• “Das Hätten sie mal Richtig Übersetzen Sollen!“ [“They Should've Translated that the Right Way!”] – Folk Myths and Fanscaping in German Dubbing

      Gramling, David; Warner, Chantelle; Ploschnitzki, Patrick; Colina, Sonia; von Ammon, Frieder (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      “Somebody translated it wrong at some point, and then everybody started talking that way.” is one of the many constantly perpetuated folk myths arising around dubbing, i.e., lip-synchronized audiovisual translation. This dissertation investigates this and other assumptions in a German-German context, especially the notion of “wrong translations” that is particularly present in fan-made review platforms of television dubbed into German. Contrasted with interviews with agents of the current German dubbing industry, the dissertation further explores online amateur commentary on canonical episodes of the US-American animated sitcom The Simpsons and the fan-translator relationship in a globalized, networked, enlightened context. Central to this research is the concept of fanscaping: unsolicited lay revisions of professional translations, usually generated on (proprietary) online platforms by enthusiast communities insisting, often inconsistently, on intercultural accuracy and semantic precision over translators’ deliberate, pragmatic compromises.
    • Eddavidite, a New Mineral Species, and the Murdochite (Cu12Pb2O15Cl2)-Eddavidite (Cu12Pb2O15Br2) Series

      Downs, Robert T.; Rosenblatt, Melli; Holliday, Vance; Thirumalai, Kaustubh (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Eddavidite is a new mineral species (IMA2018-010) with ideal formula Cu12Pb2O15Br2. It has cubic Fm3m symmetry; a = 9.2407(9) Å; V = 789.1(2) Å3; Z = 2. Eddavidite is the bromide analog of murdochite, with which it forms a solid solution series. The type locality is the Southwest mine, Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.A. Eddavidite also occurs in the Ojuela mine, Mapimí, Durango, Mexico. Eddavidite forms zones within mixed murdochite-eddavidite crystals. Spot analyses of Bisbee samples show up to 67% eddavidite component while Ojuela samples show up to 62%. Eddavidite-murdochite crystals show forms {100} and {111}; the habit grades from simple cubic through cuboctahedral to unmodified octahedral. Eddavidite is black and opaque with submetallic luster, and visually indistinguishable from intergrown murdochite. Its Mohs’ hardness is 4. Eddavidite exhibits good cleavage on {111}. The empirical formula, normalized to 12 Cu apfu is Cu12(Pb1.92Fe0.06Si0.06) (O15.08F0.02) (Br0.99Cl0.89•0.12). dcalc. = 6.33 g/cm3. dmeas. = 6.45 g/cm3. The crystal structure consists of corner sharing square planar CuO4 units, arranged in Cu12O24 metal oxide clusters, which encapsulate Br atoms. PbO8 cubes share edges with Cu12O24 clusters in a continuous framework. Eddavidite is one of only 10 mineral species with essential Br. Eddavidite crystallizes from bromine enriched fluids leftover from desiccation of paleo-seawater at its two known localities.
    • Lithospheric Structure of the Ecuadorian Orogenic System and Event Location using the Seismoacoustic Wave Field

      Beck, Susan; Johnson, Roy; Koch, Clinton; Kapp, Paul; Richardson, Randall (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Seismologists use the seismic wavefield to image the Earth’s structure at a wide range of scales, from a few meters to 1000s of km. Sources (earthquakes, explosions, etc.) of seismic waves can also be located and distinguished using the seismic wavefield. In this dissertation, I utilize both of these aspects of seismology. The major part of this dissertation focuses on the use of naturally occurring seismic sources (earthquakes) to elucidate the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Ecuadorian orogenic system (Appendices A-C). In the final section, I explore the seismic location problem by combining seismic and infrasound phenomena in a Bayesian framework (Appendix D). Ecuador, the focus of the first three studies, is a complex tectonic region spanning several tectonic provinces. Offshore, the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American plate creating major stresses that build up and result in megathrust earthquakes along the boundary between the two plates. Following a magnitude 7.8 earthquake offshore Pedernales, Ecuador in 2016, seismic instruments were deployed to study the seismicity and tectonics of the region. This collaboration between US institutions (University of Arizona and Lehigh University) and the Instituto Geofísico at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador also opened up a wealth of data from the Ecuadorian permanent seismic network which enabled a higher resolution study of the arc region. Appendix A presents a detailed study of the tectonics of the forearc region and the relationship with the megathrust behavior. The results indicate that the complex accretionary history of Ecuador resulted in a forearc that exhibits significant variations in the seismic velocities along the strike of the trench. These variations appear to align with the style and behavior of the seismicity in the region, suggesting that the structure of the upper plate may play an important role in controlling megathrust behavior. Appendix B shifts the focus towards the Andean region and the active volcanic arc. The Ecuadorian Andes contain a broad (~150 km wide), active, arc that extends from the Western Cordillera into the Subandean zone. Here, a map of crustal thickness beneath the Ecuadorian Andes is presented, which shows that it is largely in isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Observed low-velocity regions are beneath several active volcanoes are interpreted as regions of long-term magma storage, consistent with crystal mush zones. To connect the arc and forearc, earthquake-generated surface waves and the Automated Surface Wave Phase Velocity Measuring System are used to measure phase velocities in Ecuador. Appendix C reports on the results of this method. Periods between 25-50 seconds show good coverage across the array and image a faster forearc region and a slower arc region, likely reflecting a thicker crust in the arc region. At periods ≥ 60 seconds coverage is limited to the arc region where a longer period of data was available. These results serve to extend the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise deeper and begin to offer constraints on the upper mantle beneath Ecuador. As more data and more stations are deployed in Ecuador it may be beneficial to revisit this analysis at a later time. In the final Appendix, the focus shifts from lithospheric structure to explore the event location problem. Here, we combine seismic and infrasound observations for locating a seismoacoustic event. A Bayesian framework is developed to better estimate the uncertainty associated with the location. This new method is tested on data from a surface explosion from the Bingham mine in Utah and shows that combining the two phenomena can improve the location beyond what either method can obtain individually.
    • Modernizing Conquest

      Waterstone, Marv; Banister, Jeff; Kinnison, Jedediah; Williams Jr., Robert A.; Perez, Emma; Oglesby, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      My research leads me to the conclusion the international human rights system's separation of the “indigenous problem” from the “colonial problem” is important. It is important to the way in we understand indigenous rights today, and it is important in terms of the ways in which we understand this fundamentally statist system. First, we must first ask in what sense and to whom these "problems" are problems requiring resolution. In theory, the UN system is established to safeguard the basic rights of all peoples to a dignified existence. And yet, to believe that this represents the UN founders’ intentions for the new system would be tantamount to believing that America’s founders intended to protect the equal rights of Black peoples when they drafted Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3—the three fifths clause—of the US Constitution. The issues are further clarified if we ask why the UN posed and then bifurcated the questions of what to do with: (1) colonized peoples, and (2) Indigenous peoples. The world system continues to deem it necessary to push the discussion of the multitude of problems presented by European colonization along two discrete tracks, with neither track on course to reach any destination. As the leaders of the euro-derivative world order strive to convince everyone that they have put an end to the colonial destruction of every Indigenous culture on the planet, a primary strategy is to bifurcate the problem of European overseas colonialism and to treat both of the resulting halves of discussion as if the other half never existed.  This division permits the United Nations (UN) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to engage in discourse regarding Indigenous peoples that are so misrepresentative that they would qualify as farce if the actual problems were not so tragic.  It also facilitates revolutions in social consciousness, producing gaps in social memory that are filled by new narratives celebrating the new tragedies in the making, those posed by hyper-individualism-based market logics and deculturation through statist democracy building and large-scale structural integration programs.  Indigenous societies remain under attack, and post-colonialism perpetuates the status quo of colonial territoriality and neocolonial economic dependency.  The international system and its discourse plays an important role in this perpetuation. The "new" mode of thought and material production that emerged in the prelude to the “decolonization era” puts all life on an omnicidal track.
    • Transitions from Jail in the Rural Community for Adults with Mental Illness

      McEwen, Marylyn; Langley, Carrie Ann; Kahn-John, Michelle; Rainbow, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1.) to address the gap in our understanding of the factors that facilitate the use of community-based transitional support services post-release from jail when transitioning into the rural community for adults with mental illness and 2.) to address the gap in our understanding of the factors that inhibit the use of community-based transitional support services post-release from jail when transitioning into the rural community for adults with mental illness and 3.) to determine the acceptability of a biological sample to measure interlukin-6 (IL-6) for future research. Annually, nearly one million people are incarcerated in jails throughout the United States, with over 80% of them experiencing a mental illness. Rural communities have greater rates of disease burden and fewer community-based resources. These factors combined with the lack of mandated jail-to-community transition programs complicate the transitional experience for individuals living with mental illness. The transitional period, from jail to the community is filled with competing demands and can cause stress and anxiety. Acute stress has been associated with inflammation. This population often expresses resistance in providing biological samples, so aim three will allow for planning for future research involving biological specimen collection. This qualitative descriptive study provided a rich account of the inhibitors and facilitators experienced among individuals transitioning from the rural jail to the rural community while experiencing mental illness. Meleis’ Transitions Theory provided the conceptual underpinnings for this study. Data sources included interviews, a demographic data questionnaire and field notes. Data analysis was developed through qualitative content analysis through open coding, which allowed the researcher to build concepts and categories, forming themes. This iterative approach allowed for the grouping of similar codes and clusters. The results of this study illuminated several points. “Out of Jail but No Freedom” established the overarching theme for this study in which the facilitators and inhibitors of situational and health-illness transitions for adults with mental illness transitioning to the rural community is described. This research is significant for nursing practice and policy reform. Systematic reform is needed within jail medical operations, clinical models of community provided care, within policy that guides healthcare funding and delivery models, as well as court services. Mandated policies, unfunded and directed to be financially supported by communities further perpetuate disparities and social determinates of health, significantly impacting our most rural and socioeconomically depressed locations. This study illuminates the need for systematic reform within our medical divisions of rurally located jails as well as within public policy that guides healthcare funding and clinical models of care. It has become evident from this research the transition from jail is largely shaped by the experience while incarcerated. Individuals who experience jail incarceration have a right to evidenced-based standards of care, and transition programs to assist them back into the community.
    • Beyond Goodbye: Daily Emotion Regulation from Network Members and from Thoughts of Deceased Loved Ones

      O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Butler, Emily; Greenberg, Jeff; Mehl, Matthias; Sbarra, David (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Background: The present daily diary study tested the ERROSS model (Stelzer & O'Connor, under review), examining whether conjugally bereaved individuals benefit from a diverse repertoire of social interaction partners and daily emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Beyond living supportive others, the study investigated associations between daily ER from thoughts of the deceased loved one and mental health, and the potential role of attachment moderators.Method: Participants were 156 community-dwelling adults (86% females) who experienced the death of a spouse or romantic partner up to five years prior. In a structured two-week long daily-diary, participants listed their daily interaction partners and the ER strategies provided by them as well as their daily mental wellbeing and grief. In addition, participants reported on their mental interactions with their deceased spouse and described the felt ER evoked by those interactions. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses found that at the within-person level, daily repertoire was positively related to positive affect, and daily network size was negatively related to life satisfaction. At the between-person level, greater averaged repertoire and network size were positively associated with mental wellbeing (i.e., greater positive affect and life satisfaction, lower negative affect). For ER from the deceased, ER strategies from the deceased were associated with increased negative affect on a daily level, but positively associated with positive affect and life satisfaction on the between-person level. No significant mental health associations emerged for daily grief. Conclusion: These results provide the first evidence of the ERROSS model in a naturalistic setting, and highlight the benefits or a diverse repertoire of ER during the transition to widowhood.
    • Testing the Intrinsic Benefit Model of the Signaling Theory

      Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Okada, Sosuke; Breiger, Ronald; Kugler, Tamar (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This study proposes the intrinsic benefit model of the signaling theory for sociology. The signaling theory is a subtheory of the game theory. It was developed independently within Evolutionary Biology and Economics, and it is concerned with the communications under the situations with asymmetrical information. Although the signaling theory have been widely adapted across social science, its influence within Sociology has been limited so far. This study proposes the argument that the signaling theory can achieve the increased relevance within Sociology by focusing on the role of (perceived) intrinsic benefit obtained from the signal production. The focus on the intrinsic benefit would allow the signaling theory to be applied on the broader range of phenomena which are of sociological interests, while at the same time analytically integrating additional social and symbolic contexts of the signals. Based on this argument, the propositions were developed about the role of the signal visibility and the intentionality of the signal. The three experiments were conducted to test the propositions. The two vignette experiments were conducted to test the effect of signal visibility on the signaling of environmental commitment through the purchases of electronic vehicles. A laboratory experiments was conducted to test the effect of the intentionality of the signal on the signaling of trustworthiness through donations. The first experiment gave the strong support to the propositions, whereas the second and the third experiment produced the mixed results. The author suggests that the overall findings are consistent with the main argument underlying the intrinsic benefit model.
    • Sensing and Arresting Corrosion of Haynes 230 Alloy in Molten Chloride Salts at 800°C

      Gervasio, Dominic; Sasaran, Vlad; Farrell, James; Guzman, Roberto (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The corrosion of metal in molten chloride salt is studied and lowered using a power supply. A particular emphasis is on the ternary eutectic sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride (MgCl2-KCl-NaCl) salt with a melting point of 387°C, because it is the high temperature heat transfer fluid of choice in electrical power generators and Haynes 230 alloy (H230), because H230 is a ductile metal which retains its strength at high temperatures (800oC). A potential negative of the open circuit potential of H230 metal alloy in ternary eutectic MgCl2-KCl-NaCl is applied, the cathodic potential generates a negative (cathodic) current for the reduction any oxidants, such as metal ions, oxygen and water, in the molten salt. The magnitude of the cathodic current is a signal of the level of oxidants present in the salt. Applying the cathodic potential also arrests ionization of metal, that is, corrosion of the metal. The increasing level of oxidant impurities, (particularly water) in the molten chloride salts causes the open circuit potential (OCP) of H230 versus a silver and silver chloride reference electrode (SSE) to shift positive, which gives a warning that the molten chloride salt heat transfer fluid is corrosive to metal. The OCP is crudely measured by direct readings of H230 and SSE with a voltmeter and refined by potentiodynamic scans of current versus potential of H230 versus SSE, where the H230 potential is scanned 30 millivolts starting negative of to positive of the OCP found with the voltmeter. A linear rate equation, called the Stern-Geary method is used to find corrosion potentials and estimate corrosion rates (CR) of H230 alloy in molten salt at various relative humidity (RH) of Argon atmospheres equilibrated with the molten salt. In oxidant free ternary MgCl2-KCl-NaCl eutectic molten salt, the OCP of H230 vs SSE is -866±24 [mV] and CR of 85±9 [micron/year]. In ternary eutectic molten salt equilibrated with a 40% RH Argon flow the OCP of H230 vs SSE is -363±1 [mV] and CR of 4670±780 [micron/year]. When a negative potential, of -200mV from OCP in anaerobic salt, is applied to a H230 working electrode in eutectic molten salt at 800oC and 100% RH Argon flow is flowed over salt for 20h, it was found that this H230 working electrode (WE) was cathodically protected, because the WE (cathode) lost only 0.0552g while the counter H230 electrode (CE), a “sacrificial” anode, lost 0.4513g. This gives a preliminary assessment a cathodic potential is effective for arresting corrosion of H230 metal in oxidant-contaminated salt at temperatures up to 800oC.
    • Investigating the Feasibility of Community Health Workers as Teleaudiology Patient-Site Facilitators: A Strategy to Improve Access to Hearing Aid Services for Older Adults

      Marrone, Nicole; Coco, Laura; Carvajal, Scott; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cone, Barbara (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is highly prevalent among older adults, and, when unaddressed, its impacts include social isolation, depression, and cognitive decline. Hearing aids are typically recommended to help manage hearing loss. However, there are significant disparities in the use of hearing aids by race/ethnicity, rural/urban status, and income, representing underlying access barriers. The prevailing model of hearing aid service delivery is clinic-based and private-pay, posing multiple obstacles for potentially millions of Americans. Teleaudiology is a strategy that can improve geographic access to services, yet there is a lack of research demonstrating the implementation and feasibility of this service delivery model in real-world practice settings, particularly among diverse and rural populations who may benefit most. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are non-medical public health workers from their community who help improve patient access, including by connecting patients to services and by improving the cultural-relevance of health information. CHWs may be uniquely positioned as the local, hands-on facilitators in teleaudiology to help improve patients’ access to hearing aid services, and therefore help improve their health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The work in this dissertation addresses the following three aims: 1) synthesize past teleaudiology literature focusing on the role of patient-site facilitators; 2) describe the development and evaluation of a training program to prepare CHWs as patient-site facilitators in teleaudiology; and 3) investigate the feasibility of CHWs as patient-site facilitators in a teleaudiology intervention to improve hearing aid rehabilitation outcomes for older adults in a medically underserved, rural, US-Mexico border community. METHODS: To address Aim 1, a scoping literature review of the teleaudiology literature was conducted, in which patient-site facilitator roles, responsibilities, and background were described. Next, Aim 2 was a multi-level training study offered to CHW volunteers on teleaudiology. At the most advanced level, CHW participants were evaluated to determine their preparedness prior to engaging in a role as patient-site facilitators in hearing aid service delivery. Next, to address Aim 3, we conducted a Randomized Controlled Trial (Conexiones) to evaluate the feasibility of Community Health Workers as patient-site facilitators in teleaudiology service delivery compared to a study control (non-CHWs). Participants (28 adults with hearing loss over 50 years of age in a rural, US-Mexico border town in Arizona) were randomized to one of two teleaudiology intervention arms that differed at the level of the facilitator (CHW or non-CHW). Both groups received hearing aid fittings and follow-up care via teleaudiology from a remote audiologist. Mixed-methods data included surveys on self-efficacy for communication, hearing aid use, and satisfaction, as well as semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Regarding Aim 1, a total of 82 studies met the criteria for the scoping review. Across the teleaudiology literature reviewed, patient-site facilitators performed a variety of tasks, including managing local technology and performing hands-on aspects of testing, yet most studies lacked a description of the facilitators’ training. Results from Aim 2 indicated that a multi-level training for CHWs on teleaudiology can prepare individuals for a role as patient-site facilitators. At the advanced level, all CHWs fulfilled the benchmark score required to demonstrate adequate knowledge and skills on trained outcomes, and qualitative comments indicated they found the training useful. Lastly, results from Aim 3 (Conexiones trial) indicated the feasibility of delivering hearing aid services via synchronous teleaudiology for older, rural, Hispanic/Latino adults, and that there may be benefits when the facilitator is a CHW vs. a non-CHW, as indicated by quantitative and qualitative outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings from the three studies reported here indicate that trained CHWs are well-positioned to help improve hearing care access, including by facilitating hands-on aspects of teleaudiology in their community when appropriate training is provided. Given the feasibility of teleaudiology-delivered hearing aid services among groups who face disparities in access, future efficacy and effectiveness research is warranted on CHWs and teleaudiology, potentially leading to significant reduction in barriers for rural and medically under-resourced communities.
    • The Role of the P2X7 Receptor in Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction

      Limesand, Kirsten H.; Gilman, Kristy Ellen; Simpson, Richard; Zhao, Ningning; Skulas-Ray, Ann (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Annually, >600,000 cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide, with treatment commonly entailing surgical removal of the tumor followed by ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. Salivary glands, located proximal to tumors, are incidentally damaged during radiotherapy, leading to loss of glandular function. Reduced saliva output leads to many health complications such as increased risk of mucositis, dental caries, and malnutrition, and makes talking, chewing, and swallowing difficult, greatly reducing the quality of life of patients. A limited number of therapeutic options for salivary hypofunction are currently available, however, they are palliative and require life-long use by patients. Therefore, uncovering the signaling mechanisms behind radiation-induced damage to salivary glands is critical to develop novel drug targets to reverse salivary gland dysfunction and, thus, improve the quality of life for head and neck cancer survivors. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a purinergic receptor activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP, >100 μM), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) typically released from cells to alarm neighbors of a nearby insult. Brief P2X7R activation by eATP leads to formation of a homotrimeric, nonselective cation channel, whereas repetitive or prolonged stimulation causes formation of a large pore and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. P2X7R activation often leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane depolarization, membrane blebbing, cytokine production, or cell death. To evaluate the possible role of the P2X7R in radiation-induced damage to salivary glands, mice that are globally deficient in the P2X7R (P2X7R-/-) were used for experiments and outputs were compared to wildtype (C57BL/6J) mice. Immediately following radiation exposure, there is increased ATP secreted from wildtype primary parotid glands cells that is not observed in P2X7R-/- cells. Surprisingly, this did not lead to alterations in cell death at 24-72 hours post-IR between genotypes. Irradiated wildtype primary parotid cells secrete high levels of the biologically active lipid, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that is not detected in P2X7R-/- cells and does not clearly align with mRNA levels and activity of PGE2 synthesizing enzymes. Remarkably, P2X7R-/- mice have improved salivary gland function at days 3 and 30 post-IR and treatment with a P2X7R-selective antagonist, A438079, was able to preserve salivary gland function in wildtype mice. This study suggests P2X7R antagonism may be a promising approach for preventing radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and further understanding of PGE2-mediated signaling in irradiated salivary glands is warranted. PGE2 is a bioactive lipid derived from arachidonic acid that signals via four E-prostanoid receptors (EP1-4R) to induce various physiological outputs. EP2 and EP4 canonically activate adenylate cyclase, increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, leading to cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. EP2 and EP4 also activate a non-canonical pathway of EGFR transactivation via β-arrestin that leads to protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. EP3 inhibits adenylate cyclase, decreasing cAMP-mediated signaling and CREB phosphorylation. EP1 activates phospholipase C, leading to increased inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and calcium within the cell. EPRs have also been shown to activate other signaling pathways, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, although the corresponding EPR is not clearly defined for these pathways. As described above, there is increased PGE2 in supernatants from irradiated wildtype primary parotid gland cells, with a significant reduction of PGE2 secreted from P2X7R-/- cells that correlates with improved salivary gland function in mice post-IR. Differences in PGE2-mediated pathways between wildtype and P2X7R-/- mice have not been previously described in irradiated parotid glands and is the major goal of this study. EPR distribution at the mRNA and protein level is differentially modulated in P2X7R deficient mice days 2-30 post-IR. Unexpectedly, the most well characterized EP-mediated signaling pathways, measured by phosphorylation of CREB and Akt are minimally different between genotypes days 2-30 post-IR and CREB-activated gene targets are inconsistently modulated across timepoints. Likewise, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 are modestly different across timepoints. Interestingly, phosphorylation of JNKs and their downstream target, c-Jun are different between genotypes days 7-30 post-IR and may explain the differences in salivary gland function seen between strains. Shockingly, evaluation of these pathways in primary cell cultures generated different results, indicating other cell types, such as immune cells, are likely influencing radiation-activated signaling pathways in vivo and should be further evaluated. JNK/c-Jun pathway activation is known to occur following radiation and influences the compensatory proliferation response. Targeting PGE2 production to modulate JNK pathway activation may provide novel therapeutic options to improve salivary gland function post-IR. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that functions by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes to block eicosanoid production. Data within this dissertation implicated PGE2 as a critical signaling mediator leading to radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, with activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway correlating with the observed loss of function seen in wildtype mice. To further evaluate the role of PGE2-JNK-c-Jun signaling in radiation damaged salivary glands, mice were exposed to radiation and received injections of indomethacin with different dosing regimens. Remarkably, mice receiving three injections of indomethacin after radiation exposure (days 3, 5, and 7) have improved salivary gland function at day 30 post-IR. Indomethacin treatment to primary parotid cells reduced COX-1 activity and decreased PGE2 secretion. PGE2 treatment to primary parotid gland cells led to phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. PGE2 also induced cell proliferation, decreased amylase levels and reduced store operated calcium entry in cells following carbachol stimulation. Importantly, indomethacin treatment to mice decreased JNK pathway activation and rescued amylase levels in whole parotid tissues following radiation. Combined, these data support the notion that PGE2 production days 3-7 post-IR is detrimental to salivary glands due to JNK-c-Jun pathway activation and modulating this pathway via indomethacin treatment may be a promising therapeutic for restoring salivary gland function following radiotherapy.
    • 5-HT1F Receptor Agonism for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury

      Schnellmann, Rick G.; Simmons, Epiphani Ciara; Bhattacharya, Martha; Largent Milnes, Tally; Doyle, Kristian; Madhavan, Lilitha (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by vascular disruption leading to ischemia, decreased oxygen delivery and loss of mitochondrial homeostasis. The dysregulation observed with SCI leads to defective respiratory chain function and reduced ATP production, exacerbating neuronal death and loss of locomotor capability. A growing body of research supports pharmacological induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as an effective approach to treat SCI. MB is a multifaceted process involving the integration of highly regulated transcriptional events, lipid membrane and protein synthesis/assembly and replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We previously identified 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1F (5-HT1F) agonism as a potent inducer of MB in multiple organ systems. The series of studies presented herein explores the therapeutic potential of 5-HT1F receptor agonism on MB induction and recovery following SCI using a moderate force-controlled impactor-induced contusion mouse model. Post-SCI, mitochondrial dysfunction presents in the spinal cord, as indicated by decreased mtDNA and mitochondrial protein expression. Daily treatment with LY344864 and lasmiditan, two highly specific 5-HT1F receptor agonists, beginning after injury, not only attenuates these decreases, indicating MB, but also accelerates recovery, as denoted by decreased lesion volume and enhanced locomotor function. 5-HT1F receptor agonism increased locomotor capability, with both LY344864- and lasmiditan-treated mice reaching a Basso-Mouse Scale (BMS) score of ~3.4 by 21d, while vehicle-treated mice exhibited a score of 1.9. Importantly, knockout of the 5-HT1F receptor blocked these effects. Remarkably, a similar degree of locomotor restoration was observed when treatment was initiated 1 or 8h after injury, emphasizing the potential clinical applicability of this therapeutic approach. Furthermore, lasmiditan is FDA-approved for the treatment of migraines and could be repurposed for the treatment of SCI. In addition, injured mice treated with 5-HT1F receptor agonists display decreased Evan’s Blue dye accumulation and increased protein expression of tight junctions in the spinal cord compared to vehicle-treated mice, suggesting enhanced restoration of vascular integrity. These findings led us to investigate if lasmiditan induces MB and function specifically in endothelial cells. In vitro studies determine lasmiditan induces MB and enhances early-phase angiogenic pathways via Akt-eNOS activation in primary cultures of mouse cerebral endothelial cells. These data provide evidence that induction of MB via 5-HT1F receptor agonism may be a promising strategy for the treatment of SCI and related CNS injuries characterized by mitochondrial and vascular dysfunction.
    • Software-Defined Networking Control for X-haul Optical Networks in Testbed Experiments and Emulation

      Kilper, Daniel; Yu, Jiakai; Djordjevic, Ivan; Tandon, Ravi (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Today’s telecommunication networks encounter challenges with rapidly growing traffic demands in various internet applications and services, such as video streaming, augmented/virtual reality, connected vehicles, dense wireless radio nodes, and edge cloud computing. Cloud radio access networks (C-RANs) have been proposed to enable resource sharing, modular radio functions, network scalability, and efficient energy management for future mobile wireless networks. In C-RANs, traditional co-located baseband units (BBUs) and radio units (RUs) are split into central units (CU) hosting BBU pools and massive numbers of RUs connected through fronthaul (FH) optical transport links. However, the communication between CUs and RUs using either digital transmission with the common public radio interface (CPRI) or analog transmission with radio-over-fiber requires high bandwidth and strict synchronization delay limits. Thus, the evolution of next-generation optical transport systems is required to build efficient, dynamic, and scalable communication networks that support data transmission with high capacity and ultra-low latency to realize high performing C-RAN architectures. Conventional commercial optical transport systems in metropolitan areas are based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks where static wavelength channels are provisioned along fiber links between network nodes (containing optical switches or amplifiers) to ensure the data transmission of the peak traffic for backhaul (BH). This results in inefficient utilization of optical network resources in C-RANs where high-capacity and low-latency x-haul (FH, midhaul, and BH) optical transport is required. In addition, conventional optical network elements (NEs) with vendor-specific operating systems (OS) increases the cost of upgrading the system for higher performance, and the complexity of designing novel control planes for scalable networks. To address these problems, there is growing interest in optical transport networks built with open and fully-programmable optical systems using software defined networking (SDN) controlled white-boxes such as reconfigurable add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs), optical circuit switches (OCSs), and erbium dopped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). This thesis examines SDN control strategies for x-haul optical systems in 5G and beyond wireless radio access networks. First, the Cloud Enhanced Open Software Defined Mobile Wireless Testbed for City-Scale Deployment (COSMOS) advanced wireless testbed is reviewed. A dedicated multi-functional Ryu SDN controller is implemented in the testbed’s optical network with wavelength channel assignment and topology reconfiguration for intra-/inter- domain control, network element (NE) monitoring, and a wireless handover experiment. Secondly, a BBU pool allocation optimization algorithm and a physical impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PIA-RWA) considering midhaul BBU-RU functional split are explored to maximize traffic capacity and minimize resource occupation in an optical network of a New York metropolitan area C-RANs use case. In addition, several artificial neural network (ANN) models are also investigated to contribute accurate quality of transmission (QoT) prediction tools of the physical optical layer. Lastly, Mininet-Optical is developed as an extension to Mininet to achieve a novel multi-layer network emulation tool for SDN controller development. A dynamic optical SDN controller with least-congested PIA-RWA and BBU resource load balancing strategies is evaluated to enhance the network capacity in a virtual COSMOS environment emulated by Mininet-Optical considering various diurnal wireless traffic patterns.
    • Direct Care Workers’ Perceptions of Care Towards Sexual and Gender Minority (SGM) Older Adults

      Crist, Janice D.; May, Jennifer T.; Rainbow, Jessica G.; Stone, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe direct care workers’ (DCW) perceptions of the care provided to sexual and gender minority (SGM) older adults in the long-term care (LTC), assisted living, and home health settings.BACKGROUND: The intentional and unintentional behavior of those who provide healthcare to patients can impact positively or negatively the decisions made, treatment plan, health outcomes and overall well-being of patients. These intentional and unintentional behaviors by healthcare workers (e.g., any member of the healthcare team who cares for patients) can impact the care of marginalized populations. Marginalized populations, such as sexual and gender minority (SGM) older adults, suffer the greatest repercussions from negative behaviors by healthcare workers because these marginalized populations also often experience other obstacles to optimal care, such as environmental injustices, violence, prejudice, and being stereotyped, in addition to population-specific health concerns. DCW provide the closest interaction with SGM older adults in these settings. The perceptions of care DCWs provide to SGM older adults is important because the quality of care can be influenced by negative attitudes. METHODS: Qualitative description was used to synthesize what is known about DCWs’ perceptions of care toward SGM older adults. RESULTS: The overarching category, “Care is Different, but Not my Care,” was supported by the categories Cues of Stereotyping, Cues of Prejudice, and DCWs’ Care and Social System. DISCUSSION: Scant research on DCW perceptions of care toward SGM older adults living in LTC, assisted living, and home health settings exist. Cues of stereotyping and prejudice show indications of implicit bias in DCW statements toward SGM older adults. DCWs are a marginalized population which will need to be considered when developing future training in caring for SGM older adults in LTC, assisted living, and home health settings. IMPLICATIONS: Specific implications for practice, policy and future research are explicated to guide future interventions to ensure equitable, quality care in the healthcare setting.
    • Paper-Based Microfluidic Platform for Biomedical Applications

      Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Kaarj, Kattika; Slack, Donald C.; An, Lingling; Kim, Minkyu (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The development of rapid medical diagnostic and biosensor devices is increasing due to the emergence of new diseases in the present and upcoming future. In this dissertation, the development of simple and cost-effective paper-based microfluidic devices are discussed. First, the paper-based microfluidic chip equipped with colorimetric reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and smartphone optical sensing was developed for Zika virus detection. The assay time of our developed device was 15 minutes with a limit of detection of 1 virus copy/µL. Second, the paper-based liver cell model with physiologically relevant flow device was developed. The toxicity of three commercially available drugs, Phenacetin, Bupropion, and Dextromethorphan, and its combination with Fluconazole (an antifungal drug) were investigated. Drug toxicity effects could be observed as early as 40 minutes on our developed device. Third, we developed a paper-based in vitro tissue model comprising a standalone device capable of delivering two types of mechanical stimuli (i.e., shear flow and local compression). The device was fabricated cost effectively through 3D-printing, with an overall device cost of ~$50. This developed device was utilized to investigate the effects of various mechanical stimuli on vascular endothelial cell migration. Cell migration on our paper-based chip was observed as early as 5 hours. Lastly, the traditional methods of providing mechanical simulation to OOC systems and future directions of their development were discussed and suggested. These developed devices show a promising capability of transferring laboratory diagnostic assays to field-based assays that are easy-to-use, rapid, cost-effective, and accessible and affordable to the general public. Such developments aim to improve the quality of healthcare systems and public health.
    • Implementation and Analysis of 3-D Tomographic Reconstructions from Space-Based Imaging Platforms

      Kupinski, Matthew; Hinton, Garrett Wesley; Clarkson, Eric; Hart, Michael; Hancock, Jed (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Imaging satellites that look nadir face a variety of obstacles. In addition to designing the system for the intense environment that the satellite will be experiencing, there are other factors to consider: reflections and emissions from the ground, from clouds, and from the OH-airglow layer. Depending on the desired object, these nuisance signals can significantly reduce image quality. The ground will have city lights, clouds will reflect light, and every material will have a different reflectance, some up to 60%. Performing a tomographic reconstruction can effectively separate a signal from other emissions and reflections. The Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) is a prime example for use of tomographic reconstruction techniques from an imaging space platform. AWE is designed for studying the OH-airglow layer and atmospheric waves (also called gravity waves) which cause emission changes in the OH-airglow layer. A reconstruction for AWE would separate signals from the OH-airglow layer from reflected light from clouds and the ground. Performing tomographic reconstructions for the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) and analyzing them is the primary focus of this dissertation. This work covers an implementation of MLEM for use in satellite images pointing nadir. The algorithm is fast enough to be performed in real-time for many applications. This work covers the details of the reconstruction implementation and the challenges it poses and then a detailed study of the image quality of the tomographic reconstructions is presented. Some of the useful tools developed during this study include the construction of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) model of the atmosphere, methods for projecting simulated models through the imaging system, performing tomographic reconstructions of the simulations, and using a Hotelling observer to determine the overall image quality. Tomographic reconstructions are found to be effective in many applications for space imaging. However, the severely limited projection angles do provide constraints on the overall reconstructed resolution.
    • Fascia Iliaca Compartment Blocks for Patients with Acute Hip Fracture

      Torabi, Sarah; Tilton, Kaitlin Nicole; Hoch, Kristie; Daly, Patricia (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to increase anesthesia provider utilization of the fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for perioperative pain management in patients with acute hip fractures through an educational workshop and development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG).Background. At a Level I trauma center in south Texas, opioids continue to be the primary source of perioperative pain management among geriatric patients with acute hip fracture. Currently, no standard pain management protocol exists for this special population. Optimizing quality pain control while limiting opioid-related adverse effects presents a unique challenge for the anesthesia provider, as both adverse effects and uncontrolled pain produce unfavorable problems in this population, resulting in prolonged hospital stay and increased costs (Bordi 2018; Castillon et al., 2017). Methods. This doctor of nursing practice (DNP) project was completed by three DNP-Nurse Anesthesia (NA) students whom each had a role in organizing this educational workshop. A CPG was developed by the students and evaluated by a group of certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) in Arizona. The educational workshop included a PowerPoint (PPT) presentation and hands-on FICB regional training. A pre- and post-education survey, proficiency quiz, and 30-day follow up survey were used to measure knowledge and whether this project resulted in a practice improvement. A convenience sample of 30 CRNAs employed at this facility were invited to participate in this one-day educational workshop. Results. A total of 17 (57%) CRNAs participated on the day of the educational workshop. Data from pre- and post-education surveys demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge (24%) and intent to utilize (24%) FICB in the perioperative setting. The 30-day follow-up survey had a limited response (n=5) compared to initial participants (n=17), but the results showed anesthesia providers (80%) utilized the CPG, thirty days following education. All 30-day follow-up survey participants (100%) acknowledged that the educational workshop was beneficial. Conclusion. The educational workshop was useful in increasing implementation of the FICB for pain management among patients with hip fractures. Future projects should focus on sustainability of evidence-based practices and barriers to implementation.
    • Soft Tissue Composition, Cardiometabolic Health, and Bone Outcomes During Adolescence and Older Adulthood

      Going, Scott; Bland, Victoria Leigh; Bea, Jennifer W.; Funk, Janet; Hingle, Melanie; Klimentidis, Yann; Roe, Denise (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Adolescence and older adulthood are two critical periods for bone health. Adolescence is a period of rapid bone accrual with bone mass peaking in the second decade of life. Bone is then continuously remodeled throughout adulthood where, with aging, the rate of bone resorption begins to outpace bone formation leading to a net loss in bone. The slow decline in bone mass during adulthood puts older adults at an increased risk for osteoporosis, with women being particularly susceptible to osteoporosis due to 1) having lower peak bone mass compared to men and 2) accelerated bone loss with the onset of menopause. Approximately 60-80% of peak bone mass is genetically determined; however, lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity, adequate diet) can also influence osteoporosis risk. It is well accepted that being underweight increases the risk for osteoporosis, but the influence of obesity on osteoporosis risk remains controversial. This is significant given the high obesity rates in adolescents and adults. It was previously thought that obesity is protective against osteoporosis due to the additional strain that excess body weight places on the bone, but more recent research suggests that excess adiposity is associated with an increase in fracture risk. The conflicting findings may be due to the use of non-specific measures for obesity, such as body mass index (BMI), which do not directly measure total body fat mass nor account for the physiological differences between adipose tissue depots. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may be particularly important in explaining the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis due to its role in the development of metabolic dysfunction (e.g., chronic inflammation, insulin resistance). Data from two studies, the Soft Tissue And bone development in young giRls (STAR) study (adolescents) and the UK Biobank (older adults), was used to examine the relationship between soft tissue composition and bone parameters during these two critical periods for bone health. Based on data from direct imaging techniques used to measure body composition and bone, our findings from regression analyses show that total body fat mass and visceral adipose tissue may be independent predictors of bone outcomes; however, the strength and direction of these relationships appears to be dependent on sex, menarcheal status, menopausal status, BMI classification, and bone site. To obtain further insight into the putative causal relationship between adiposity and bone, we used Mendelian Randomization to assess the relationship between metabolically “favorable adiposity” (MFA) (percent body fat increasing genetic variants additionally associated with a more favorable metabolic profile) and aBMD. Genetically-predicted MFA was negatively associated with aBMD for the whole body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm. These findings were counter to the hypothesis and may be in part explained by the fact that several loci comprising the MFA genetic instrument may function in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation which provides insight into the origins of and connections between bone and fat. In conclusion, the current findings show the complexity of the bone-soft tissue relationship and highlight the importance of accounting for lean mass, sex, menarche/menopause, imaging modality, bone site, and degree/distribution of adiposity when assessing the relationship between obesity and bone.
    • Novel DMD-based Lidar and Display Systems

      Takashima, Yuzuru; Hellman, Brandon; Hua, Hong; Milster, Thomas D. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD) have been used in prescribed optical architectures for decades with very little deviation. These prescribed architectures most commonly include F-number-limited illumination to project a binary spatially-modulated DMD to a distant plane. Rather, this dissertation investigates four optical architectures, two for lidar applications and two for display applications, that deviate from the prescribed design forms. First, an imaging lidar system is presented that reverses the typical architecture: an illuminated field is imaged onto a DMD for spatial scanning and coupled to a detector. Second, DMD-based programmable blazed grating beam steering is multiplexed with spatial modulation for Angular Spatial Light Modulation (ASLM). The ASLM technique is employed as a holographic beam steering mechanism for a lidar system for increased angular resolution and field of view. Third, the ASLM technique is implemented into a multi-display system to increase the effective output pixel count of the DMD. Fourth, a cascaded DMD expansion design is demonstrated for a 1440-perspective gigapixel display. The four presented architectures demonstrate enormous untapped potential for DMD-based optical systems, despite the last 30+ years of DMD system development.
    • Disjointed Fluidity: A Proposition for Conceptualizing and Modeling Relational Processes

      Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Stryker, Robin; Joslyn, Jacqueline; Breiger, Ronald; Hilligoss, Brian (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Sociologists have not neglected the study of relationships, but there remains no central definition of what a relationship is. This study offers a definition of relationships that supports a conceptual tool and visualization technique for analyzing relational processes that are otherwise difficult to model using standard ethnographic and social network analysis techniques. Grounded in the work of social psychologists and relational sociologists, the premise of this proposition is that relationships are both remembered and imagined. I maintain that relationships are molded by a flow of changing circumstances and dynamic cognitive processes, a characteristic that I refer to as disjointed fluidity. With data from my ethnographic study of doctoral student mentorship, I use this perspective to detail the mechanisms by which relationships are created, maintained, and dissolved. I go on to introduce a computational ethnographic technique that visualizes the properties and characteristics of relational processes. This book contributes to the efforts of relational sociologists to build a universal conceptualization of relationships. It differs from existing literature in its focus on the elements of relationships and their function in social construction.
    • Ecological Impacts of Artificial Flows in an Effluent-Dependent Aridland River

      Bogan, Michael; Eppehimer, Drew; Quanrud, David; Meixner, Thomas; Hu, Jia; Bonar, Scott (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      In arid and semi-arid environments where surface water resources are scarce, the discharge of treated wastewater into streams often supports or creates aquatic habitat and in many cases is actively managed for environmental benefits. Although common across the world, there is a lack of research on these novel effluent-fed systems and their impacts on aquatic ecology. This dissertation presents a detailed case study of the lower Santa Cruz River near Tucson, Arizona, USA, which is dependent upon effluent discharge for perennial baseflow. In this dissertation, I examine 1) the general suitability of effluent to serve as habitat for aquatic invertebrates, 2) the impacts of an artificial flow regime on fish stranding, 3) the prevalence and drivers of microplastic pollution in the river, and 4) the role of natural and artificial disturbance in shaping aquatic invertebrate communities at several locations along the river. The lower Santa Cruz River supports a diverse aquatic invertebrate community (156 taxa) that is shaped by water quality gradients, as well as artificial disturbance from daily flow intermittence and natural disturbance from seasonal floods. Daily drying also impacts aquatic vertebrates: stranding of mosquitofish is common in certain reaches of the river and is governed primarily by flow recession rates during periods of reduced effluent input. Also, microplastic pollution from point and non-point sources is ubiquitous throughout the river, and the abundances of this pollution in the water column and riverbed sediment are affected by flooding. Despite the ubiquity of microplastics in the river, only six percent of sampled mosquitofish had consumed microplastics and no obvious health impacts were observed in those fish. This dissertation makes a novel and timely contribution to urban stream ecology research with findings relevant to effluent-fed rivers across arid and semi-arid regions of the globe. This research addresses many of the unique benefits and challenges of effluent discharge for aquatic ecosystem support, analyzes previously unstudied phenomenon, and identifies knowledge gaps that require future research.