harmonic generation (IHHG) systems operating in parallel. This system is developed for XUV dual comb spectroscopy based on two high power ytterbium fiber laser system using parabolic amplification scheme to achieve sub-80fs after amplification up to 60W of average power with 80MHz repetition rate. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the development of a novel pump-probe technique using the enhancement cavity that allowed a direct measurement of the intracavity plasma and its decay dynamics in real-time.
    • Putting the Individualized Back into Instruction: Coaching Teachers to Implement Academically Responsive Instruction in Deaf Education Classrooms

      Catalano, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The goal of this study was to examine the effects of a coaching intervention on teachers’ ability to implement academically responsive instruction through flexible instructional arrangements in self-contained classrooms for students who are Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). A secondary goal of the study was to determine the impact of the implementation of flexible instructional arrangements on students’ academic engagement within instructional arrangements. Three teachers at a center school for the Deaf received differentiated coaching to learn how to implement the indicators of flexible instructional arrangements. Teachers were coached on 12 operationalized indicators using individual approaches that met the needs, learning styles, and preferences of each teacher. A changing criterion design replicated across teachers was used to examine the impact of the coaching intervention on teachers’ implementation of the indicators, as well as the impact of flexible instructional arrangements on students’ active engagement. Results show that coaching had an impact on all three teachers’ implementation of flexible instructional arrangements. As teachers mastered the indicators of flexible instructional arrangements requiring coaching, change occurred in their implementation of instructional arrangements. Students’ active engagement increased and passive engagement decreased when they participated in less whole class instruction and spent more time in small group and child-managed arrangements. After no longer receiving coaching, teachers maintained the implementation of flexible instructional arrangements and students continued to demonstrate higher levels of active engagement as compared to baseline. Limitations and implications for future practice and research are discussed.
    • Indigenous Health Systems: An Emergent Yaqui-Centered Framework for Public Health Practice

      Oré de Boehm, Christina E. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The Yaqui Tribe in Sonora, Mexico is tapping into its collective strength to challenge socio-political and environmental conditions that have exacerbated health inequities. Yaqui traditional systems of governance and healing represent Indigenous knowledge, strength, resilience, and resistance. They continue to serve their communities. Yet, they are omitted from global and national public health initiatives. This is a qualitative study of the health system that serves the Yaqui Tribe in Sonora, Mexico to inform Yaqui-centered public health. From 2014 – 2016, the study accomplished four aims: 1) describe the Yaqui community health and traditional healing systems, including their interface with the Mexican health system; 2) identify Yaqui health and healing concepts; 3) define an emergent Yaqui-centered framework for public health practice; and 4) share findings with tribal leaders in United States and Mexico. Nine traditional healers and two lay health workers shared stories/conversation about their experience as practitioners. A key finding of the study was the centrality of practicing within Yaqui worldview, knowledge, and lived experiences. As a result, the proposed framework is defined by 1) guiding principles of relational accountability; 2) ancestral knowledge of healing and being well in relation the land/Creator; and 3) interactions and context, both historic and contemporary. It is a strength-based, systems thinking approach to practice that can be applied to current tribal health system performance improvement efforts. The framework is a seed intended to inspire further development ‘by and for’ the Yaqui Tribe and Indigenous communities within the Americas and beyond. At the policy level, this study contributes to reframing public health practice as an act of self-determination, an expression of indigeneity, and intrinsically a fight for equity.
    • Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms of Xenobiotic-Induced NRF2 Activation for Disease Prevention and Intervention

      Rojo de la Vega Guinea, Elisa Montserrat (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is the master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response upon exposure to xenobiotics. In addition, NRF2 induces the expression of genes involved in drug metabolism, protein homeostasis, anabolic metabolism, inflammation, proliferation, and survival. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced NRF2 activation is crucial to guiding treatments for disease prevention and intervention. On the one hand, NRF2 activation using chemopreventive compounds is an effective pharmacological strategy to protect against environmental insults, such as exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation or the metalloid arsenic, that cause toxicity and cancer. In the first part of this dissertation, the achiote-derived apocarotenoid bixin was characterized as a novel NRF2 activator. Bixin pre-treatment prevented solar UV-induced photodamage and hair graying in several mouse models. These results suggest that using bixin to activate NRF2 is a feasible strategy to prevent UV-induced skin alterations. On the other hand, prolonged activation of NRF2 has been linked to the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases. Our laboratory previously described that the environmental toxicant and carcinogen arsenic blocked autophagy and caused non-canonical activation of NRF2. In the last part of this dissertation, the molecular alterations elicited by acute exposure to low levels of arsenic were further explored. It was determined that low-level arsenic does not generate reactive oxygen species, a paradigm shifting discovery in the arsenic field. Additionally, arsenic blocked autophagy and induced a mild and transient endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, indicating that restoring protein homeostasis might be crucial for the treatment of arsenic-induced diseases.