• iMicrobe: Tools and Data-Driven Discovery Platform for the Microbiome Sciences

      Hurwitz, Bonnie; Youens-Clark, Charles Kenneth; U'Ren, Jana; Hartman, John (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Scientists have amassed a wealth of microbiome datasets making it possible to study microbes in biotic and abiotic systems on a population- or planetary-scale; however, this potential hasn’t been fully realized given that the tools, data sets, and computation are available in diverse repositories and locations. To address this challenge, we developed iMicrobe.us, a community-driven microbiome data marketplace and tool exchange for users to integrate their own data and tools with those from the broader community. Findings: The iMicrobe platform brings together analysis tools and microbiome data sets by leveraging National Science Foundation-supported cyberinfrastructure and computing resources from CyVerse, Agave, and XSEDE. The primary purpose of iMicrobe is to provide users with a freely available, web-based platform to (1) maintain and share project data, metadata, and analysis products, (2) search for related public datasets, and (3) use and publish bioinformatics tools that run on highly-scalable computing resources. Analysis tools are implemented in containers that encapsulate complex software dependencies and run on freely available XSEDE resources via the Agave API which can retrieve datasets from the CyVerse Data Store or any web-accessible location (e.g., FTP, HTTP). Conclusions: iMicrobe promotes data integration, sharing, and community-driven tool development by making open source data and tools accessible to the research community in a web-based platform.
    • Populus Fremontii Tree Ring Analysis and Semi-Arid River Water Source Variability over Time, San Pedro River, Arizona

      Meixner, Thomas; Stolar, Rebecca Ann; Hu, Jia; Niu, Guo-Yue (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Summer floods are an important source of sustained streamflow in arid and semi-arid rivers of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico. The degree to which natural function versus human alterations influence the system is subject to debate. Environmental information in the tree ring cellulose of Populus can be used to investigate the variation in water sources over time in these areas. Past research has shown that streamflow sources in the San Pedro Basin of Arizona vary isotopically between a source water of basin ground water and a summer flood water source. This study uses isotopic analyses of Populus fremontii and atmospheric data in the San Pedro Basin to estimate the water source of the trees and the river water source condition. After analyzing weather data within the basin, an inversion of the Barbour oxygen isotope model using tree ring cellulose isotopes was used to obtain the water source isotopic composition. The variation in water source composition inferred from the model was then compared to the river composition over time. It was initially found that each site’s water source isotopic composition was significantly different from the source water. However, several water source isotopic compositions were found to be more negative than the known basin groundwater signature in each of the study sites. Following sensitivity analyses on various parameters within the model, it was seen that relative humidity has a strong influence on the determination of source water. Therefore, relative humidity must be an accurate measurement and is not considered to be so in this study. Furthermore, in order to understand the degree to which natural function versus human alterations influence the system, older Populus fremontii tree ring isotopes are needed, posing a question regarding the reliability of the species.
    • Alveolar Lung Recruitment Maneuver Utilization among Transplant Clinicians in Arizona

      Piotrowski, Kathleen; Bergstrom, Benjamin Scott; Herring, Christopher; Pace, Thaddeus (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The reservation of lung transplant procedures as a final treatment measure for patients with acquired end-stage pulmonary disease is partly due to the lack of supply, which mostly comes from brain dead donors. Separate from the other life-saving transplantable organs that have progressively increased in transplant rates over the last decade, the national ratio of lung transplantation has remained stagnant (Bergstrom, 2018). Transplant clinicians medically manage authorized brain dead organ donors in Arizona (AZ) according to their clinical judgment that is supplemented by the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). The goal is to maximize the gift of donation by increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) sets the benchmark for the Expected (E) OTPD, and in AZ the Observed (O) OTPD ratio (i.e., O: E) has been below that benchmark. Meeting the organ-specific diagnostic endpoints of the Donor Management Goals (DMG) demonstrate organ system recovery and suitability for transplant. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers were at the forefront of the pulmonary management regimes of potential lung donors, and there were three in the CPGs at Donor Network of Arizona (DNAZ), the federally designated OPO of AZ. Each of the three methods have been tested at DNAZ in the past years and each has shown some ability to improve lung transplant rates but, clear superiority of one method has not been definitively established. Despite the prior utilization of these measures, according to an analysis of CPGs utilized and DMGs met, the use of the techniques has waned in the last year. Underutilization of alveolar recruitment maneuvers was the suspected reasoning behind the O: E gap. This project used theoretical foundations that aimed to improve utilization of the DNAZ CPGs by; (1) exploring the reasoning behind why they are avoided, (2) creating and presenting a learning lesson based on that assessment (3) evaluating the learning lesson and (4) closing the O: E gap by improving transplant metrics.
    • Locating and Supporting the Developing Pedagogical Language Knowledge of College Writing Instructors

      Tardy, Christine M.; Miller-Cochran, Susan; Pawlowski, Madelyn Tucker; Staples, Shelley; Lancaster, Zak (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The role of language in the study and teaching of writing has long been a subject of controversy and debate for scholars and teachers. Despite a history of language “erasure” in composition studies (Connors, 2000; MacDonald, 2007), however, composition scholars now find themselves traversing a “new linguistic frontier” (Matsuda, 2013). Scholars are, for example, (re)considering the role of language-related “standards” in writing assessment practices, designing innovative approaches to help students develop their linguistic repertoires, and demonstrating heightened awareness of the presence and needs of multilingual writers. Missing from these conversations, however, is a consideration of what writing instructors are expected to know about language, possibilities for transforming this knowledge, and how they are supposed to develop this knowledge. Scholars in related disciplines such as general education, language education, and second language writing have explored the complexity of teacher cognition and its impact on teaching effectiveness, but teacher knowledge development has been largely unexplored in the context of mainstream college writing instruction. This dissertation uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the developing language-related knowledge, beliefs, and teaching practices of novice college writing instructors at a large research institution in the U.S. Using insights from these instructors as well as published scholarship, I develop a model of “pedagogical language knowledge” that elucidates the multitude of ways writing instructors transform various sources of knowledge to navigate a broad range of language-related issues in the college writing classroom. This model helps draw attention to the complexity of teachers’ knowledge and could also be used to help designers of writing teacher education find ways to better support teachers’ developing language-related knowledge. This dissertation follows the interdisciplinary work of Aull (2015), Lancaster (2016), Hyland (2007), Matsuda (2013) and others invested in ensuring that teachers of writing are also confident teachers of language; it envisions a new generation of linguistically aware teachers ready to support students “who are now coming to us from all corners of the world” in navigating a broad range of language-related situations (MacDonald, 2007, p. 619).
    • Dynamic Bioreactor For Engineered Cartilage Tissue

      Redford, Gary; Tat, Trinny (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cartilage within the knee joint that is damaged in younger patients due to sports injuries and other traumatic events does not heal spontaneously. Cartilage damage leads to pain, decreased mobility and can eventually progress to diffuse cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis of a joint. There are no current medical or surgical treatments that restore osteoarthritic joints to their native condition and patients will commonly require joint replacement. In order to develop new treatments to regenerate damaged cartilage, stem cells have been used to produce cartilage like tissues. The Dynamic Bioreactor for Engineered Cartilage Tissue shall mimic loads that are observed from humans’ natural gait onto stem cell seeded scaffolds, specifically for creating tissue that will have similar histological and mechanical properties as that of native cartilage. The aim is to provide shear of 5%-10% and axial compression of up 20%, a sterile environment for cell growth, as well as regulate and record the axial strain and shear strain. For the various phases and milestones of the project, refer to Appendix A. This report is a comprehensive summary of our final project and its associated documentation.
    • But Wait, There’s More: On the Additions to Esther

      Friesen, Courtney; Bustamante, Angel Joseph; Wright, Ed; Bauschatz, John (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis examines the Greek Additions to the book of Esther. These Additions are found in both Greek versions of the book, but not in the Hebrew version. In Chapter 1 I discuss the history of the Hebrew (MT) and Greek texts (LXX, AT). The history of all three of the texts is too complicated to discuss in great detail, but a broad overview is necessary to understand the context of the Additions. In Chapter 2 I examine the Additions in depth. It seems that the Additions come in pairs, with one complementing the other. It is often very difficult to date the Additions, and most of the time nothing more than a terminus post quem or terminus ante quem can be offered. In the case of some of the Additions, it is uncertain whether they were originally written in Greek, Hebrew, or Aramaic. That said, two were clearly originally written in Greek, which demonstrates that the Additions were not composed by just one author. In the Conclusion I examine then asks why the Additions were written, determining that they were added both to heighten the drama and to include God explicitly in the text. I also conclude that, the authors of Esther and the Additions seem to be cautiously optimistic about relations between the Jews and the Hellenistic monarchs.
    • Holy Mother of Milk: Female Readers and the Function of Religious and Scientific Discourse in the Guidi Book of Hours

      Cuneo, Pia; Raymer, Katherine; Moore, Sarah; Soren, David (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis examines the Guidi Hours in the context of contemporaneous religious and medical teachings in regard to women of the early fifteenth century and the ways in which the narratives they create are visually articulated and actively promulgated through this book’s illustrations. The two virgo lactans and sacra cintola within this manuscript are analyzed through a fifteenth-century female reader’s perspective to investigate the ways in which women may have understood them and this prayer book. Based on medical and religious discourses surrounding the importance of these various aspects regarding the woman herself, our female reader’s understanding of this iconography went beyond an image of Mary and Christ, or of a mother and child, but imparted instructions on how to be a model for her gender.
    • Defining Ancient Maya Communities: The Social, Spatial, and Ritual Organization of Outlying Temple Groups at Ceibal, Guatemala

      Triadan, Daniela; Inomata, Takeshi; Burham, Melissa; Fogelin, Lars (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      What was the spatial and social organization of ancient Maya cities, and how were diverse populations socially and politically integrated? This dissertation explores these questions by investigating the formation of local communities around minor temples in outlying areas of Ceibal, Guatemala. Many researchers have suggested that minor temples were important integrative hubs in lowland Maya settlements. I further propose that they were the physical and ideological centers of different local communities, akin to neighborhoods, throughout Ceibal. I define a local community as a supra-household social group comprised of members who share common histories and ties to particular places. Communities may be constituted through co-residence, similar modes of living, and common beliefs and practices, which foster shared identities and differentiate one group from others. At the same time, many communities can arise within—and in turn reinforce—a greater vision of cohesion across a larger society. To assess the relationships between minor temples and the socio-spatial formation of local communities, I investigate: 1) whether different segments of the population settled around each temple, creating discrete residential zones around the city; 2) whether there was a communal source of water within each zone, which would have been an important location for daily interactions and a crucial source of potable water; and 3) if there were variations in material culture across different residential zones, which could relate to social differences. A diachronic evaluation of multiple lines of evidence enables me to explore how these groups formed and changed through time. Data for this study was collected through systematic excavations of five minor temples, nearby residents, and potential aguadas (manmade reservoirs) associated with temples across Ceibal. The results of my analysis suggest that different groups of people constructed their own temple as they moved into outlying areas of the site throughout the Late and Terminal Preclassic periods (ca. 350 BC-AD 175). I found evidence that people routinely gathered at the temples for ceremonies, which may have helped foster group identities. The geospatial analyses of settlement data I performed in ArcGIS and my comparisons of pottery assemblages from different temple groups strongly suggest that local communities formed as discrete socio-spatial units around specific temples. Analysis of pollen in soils collected from the aguadas revealed that these features held water seasonally, and that maize was cultivated nearby. Together, my research suggests that local communities were established through ritual practices carried out at the temples, co-residence, management of communal sources of water, and potentially collective participation in agricultural production. Community patterns may have changed in later times, however, after many of the temples were ritually terminated around sometime between AD 175 and AD 300. In summary, local communities at Ceibal were somewhat autonomous: they controlled their own local resources, carried out their own building programs, and performed many of their own religious ceremonies. Nevertheless, the social relations undertaken at this intermediate level of society were integral to shaping, maintaining and changing the larger sociopolitical order through time.
    • Late Helladic Emulation: An Analysis of Palatial and Domestic Architecture and Construction Techniques in Mycenaean Greece

      Schon, Robert; Fricker, Laurel; Voyatzis, Mary E.; Romano, David G. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In this thesis, I investigate to what extent the architecture and constructions at the Mycenaean palaces are emulated at non-palatial sites, using methods and theories involving emulation, the power of architecture, and peer-polity interaction. I first compare the Palace at Mycenae with the Panagia Houses at Mycenae, houses at Korakou, and houses at Asine, to examine how distance from the palace and the time period affects the construction of houses in the Argolid and the Corinthia. Then I compare the Palace of Nestor at Pylos with Nichoria to see how distance, geographical boundaries, and site status affect the construction of houses in Messenia. A building is a statement, having the ability to form and communicate personal identities and communities, indicate social associations, highlight political organizations, and provide details for understanding aspects of life. Further, architecture can influence how people view their society and their community; the central unit (including the megaron hall with its hearth and columns) of the Mycenaean palaces, constructed on the monumental palatial scale, became a statement of power. The status of these constructions would have made them perfect candidates for locals at periphery sites attempting to emulate the authority of the palaces in LH III Greece. However, the dates of construction of the palaces and the residential structures, locally available materials, previous traditions of construction, and geographical boundaries all could have affected how much emulation was possible in LH IIIA-B Greece.
    • Single-Chip LiDAR by Multi-Order and Multi-Pulse Beam Steering with Digital Micro Mirror Device

      Takashima, Yuzuru; Rodriguez, Joshua Miguel; Kim, Dae Wook; Kim, Young Sik (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      We demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing the scanning rate for MEMS and diffraction based beam steering employing Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) by one to two orders of magnitude, which is configured as a programmable blazed grating. The tilt movement of micromirrors synchronizes with multiple pulses from multiple laser sources that sequen- tially redirect the pulses to multiple diffraction orders within μs. The approach opens up a pathway to achieve a LIDAR system with a scanning rate over 1M samples/s while leveraging a state of the art DMD and a moderate number of laser sources.
    • The Making of a Sacred Place: The Rise of Mt. Jiuhua in the Late Imperial and Republican Eras (1368–1949)

      Wu, Jiang; Ouyang, Nan; Welter, Albert; Miura, Takashi; Tong, Daoqin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This dissertation focuses on the historical transformation of Mt. Jiuhua from a local mountain to a national pilgrimage destination and the ways in which Mt. Jiuhua became the seat of Dizang Bodhisattva (Skt. Kṣitigarbha), a savior of the underworld beings in Chinese Buddhism, in the late imperial and Republican eras (1368–1949). This study explains the making of the sacred mountain by analyzing four salient features of local Buddhism. First, it deals with the cult of mummified bodies by looking into local mortuary practices. Jiuhua Buddhists, choosing not to follow the monastic rules concerning cremation, opted to create a successful tradition of mummy-making for the deceased Buddhists. The continuing emergence of new mummies shaped the perceived sacred atmosphere of Mt. Jiuhua. Second, by analyzing relevant precious scrolls (baojuan) and local dramas, it reveals how vernacular literature functioned as a medium for the localization of Dizang. The performance based on such literature that was carried out at Buddhist events was the key to the further dissemination of the image of Mt. Jiuhua as a sacred mountain. Third, it argues that the sacredness of the mountain was constructed and negotiated through pilgrimage practices, evidenced by diverse material objects used in pilgrimage. Fourth, it explores the accrued layers of local history, represented by three predominant discourses pertaining to Mt. Jiuhua (i.e., Jin Dizang’s ascetic practice, Li Bai’s visits, and Wang Yangming’s sojourn), which promoted the fame of Mt. Jiuhua in concert. In summary, in explicating the uniqueness of Jiuhua Buddhism, this dissertation adopts an interdisciplinary approach that bridges religion and geography and contributes to the study of sacred space in Chinese religion. By challenging the artificial dichotomy between “institutional” and “popular” religion and using understudied local materials, it provides an alternative evaluation of the vitality of Ming-Qing Buddhism by focusing on religious practices.
    • Direct Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition for a Flared Cone

      Fasel, Hermann F.; Hader, Christoph; Kerschen, Edward J.; Craig, Stuart A. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) were carried out to investigate the laminar-turbulent transition for a flared cone at Mach 6 and zero angle of attack. The flared cone geometry of the experiments in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) at Purdue University was chosen for the simulations. This study explored the linear and secondary instability regimes as well as the nonlinear breakdown to turbulence using a controlled disturbance input (“controlled” breakdown) and “natural” transition models. Low amplitude, axisymmetric, short-duration pulse calculations were performed in order to map out the linear stability regime for the flow conditions of the BAM6QT facility. A parametric study of the secondary instability regime was carried out in order to identify the azimuthal wavenumber that led to the strongest fundamental and subharmonic resonance. For the BAM6QT conditions, the fundamental resonance was found to be much stronger compared to the subharmonic resonance and was therefore considered to be the relevant breakdown scenario. For the case which led to the strongest fundamental resonance onset, detailed investigations were carried out using high-resolution DNS. The simulation results exhibit streamwise streaks of very high skin friction and of high heat transfer at the cone surface. Streamwise “hot” streaks on the flared cone surface were also observed in the experiments carried out at the BAM6QT facility using temperature sensitive paint (TSP). Two different “natural” transition models were employed to assess the differences between “controlled” and “natural” breakdown. Both “natural” transition models resulted in a streak pattern similar to that obtained with the “controlled” break- down DNS and in the experiments. A detailed flow analysis revealed that the streamwise streaks are generated by steady longitudinal modes that are nonlinearly generated by the primary and secondary disturbance waves. The presented findings provide strong evidence that the fundamental breakdown is the most likely nonlinear transition mechanism in the BAM6QT flared cone experiments.
    • Theriomorphic Forms: Analyzing Terrestrial Animal-Human Hybrids in Ancient Greek Culture and Religion

      Voyatzis, Mary E.; Carter, Caroline LynnLee; Romano, David G.; Soren, David; Mahoney, Kyle W. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis explores terrestrial theriomorphism (the ascription of animal characteristics to human figures) in ancient Greek culture and religion diachronically using literary and archaeological evidence, while focusing on the latter to supplement previous scholarship (Aston 2011). I analyze 13 consistently terrestrial theriomorphic beings (including eight deities) and iconography from the Greek historical period (Chapter 2). The unique scope of the thesis allows for a comprehensive examination, considering these hybrids’ possible origins in time and place, development through cultural interactions, geographical concentrations, iconographical representations, and overall significance (Chapter 3). The research and conclusions in this thesis offer new insights and developments towards furthering our understanding of the relationship between humans and animals in ancient Greece. Appendix A is a chart of cult sites to theriomorphic deities (which is complemented by a series of maps). It is the first of its kind to be published and reveals concentrations in both rural and urban locations across the Greek Mediterranean, but especially in Arcadia. In addition, I provide an analysis of (terrestrial) theriomorphism in the Bronze Age for the first time ever, showing that there are connections to later Greek culture and religion. This thesis sheds light on the extent to which animals were an essential aspect of Greek life as a means to express their relationship to man, nature, the landscape, and identity, especially in religious contexts. Numerous conclusions are made that challenge and supplement previous scholarships and generalized conceptions, such as theriomorphism being “primitive” and that the centaur existed in Greece continually though the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.
    • Staging Shame: Constructing Aischunē in Menander’s Samia and Dyskolos

      Christenson, David M.; Ruprecht, Daniel Matthew; Groves, Robert; Friesen, Courtney (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis explores the Greek notion of aischunē as represented in Menander’s Samia and Dyskolos. The term aischunē conveys an emotion, a disposition, and an ethical code related to the concepts of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and dis/honor. I argue that aischunē cannot map directly onto any modern concept, but by analyzing how and why characters express aischunē in Menander’s family dramas, we can more fully understand the social frameworks underlying it and begin to understand how the emotion felt. Because part of aischunē is an expression of an emotion, Chapter 1 deals with emotional theory, how one can conduct a study into the history of emotions. Building on decades of interdisciplinary research, I argue that emotions are at least partially socially constructed, and, to study aischunē, one must investigate the constructs. I then lay out working definitions of three modern American emotional constructs—shame, guilt, and embarrassment—which are necessary touchstones to talk about ancient aischunē. Finally, I distinguish aischunē from aidōs, both of which denote sorts of shame/guilt/honor. In Chapter 2 and 3, I analyze each instance of aischunē in Menander’s Samia and Dyskolos, and I argue for a different translation to better convey complexities of meaning in each case.
    • ¡La Puebla Lucha! LGBTI Activism and Organizing against Violence in El Salvador

      Green, Linda B.; Gardella, Annalise; Pieper Mooney, Jadwiga; Bacelar da Silva, Antonio (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) people in El Salvador face some of the highest rates of violence in the world. The modalities of violence impacting the LGBTI population span across many levels, including physical, economic, structural, and symbolic, and intersections of identity like gender, race, sexuality, and class within the population determine people’s proximity to and risk for violence. In response, local organizations, some with international ties and others working independently on a small-scale are attempting to organize the LGBTI population into a community that can work to redress this violence through community-building and support structures as well as make visible the oppression the community faces at a public and legislative level. This thesis outlines the historical formation of the Salvadoran LGBTI movement beginning in the 1980s through the present day, focusing on coalition-building and historical moments of unity that have led to the creation of a national Federación Salvadoreña LGBTI, or a federation of LGBTI organizations, to combat the most important issues facing the Salvadoran LGTBI population currently. Through an analysis of interviews and participant observation, this thesis examines the numerous and interconnected iterations of oppression and violence facing the Salvadoran LGBTI community and consequently explores the ways in which organizations and activists are strategically responding to the violence that devastates their community.
    • Essays in Experimental Methodology

      Romero, Julian; Candreva, Christopher James Waldron; Noussair, Charles; Dufwenberg, Martin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis focuses on questions about experimental methodology, examining novel treatments and subjects’ understanding of experimental environments. The first chapter examines differences between the traditional discounted model of repeated Prisoner’s Dilemmas used in the theory, and the random termination model used in the laboratory. Under relatively general assumptions, the threshold δ ∗ -value, above which cooperation can be supported as a subgame perfect equilibrium, varies based on subject’s specific utility function under random termination, but not under discounting. To test this, a new experimental design was created that captures features of the infinite horizon discounting model absent in random termination Using a between-subject, subjects played six repeated Prisoner’s Dilemmas at δ = 0.98, and either the new treatment or random termination. Cooperation rates were higher in the random termination treatment. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine what repeated games strategies subjects used during this experiment. Subjects in the discounted treatment tended to use more defective, yet forgiving strategies, while subjects in the random termination treatment used more cooperative yet less forgiving strategies. This finding suggests that more work needs to be done to understand the differences between random termination and discounting The second chapter further examines the differences between these two treatments. One specific channel that could created a difference in behavior between random termination and discounting is subject’s risk attitude. Using the theory model from chapter one, the threshold δ ∗ -value, above which cooperation can be supported as a subgame perfect equilibrium, varies based on subject’s risk attitude in random termination, but is independent of subject’s risk attitude under discounting. Using a within-subject design, subjects played 32 unique supergames. Each supergame featured either this new treatment or random termination, one of eight distinct δ-values, and one of two different game matrices. This experiment was used to determine if risk attitude caused subjects’ decision making to differ between the two settings. First period cooperation rates did not differ between the two treatments, even though differences were predicted by the risk attitudes elicited. Subjects’ behavior did vary in more complex ways, though risk attitude did not explain these differences. The final chapter examines the influence of pre-experiment tasks on subject understanding. This experiment used a 2x2 design varying the type of instructions and whether or not the pre-experiment quiz was incentivized. One set of instructions was based on instructions used in prior studies. The other was written using techniques from the Multi-Media Learning literature, which aims to find ways to maximize subject understanding from instruction. After the pre-experiment procedures, subjects participated in ten modified BDM selling markets with induced values. High ability subjects in this experiment showed higher understanding of the BDM mechanism after receiving Multi- Media Learning instructions compared to Standard instructions. This was true in both the first market, and across all markets. Incentivizing the quiz had a negligible impact on subject understanding.
    • Design of Infrared Microscope

      Milster, Tom; Hu, Kai; McLeod, Euan; Kieu, Khanh (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis introduces a way to arrange the setup of infrared microscope so that it is theoretically feasible to realize the experimental infrared microscope. The most challenging problem mainly resolved in this paper is how to increase the really low SNR from {10}^{-8} to a measurable value. The process includes introducing an Optical Amplifier, such as Quantum Cascade Laser Amplifier, and applying sensitive detector, such as HgCdTe PD/APD with lock-in Amplifier. Finally, we also discuss about a way to arrange the infrared optical system and introduce a sample design of a high NA infrared objective (NA=3.7).
    • Condensed Chaos

      Zielinski, Angela; Dahlke, Ashley; Vaden, Cerese; Zielinski, Angela; Bradford, Carlton; Moore, Sarah; Leslie, Kelly (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The relationship we have with objects is one that is often quite complex. Things that we own can bring us feelings of joy, nostalgia, comfort, melancholy, and can become burdensome. Objects that we choose to surround ourselves with gives insight into who we are and can become portals to our past experiences and memories. Condensed Chaos looks at objects found in thrift stores and resale shops and how their proximity to other objects creates a range of narratives about who the previous owners were and what the life of the object once was.
    • Second-Person Thought

      Horgan, Terence; Nichols, Shaun; Chambliss, Bryan Christopher; Weinberg, Jonathan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Imagine that as you are sitting down to eat a sandwich, you hear someone issue a command: “Stop that this instant!” Perplexed, you look up to see a stranger glaring at you, and come to believe that they told you to stop eating. But in the midst of your ongoing interaction with this person, your thought about the stranger doesn’t seem to represent them as either a mere object or agent. Instead, it seems natural to think of them in a second-person way, as a “you” or an agent with whom I am interacting. I argue that during face-to-face interactions with other agents, some of our thoughts represent these agents in an irreducibly second-person way. My dissertation defends an account of these irreducibly second-person thoughts. Chapter 2 introduces second-person thought. I argue that irreducibly second-person thought employs an irreducibly second-person mode of presentation, and that this mode of presentation should itself be understood in terms of its function: recognizing its object as an agent with whom I am engaged in interaction. This recognition-based account is superior to competing accounts that model the second-person mode of presentation in terms of paradigmatic interactions, like communicative interactions (e.g., linguistic exchanges which employ the second-person pronoun ‘you’), or cooperative interactions. Chapters 3 and 4 defend a basic argument for the irreducibility of second-person thought. Among others, John Perry and David Lewis argue that irreducibly first-person thought—variously called essentially indexical thought or de se thought—plays an essential role in the explanation of action and yields a distinctive form of self-knowledge. While prominent defenses of the irreducibility of such thought extend only to self-directed thought, chapter 3 develops an analogous argument for thought about other agents, contending that irreducibly second-person thought plays an analogous role in the explanation of interaction and yields a distinctive form of knowledge of others. Thus, the same kinds of reasons that have driven many philosophers to accept irreducibly first-person thought can be expanded to give structurally identical arguments for irreducibly second-person thought. Chapter 4 then defends a basic argument for irreducibly second-person thought. Perry and Lewis have taught us that irreducibly first-person thought exists. But the arguments for irreducibly first and second-person thought stand and fall together, so if irreducibly first-person though exists, then irreducibly second-person thought exists too. Thus, irreducibly second-person thought exists. Having established that irreducibly second-person thought exists, Chapter 5 develops an account of it. Extending the account of Francois Recanati, my account of second-person thought captures the cognitive significance of the second-person mode of presentation as a “mental file” containing distinctively second-person information. The mental files linked to second-person thoughts are populated with information by what Recanati calls “epistemically-rewarding relations” that hold between the thought’s thinker and the thought’s object. Perceptual acquaintance is the paradigmatic epistemically-rewarding relation, but, in irreducibly second-person thought, the distinctively second-person information results from the thinker’s being directly engaged with the agent with whom they are interacting. Finally, the referent of a second-person thought is determined not by satisfying the information in the mental file (which could be inaccurate), but by bearing the epistemically rewarding relation to the thought’s thinker. This dissertation argues that while philosophers have rightly recognized irreducibly first-person thought as a distinctive form of thought, they have incorrectly restricted this irreducibility to the first-person perspective. Instead, analogous considerations show that both first- and second-person thought are irreducible. The result is that thought about other agents is different when interacting with them, as opposed to merely observing them. This capacity to recognize an agent as a partner in interaction is characteristic of a distinctively social form of thought, which lies at the root of interpersonal morality.
    • Exploring the Impact of TiO2 Surface Chemistry on Nucleation and Growth of Perovskite Active Layers for Photovoltaic Applications

      Armstrong, Neal R.; Saunders, Kara C.; Saavedra, S. Scott; Pemberton, Jeanne E. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      We introduce lead ions adsorbed to TiO2 as a surface modification, which serves as a model system to begin understanding how the chemistry at the TiO2/perovskite interface influences nucleation and growth of mixed-halide cesium perovskites. The surface chemistry of TiO2 was incrementally changed by subjecting the thin films to both oxygen and argon plasma treatment and lead adsorption thereafter. A combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to evaluate the surface chemistry, crystallinity, and morphology of both the modified TiO2 and the perovskite active layer on TiO2 with the hypothesis that lead adsorption on TiO2 would aid in the initial nucleation of the perovskite film by decreasing interfacial disorder by titrating away the reactive hydroxyl sites on the surface. By photoemission spectroscopy, we show that lead adsorbed from PbI2 preferentially binds to TiO2 at surface hydroxyl sites with a surface coverage ranging from 26-68% of a monolayer depending on the initial surface treatment. GIWAXS data reveals that perovskites on TiO2 exhibit crystal growth with greater preferential orientation of the (100) axis perpendicular to the surface normal and that the degree of preferential orientation depends on the availability of surface hydroxyl sites for the perovskite precursor materials to bind to. Moreover, perovskite films exhibited greater crystallinity and coherence lengths on substrates that have more available hydroxyl groups, such as as-deposited TiO2. AFM images evaluating the morphology of the perovskite films are consistent with findings acquired by XPS, XRD, and GIWAXS, demonstrating that atomic-scale changes to the interfacial region of this system result in changes visible at the top surface of the perovskite film. Although the data does not support the initial hypothesis, this work highlights the critical importance that adjacent hydroxyl groups have in the nucleation and growth of perovskite films. Passivation of these reactive sites by lead adsorption inhibits the initial crystal growth. Ultimately, understanding the importance of the reactive sites on TiO2 paves the way for future work on controlling hydroxyl density with the intent of controlling the nucleation and growth of perovskite active layers on TiO2 for photovoltaic applications.