• “Das Hätten sie mal Richtig Übersetzen Sollen!“ [“They Should've Translated that the Right Way!”] – Folk Myths and Fanscaping in German Dubbing

      Gramling, David; Warner, Chantelle; Ploschnitzki, Patrick; Colina, Sonia; von Ammon, Frieder (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      “Somebody translated it wrong at some point, and then everybody started talking that way.” is one of the many constantly perpetuated folk myths arising around dubbing, i.e., lip-synchronized audiovisual translation. This dissertation investigates this and other assumptions in a German-German context, especially the notion of “wrong translations” that is particularly present in fan-made review platforms of television dubbed into German. Contrasted with interviews with agents of the current German dubbing industry, the dissertation further explores online amateur commentary on canonical episodes of the US-American animated sitcom The Simpsons and the fan-translator relationship in a globalized, networked, enlightened context. Central to this research is the concept of fanscaping: unsolicited lay revisions of professional translations, usually generated on (proprietary) online platforms by enthusiast communities insisting, often inconsistently, on intercultural accuracy and semantic precision over translators’ deliberate, pragmatic compromises.
    • Syllabification and Visual Word Segmentation in Spanish–English Bilinguals

      Simonet, Miquel; Asberry, Drake; Hammond, Michael; Ussishkin, Adam (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This dissertation investigates intuitions about Spanish syllable structure and whether or not word segmentation strategies are affected by these syllabic intuitions. The study utilizes monolingual Spanish speakers, L1 Spanish speakers whoare L2 learners of English and L1 English speakers who are L2 learners of Spanish. For Spanish syllabic intuitions a two-alternative forced choice task is used to gain insights about the initial syllables of CV and CVC trisyllabic words. A visual letter sequence monitoring task is utilized to investigate the use of a syllable-based segmentation strategy when processing Spanish. Support is found for differing Spanish syllabic intuitions between L1 Spanish–L2 English and L1 English–L2 Spanish bilinguals. L1 Spanish speakers have been shown to use a syllable-based segmentation approach to Spanish word segmentation while L1 English speakers have shown only a slight sensitivity to the syllable’s role when segmenting in their L2. Lastly, previous studies in investigating the syllable-based segmentation strategy have included some auditory components, which may have provided additional help in some manner to participants. The current studies here replicate these findings utilizing a completely visual design, which indicates the plausibility of a visual experimental design to study phonological processes.
    • Towards Using Eye-Tracking and Consumer-Grade Electroencephalogram Devices To Detect Usability Issues in Mobile Applications

      Cui, Hong; Zhang, Limin; Bozgeyikli, Lila; Shmargad, Yotam; Peterson, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Despite the importance of cognitive workload in examining the usability of smartphoneapplications and the popularity of smartphone usage globally, cognitive workload as one attribute of usability tends to be overlooked in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) studies. Moreover, limited studies that have examined the cognitive workload aspect often measured some summative workloads using subjective measures (e.g., questionnaires). A significant limitation of subjective measures is that they can only assess the overall, subject-perceived cognitive workload after the procedures/tasks have been completed. Such measurements do not reflect the real-time workload fluctuation during the procedures. They, therefore, are not useful for pinpointing poor designs in user interfaces that are associated with cognitive workload surges in the user’s brain during a task. This dissertation used mixed methods to empirically study (1) the reliability of an eye-tracking device (i.e., Tobii Pro Nano) and a low-cost electroencephalogram (EEG) device (i.e., MUSE 2) for detecting real-time cognitive workload changes during N-back tasks, and (2) the potential to use the increased cognitive workload detected during tasks to pinpoint user interface areas containing potential usability issues in mobile applications. Results suggest that (1) the EEG measurements collected by MUSE 2 are not very useful as indicators of cognitive workload changes in our setting; (2) eye movement measurements collected by Tobii are useful for monitoring cognitive workload fluctuations and tracking down interface design issues in a smartphone setting; (3) more specifically, the maximum pupil diameter is the preeminent indicator of cognitive workload surges; and (4) cognitive workload surges may be caused by design issues. One usability issue has been detected and fixed this way in a mobile application designed by a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project. In conclusion, the pupil diameter measure combined with other subjective ratings would provide a comprehensive user experience assessment of mobile applications. They can also be used to verify the successfulness of a user interface design solution in improving user experience.
    • Role of Gilt in Melanoma Cells on Regulating in Vivo Tumor Growth

      Hastings, Karen; Macy, Anne; Lybarger, Lonnie; Kim, Suwon (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The MHC I antigen presentation pathway in melanoma cells has a well-established role in immune-mediated destruction of melanoma. However, the role of the MHC II pathway in melanoma cells is not fully understood. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is critical for MHC II-restricted presentation of multiple melanoma antigens by antigen presenting cells. While GILT and MHC II expression is typically limited to antigen presenting cells, GILT and MHC II can be expressed constitutively or induced by IFN-γ in melanoma cells. In human melanoma specimens, high GILT expression and an active and intact MHC II pathway are associated with improved survival. The goal of this project was to investigate a causal role for GILT in melanoma cells, using immunogenic Yale University Mouse Melanoma (YUMM) lines YUMM2.1, YUMMER1.7, and YUMMER.G. These lines constitutively expressed GILT, and MHC II expression was IFN-γ-inducible in a subset of cells under serum-free conditions. YUMM2.1 was selected as the primary model to assess the role of the MHC II pathway in in vivo tumor growth studies, because YUMM2.1 cells reliably formed tumors in mice. We have genetically engineered YUMM2.1 cells via CRISPR/Cas9 without GILT, verified the deletion, and selected a clone (#6) with similar in vitro proliferation as wild-type (WT) YUMM2.1 cells. When GILT-/- #6 cells were injected into immunocompetent mice, the resulting tumors had increased growth over time compared to WT tumors, but there was no clear association between tumor type and tumor onset or mouse survival. When these cells were injected into immunocompromised RAG1-/- mice, the resulting tumor growth, onset, and mouse survival, were inconsistent between experiments. Although further studies are needed to address these inconsistencies, in both experiments GILT-/- #6 had increased tumor growth in immunocompetent mice compared to WT tumors. Flow cytometry analyses showed that GILT-/- #6 tumors had fewer infiltrating T cells compared to WT, and a higher percentage of the infiltrating T cells were regulatory, supporting a potential role for T cells in regulating the in vivo tumor growth of GILT-/- #6 tumors versus WT tumors. However, to verify that the difference in tumor growth we observed in vivo was solely due to GILT expression in melanoma cells, we tested the in vivo tumor growth of GILT-/- YUMM2.1 cells transduced with empty vector or transduced with GILT. We found that GILT expression did not impact in vitro proliferation nor in vivo growth in immunocompromised mice. However, both tumors with the empty vector or GILT were rejected in immunocompetent mice, likely due to the expression of puromycin resistance from the lentiviral plasmid. Thus, mice genetically engineered to express puromycin resistance will need to be used in future studies and we are also designing lentiviral plasmids lacking puromycin resistance or other immunogenic reporter genes. In this manner, we will determine the effect of GILT expression in melanoma cells on regulating in vivo tumor growth.
    • Exploring Argumentation in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

      Talanquer, Vicente; Petritis, Steven; Bolger, Molly; Christie, Hamish; Jewett, John; Kelley, Colleen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Recent research emphasis has been placed on studying how students engage in scientific argumentative reasoning in the chemistry laboratory setting. Although several studies have evaluated the quality and characterized the structure of student arguments following the claims, evidence, and rationale (CER) framework, little is known about the influence of various laboratory factors on student reasoning. In this study, we seek to better understand what factors affect student argumentation in laboratories and how these factors foster or hinder students’ integration of core chemistry concepts and laboratory data. We have identified several factors associated with students’ laboratory experiences and aim to gain additional insight by exploring how students’ use of specific chemical data in various types of experiments impacts both the nature and quality of their post-lab arguments. Ultimately, this work highlights the need for explicit consideration of these factors in designing opportunities for undergraduate chemistry laboratory students to engage in productive argumentation from evidence. In the first part of this project, we analyzed the arguments generated by college organic chemistry students working on a substitution reaction experiment that was framed in two distinct ways: predict-verify and observe-infer. The arguments constructed by students in their post-laboratory reports under each laboratory frame were characterized by paying attention to both domain-specific and domain-general features. Our analysis revealed significant differences in the chemical concepts and ideas that students under the two conditions invoked, as well as in the level of integration, specificity, alignment, and type of reasoning observed within and across different argument components. Our findings highlight the importance of paying attention to how experiments are framed in terms of the goals, procedures, information, and tools available to students as these decisions can have a major impact on the nature of the claims students make, their use of evidence, and the approach to reasoning that they follow. Building on our previous work involving activity framing, the second part of this project involved the analysis of student arguments produced following eight experiments that comprise the first semester of a college organic chemistry laboratory to identify other factors that may significantly affect the nature and quality of student argumentation in undergraduate organic chemistry labs. Our analysis revealed no trends on the effect of experiment order or general type on the quality of student arguments; however, the amount and types of data sources as well as the level of scaffolding provided both had an impact on student argument quality. Although the undergraduate laboratory offers a ripe opportunity for students to engage in argument from evidence, laboratory activity involves a complex web of components each with the potential to affect productive and quality sensemaking. Our findings highlight the importance of explicit consideration of various laboratory factors and their impact on how students express their chemical reasoning through written argumentation.
    • Partitioning Components for Dimension Reduction for Compositional Data

      Billheimer, Dean; Koslucher, Amber; LaFluer, Bonnie; Bedrick, Ed; Zhang, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Compositional data are vectors of proportions describing the relative abundance of eachcomponent to the total. High-dimensionality of many compositional data sets, often with more components than observations, has caused an increased demand for capturing observed patterns of variability through lower dimensions. Current dimension reduction methods applicable to compositional data are either difficult to interpret or lack a statistical model. Amalgamation, the summation of two components, and subcomposition, a subset of the original components, both serve as straightforward and interpretable ways of combining components in all applications of compositional data analysis and reduce the number of components in the composition. This paper proposes achieving reduced dimensions by partitioning components, which simultaneously models the subcompositions and amalgamation. Partition selection was proposed by maximizing the posterior probability of the Partition Logistic Normal distribution developed by Aitchison (1986). This dimension reduction methodology was then extended to perturbation, which characterizes compositional change. Perturbation responses may capture treatment effects, age effects on skin microbiota, and changes across time. Reducing the dimensions of an observed perturbation aims at capturing groups of components that were perturbed similarly. This paper provided a new reference component to correctly interpret the perturbed components and proposed reducing the dimensions by partitioning the perturbed components given the latent variables in the Gaussian mixture model which accounted for the uncertainty induced from estimating the compositional centers. These methods were applied to a skin microbiota studying an age perturbation by contrasting children and mothers.
    • Electrophysiological Signatures of Spatial and Temporal Coding in Humans

      Ekstrom, Arne; Liang, Mingli; Isham, Eve; Cowen, Stephen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Space and time are two cornerstones of memory and navigation. However, how spatial and temporal information contribute to spatial and mnemonic representations is still poorly understood in humans. One of the neural signatures in humans related to memory and navigation are neural oscillations in cortical and subcortical regions (such as the hippocampus). The presence of cortical and hippocampal theta oscillations predicts better subsequent memory and more efficient spatial navigation, but the exact relationship between neural oscillations and the coding of spatial distances and temporal durations are unknown. In this dissertation, I will provide empirical evidence to help fill this gap and to better the understanding of how cortical and hippocampal neural oscillations support the coding of spatiotemporal information. In Chapter 1, I provide a brief summary of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), intracranial EEG, mobile EEG, hippocampal theta oscillations, frontal midline theta oscillations, and behavioral models for spatial and temporal cognition. In Chapter 2, I report the feasibility of recording navigation-related frontal-midline theta oscillations using noninvasive scalp EEG in healthy humans using a mobile EEG approach. In Chapter 3 and 4, I report two investigations of how neural oscillations code spatial distances and temporal durations in healthy humans using mobile scalp EEG (Chapter 3) and in patients with hippocampal implanted electrodes (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5, I summarize how the understanding of oscillatory codes for space and time can inspire the behavioral and clinical applications for future research.
    • Rethinking Urban Agriculture: Environmental Casteism, Subjectivity, and the Labor Politics of Food Production in Mumbai

      Doshi, Sapana; Liverman, Diana; Garud, Pradnya; Osborne, Tracey; Reader, Tristan; Banister, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      In urban India, food gardening has proliferated among upper-caste, middle-class people to mitigate food safety and self-sufficiency concerns. In the past two decades in cities like Mumbai, organic gardening communities have engaged in food production in private homes and apartments. The fears and anxieties of “unsafe” food and degrading urban ecologies have driven upper-caste, middle-class people to intervene through food gardening. In Mumbai, urban farming along railway tracks was initiated as a state-driven measure to deal with food insecurity and was later formalized through Green Revolution policies. Presently, seasonal, rural, lower-caste migrant farmers grow food along 400 acres of public railway lands to sustain their livelihoods. These farmers have faced lawsuits from elite constituents over the use of sewage water, pesticides, and fertilizers to grow vegetables.This research examines how the complex interplay of caste, class, and gender shape practices and discourses for differently situated groups involved in urban agriculture. Using archival and qualitative methods, this dissertation shows that urban agriculture is not a universal good. Rather, it has served to deepen caste domination and environmental inequality through a process I call “environmental casteism.” I trace agrarian transformation in different historical junctures to demonstrate that 1) caste and class are fundamentally interconnected through land and caste labor relations in food production across the rural-urban divide; 2) urban organic food gardening initiatives are contingent on caste-based ideologies, spatial segregation, notions of purity and pollution, and gendered reproductive labor; and 3) caste-based waste labor is reworked as a practice for environmental sustainability.
    • Steady-State and Ultrafast Optical Properties of Tripyrrindione Ligand and Metal Complexes

      Huxter, Vanessa M.; Swain, Alicia; Monti, Oliver; Sandhu, Arvinder; Sanov, Andrei; Schwartz, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      While the photophysics of other oligopyrorrolic molecules, especially tetrapyrroles, have been the focus of extensive research, tripyrroles have remained relatively unstudied. This may be due to the previous difficulties in synthesis, difficulties in isolation from naturally occurring sources, and comparatively low relative natural abundance. Hexaethyl tripyrrindione (H3TD1) is a tripyrrolic molecule that is capable of binding metals and forming square planar neutral radical complexes that are stable at room temperature and redox active. Steady-state absorption and emission and time-resolved methods are used to measure both the H3TD1 ligand and H3TD1 bound to copper, palladium, and zinc. The time-resolved optical measurements include time correlated single photon counting, (TCSPC) fluorescence upconversion, transient absorption (TA), and two dimensional electronic (2DES). Solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions play a large role in the optical properties of H3TD1. In solvents with a low hydrogen-bonding affinity, H3TD1 favors the formation of dimers, with quick relaxation times of the excited state. In the presence of solvents capable of hydrogen-bond donating and accepting, H3TD1 favors a monomer state with slow relaxation times. H3TD1 readily coordinates with metal centers. The metal choice of the metal-TD1 complex plays a large role in the optical properties. The Zn-TD1 metal exhibits fluorescence emission in the presence of polar solvents. The steady-state and time-resolved optical properties for Zn-TD1 are highly solvent-dependent, especially in pyridine which is capable of strong axial interactions with the metal center. Cu- and Pd- TD1 neutral radical complexes as well as oxidized Cu-TD1 and oxidized Pd-TD1 were investigated. None of the neutral radical or oxidized Cu and Pd complexes are fluorescent. Excited state dynamics for the Cu-TD1 and Pd-TD1 complexes are relatively solvent insensitive with fast relaxation of the ground state bleach. However, the oxidized Pd complex shows much longer timescales. Oxidation of the complexes removes an electron from the ligand, changing the overall spin state of the complex. At low temperatures, the Cu-TD1 complex dimerizes through pi-pi interaction of ligand based electronic spins, modifying the observed dynamics. 2DES measurements investigate these dynamics and to understand the basic photophysics of the Cu-TD1 dimer system.
    • Information Analysis of Spatiotemporal Data Stream–Models, Algorithms and Evaluations

      Liu, Jian; Yuan, Yifei; Son, Young-Jun; Zhou, Qiang (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The Spatiotemporal data stream has been widely used in different applications for system surveillance, prediction, and optimization. In the past decade, the advancement of sensing and data storage technologies has made spatiotemporal data more achievable and enlarges spatiotemporal data’s scale greatly. It brings opportunities as well as challenges to spatiotemporal data steam analysis. Different spatiotemporal data stream problems have their unique methodologies, but they all share one major difficulty: high dimensionality. Some of them are data-intensive in spatial space, which needs modeling and feature extraction to reduce spatial dimensions. Others are data-intensive in temporal space, which needs temporal dimension reduction. This dissertation investigates spatiotemporal data modeling with one spatial intensive application and one temporal intensive application. The spatial intensive application is the border surveillance with Unmanned Vehicles (UVs), where multiple UVs collaboratively collect image information of a target area in real-time. Millions of pixel data are observed at each timestamp from multiple UVs. The temporal intensive application is the water distribution system (WDS), where hydraulic sensors are deployed in the underground water pipe network. Each sensor measures hundreds of thousands of hydraulic readings per day. In the UVs surveillance application, a grid-based model is proposed to aggregate UAV’s global low-resolution observation and UGVs’ local high-resolution observation, which extracts crowd dynamics information from spatially heterogeneous high dimensional data. These extracted crowd dynamics data are then processed by a proposed Bayesian dynamics model for real-time crowd tracking and prediction. These models are validated and compared with benchmarks by simulation studies and a field test. In the WDS application, a penalized free-knot B-spline model is proposed to model high dimensional temporal profile data, reducing temporal dimension from hundreds of thousands of timestamps into dozens of profile coefficients. A real-time anomaly detection model is then proposed based on these modeled profiles. This model detects system anomaly (i.e., water pipe burst) from spatiotemporal profile based on a Bayesian basis-expansion model. One simulated dummy WDS and one simulated WDS at Austin, TX, are used for model validation and comparison.
    • Networked Parasocial Relationships: Examining the Contributions of Ego-Networks and Identity on Positive Parasocial Relationships and their Importance

      Rains, Steve; Lutovsky, Bethany R.; Stevens Aubrey, Jennifer; Pitts, Margaret J.; Bighash, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Parasocial relationships (PSRs) examine the one-way, imagined relationships that takes place between an individual and a media figure. Although these relationships exist with media figures, research has found that they tend to resemble the relationships that individuals form within their social lives. This study examined two concepts of parasocial research, the formation of positive PSRs and PSR dependence, using social network analysis. This analysis method was proposed to be a key element to settle the debate between the competing interpersonal theories regarding parasocial relationships and extend the knowledge of why these relationships exist. However, results of an online survey recruited through television fandom subreddits indicated that social network structure was not a substantial determinant of the creation and dependence on these relationships. The methods used in this study were unable to explain the inconsistent results found for the compensatory and complementary hypotheses. Additional analyses were run examining the role social network analysis and identity played in the parasocial experience. Significant results were found indicating that network analysis related to identity and overall identity salience of the ego and alters were reliably related to positive PSR formation and PSR dependence. Therefore, the identity of the ego and the network alters played a role in the formation and dependence on positive PSRs. The implications of these findings on the understanding of parasocial relationships and areas of future research are discussed.
    • High Speed Grating Shear Interferometry for Fast Steering Mirror Characterization

      Hart, Michael; Colon, Nicolas Iokepa; Kim, Daewook; Milster, Thomas D. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Several terrestrial and aerospace applications require the ability to track a Fast-Steering Mirror’s (FSM) high velocity slew rates with microradian positional resolution. Using theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, the Fast Linescan Grating Shear Interferometer (FLGSI) was designed to meet this demand with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The primary goal of this thesis was to demonstrate that the calibrated FLGSI could constantly track the relative FSM position while the FSM was driven with sinusoidal and square electrical waveforms. The angular magnification, the grating period, and the source wavelength affected the measurement resolution of the FLGSI. The FLGSI design had better than -0.5 waves of coma and less than 0.75 waves of spherical aberration (at 632.8 nm) for the ±4 mrad system FOV. With a photon noise model corrected by measured results, the FLGSI propagated uncertainty was less than 9.5 µrad when measuring the FSM angular position with FSM velocities below 1.5 rad/s, and when measuring a stationary FSM, the FLGSI could measure FSM movements as small as 49.22 nrad (twice the FLGSI measurement uncertainty). The OIM 202 was modeled to estimate the mirror velocity, and design experiments to test the FLGSI measurement capabilities. The secondary goal of this thesis was to measure the OIM 202 movement properties with the FLGSI and compare them with the modeled and manufacturer reported properties. The FLGSI, with a framerate faster than 40 kHz, accurately tracked the FSM position when the FSM was moving at rates slower than 1.1761 ± 0.58 rad/s. The FLGSI measured the FSM X-axis settle time to be 9.98 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±1.38 µrad and the FSM Y axis settle time to be 6.69 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±0.94 µrad. The settle time was slightly slower, and the pointing accuracy was slightly worse than quoted manufacturing specifications.
    • Reimagining Existing Technologies for Faster Time-to-Detection of Biomarkers of Interest

      Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Day, Alexander; Kim, Minkyu; Zenhausern, Frederic; Matsunaga, Terry (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      With the goal of reducing the overall assay times of key diagnostic technologies, four platforms have been developed over the course of several years. Each platform seeks to take a gold standard diagnostic test for a given target of interest and reduce the time-to-results. The primary gold standard techniques being challenged are cell subpopulation analysis via flow cytometry, bacteria/virus detection via PCR/RT-PCR, and microRNA detection via RT-PCR. The first diagnostic platform utilizes a smartphone-based device to both characterize natural killer cell subpopulation ratio and quantify circulating natural killer cell and IL-2 cytokine concentrations in blood. This machine learning-based analysis used the cell chromatography profile of samples that had flowed through the paper chip and had an overall accuracy of 89% at correctly classifying the CD56bright: CD56dim ratio without the need for complex instrumentation beyond a paper microfluidic chip, a smartphone microscope attachment, and a simple 3D-printed enclosure within a 10-minute assay. Meanwhile, the flow rate-based cell/cytokine quantification aspect of the platform allowed for the detection of just 98 IU/mL IL-2 and 68 natural killer cells/mL, allowing for sensitive and accurate quantification of circulating biomarkers tied to patient immune response. The next three platforms all contain the use of emulsified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (eLAMP) reactions to compartmentalize the reaction process to increase specificity while also reducing assay time due to requiring smaller reaction volume changes over the course of the assay. These platforms monitor these reactions using light scatter technology, which allows for real-time monitoring without the use of a target-specific bioreceptor or fluorophore, thus reducing the overall cost of the reaction. The first of these three platforms was developed to detect whole bacteria (E. Coli O157:H7 in this case) with a limit of detection of 103 CFU/µL using either an OceanOptics spectrophotometer or a smartphone camera to monitor the light scatter change within as little as 3 minutes. This platform was also able to provide a higher assay specificity when compared to conventional LAMP reactions. The second eLAMP platform was developed with the goal of rapid yet sensitive SARS-CoV-2 detection in mind. By using the eLAMP assay mechanism, we could combine the rapid time-to-results of conventional antigen tests with the sensitivity/specificity of RT-PCR tests. The platform was able to detect as little as 10 viral copies/µL in saliva in just 5 minutes. Finally, the last eLAMP platform was built by making a minor modification to an existing real-time fluorometer, thus removing the need for an engineering-heavy skillset to build the technology. Within this fluorometer, microRNAs could be used as a primer in an emulsified LAMP reaction, thus controlling the rate of reaction based on the presence of the microRNA of interest. With this platform, the successful detection of 1 fM miR-21 could be made in just 66% of the time of a conventional LAMP reaction, and this assay also proved to be specific to single base-pair differences in the microRNA target, rendering it highly specific.
    • Holding Space: A Case Study of an Alternative High School's Gender and Sexuality Alliance

      McCaslin, Mary; Clough, Lauren Taylor; Legg Burross, Heidi; Durán, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Gender and sexuality alliances (GSAs), clubs aimed at supporting and affirming LGBTQIA+ youth within the school setting, can serve a wide variety of purposes for queer and trans youth. GSAs can provide a community of belonging or even act as sites of youth activism within their school and beyond. The present case study takes an ethnographic approach to examining one alternative high school’s GSA during the midst of a tumultuous change in school ownership and school leadership. Through observations of the GSA and the school at large, changes in school culture are examined across the span of two years. During Year One, the school was fostering a familial culture of support, providing the many under-supported students at the school with necessary resources such as food, transportation, and counseling. During Year Two, the change in school ownership began to impact the school culture, leading into a culture of anonymity and apathy in which these previously assumed resources were no longer available to students. Using the GSA as an anchor to ground the study, I explore how the shifts within the GSA are reflected in the changes within the school at large. The concept of holding space became a central theme related to the school culture and the physical and figurative spaces within the GSA and school are discussed. Lastly, implications for research on school culture and LGBTQIA+ students are discussed.
    • Using Linguistic Metrics and Task Characteristics to Investigate and Manage Group Deception

      Nunamaker, Jay; Burgoon, Judee; Dorn, Bradley; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Bin (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Interactive deception among groups of humans regularly occurs. Barriers to studying this type of interaction include practical constraints as well as experimental design challenges that balance realism of deception with ground truth knowledge that deception is occurring. As our ability to capture and process more aspects of this type of interaction grows with the use of computers, so do opportunities for understanding and managing deception. This dissertation begins with a review of linguistic characteristics of group speech that have been found to have some relationship with deception. Then, this dissertation characterizes a deceptive group interaction, using a lens model to consider individual and interactive components that relate to cue generation, deception judgements, and group performance. This dissertation then describes an experimental method and technology tool created to facilitate the study of this type of interaction. The dataset used for this dissertation was collected using this tool and involved participants completing a hidden identity game and providing periodic ratings of other participants with whom they interacted. Lastly, this dissertation considers performance of both automated methods and performance of actual individuals in the hidden identity game and explores reasons why certain cues and individuals performed better or worse than expected using simulation and exploratory analyses.
    • Exploring the Electronic Health Record (EHR) as a Communication Channel that Influences the Workflow of the Nurse in Response to a Clinical Event

      Shea, Kimberly D.; Roberts, Monte Louis; Williams, Deborah K.; Loescher, Lois J. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The purpose of this qualitative descriptive research was to explore responding (RSRN) and receiving nurses’ (RCRN) perspectives on messages delivered from the EHR in response to a clinical event (CE). This study had two aims: 1) Explore nurses’ utilization of the EHR as a communication channel that provides patient data for the nurse to process and implement into workflow. 2) Explore nurses’ perspectives on their approach to processing EHR data in response to a CE. The EHR as an ineffective communication tool has been studied. However, little is known how the EHR functions as a communication channel for nurses to access, retrieve and process data and information for communication. Using Shannon’s Information Theory (1949), semi-structured interviews were constructed to explore nurses described perspective of screens accessed, data and information processed, strengths and limitations of current EHR, and recommendations for EHR improvement. Twenty medical-surgical nurses participated in a ZoomHealth recorded interview. The general inductive approach and content analysis were used to analyze verbatim transcripts and establish patterns and themes. Transcript segments were grouped into responding nurses (RSRN) or receiving nurses (RSRN) caring for a patient experiencing or post CE. Thirty-two thematic units were described by participants, among themes explored two major themes were identified by participants: time and process of data into information. Significant time is spent accessing and retrieving data and information from the EHR. After retrieval participants struggled to describe how data and information was organized into a usable form to implement into workflow. The role of the nurse changes how messages from the EHR are accessed, retrieved, and processed into information. Potential data and information processing models are proposed.
    • Evaluating Gill Net Standardization and Electrofishing Boat Operation Techniques in Arizona Reservoirs

      Bonar, Scott A.; Grant, Joshua; Bogan, Michael; Reinthal, Peter (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      I conducted a paired-gear comparison study in large standing warmwater reservoirs in Arizona during fall 2020 and spring 2021 between Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD) standard gill net (Arizona net) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard gill net (AFS net). The Arizona net and AFS net share the same height, hanging ratio, and twine sizes but differ in length, number of panels, and panel bar-mesh sizes. Adopting a national standard gear like the AFS gill net would allow AZGFD to use a uniform net methodology across the state, give the ability to compare data with other states that use the AFS standards, and allow for larger scale analyses. In five large lakes (Alamo, Apache, Bartlett, Pleasant, and Roosevelt) I investigated how each net was different or similar with regards to species diversity, pick and pull times, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and length structure. I also set out to create conversion factors to allow AZGFD to convert data from the Arizona net to be compared with the AFS net. I found that the AFS net caught the same species as the Arizona net, however, the Arizona net caught three additional species than the AFS net. The AFS net averaged about six and a half minutes faster to pick and pull per net than the Arizona net. For CPUE, the AFS net was higher for some species while the Arizona net was higher for others. Overall the Arizona net CPUE was greater than the AFS net. In both cases, the difference in fish caught per net was often minimal. For length frequencies, each net caught the same length ranges but had some differences in proportions of fish sizes. Lastly, I successfully developed CPUE conversion factors, although, fit of the model differed by species. Fisheries managers should recognize that each net does have biases with regards to using one net over the other for management goals. Further paired-gear testing between Arizona and AFS gill nets will add useful information to reliably help AZGFD convert to the AFS standard.Coincidingly in the spring of 2021, I conducted a boat electrofishing study comparing three boat maneuvers and pedal operations for completing transect surveys. In the same five large reservoirs, I sampled using a continuous 600 s pedal-down transect parallel to shore (continuous parallel); an intermittent 10 s on 10 s off 600 s pedal-down transect parallel to shore (intermittent parallel); and 600 s pedal down transect with multiple arcs applying power only when incoming to shore/cover (arc intermittent) and compared their total time and distance per transect, CPUE of fish per hour and per m, and length frequencies. I found on average, continuous parallel took the least amount of time while arc intermittent took the least amount of distance to complete a 600 s pedal-down transect. For CPUE (fish/hr) there was evidence of differences for three species being higher in arc intermittent than in the other methods, which were similar, but no differences among any of the methods for five other species. For CPUE (fish/m) there was strong evidence for differences among multiple methods being higher than others for all species but two. Lastly, I found that each method caught the same size ranges of fish, however, some differences in proportions of sizes in some species were evident. Overall, each of the three electrofishing approaches tested should work well for documenting reservoir fish populations in general, but certain species and sizes may be best quantified using just one of the three approaches.
    • Exploring the Development and Persistence of the Eastern Puebloan Economy: Rio Grande Glaze Ware as a Window on Regional Interaction

      Mills, Barbara J.; Giomi, Evan; Eckert, Suzanne L.; Montgomery, Lindsay; Gosner, Kevin; Killick, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This dissertation uses multiple lines of ceramic evidence to examine continuity in the economic organization of Eastern Pueblo communities along the Rio Grande from the late pre-contact period (ca. A.D. 1300-1598) into the early period of Spanish colonialism (A.D. 1598-1680). One of the major decorated ceramic traditions of the Eastern Pueblo region, Rio Grande Glaze Ware, was in constant production from the early 14th century well into the Spanish Colonial Period. Production only ceased sometime after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The production and consumption of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels was heavily embedded in a regional network of relationships among Pueblo villages. As such, continuity in the production of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels under Spanish colonial rule suggests that the network of relationships in which glaze ware production was embedded likely also persisted. Using a combination of typological and archaeometric data, I employed social network analysis to both evaluate the development of a regional network of interaction surrounding Rio Grande Glaze Ware production and consumption and to evaluate the degree to which the structure of that network persisted into the early Spanish Colonial Period. The techniques of single layer network analysis were applied to evaluate change over time in the structure of regional interactions in the greater Southwest and northern Mexico, as revealed by patterns of ceramic consumption. From this analysis we identify the development of distinct regional patterns of interaction in the Western and Eastern Pueblo regions over the course of the 15th century. The results of new archaeometric testing—both petrographic analysis of rock temper and isotopic analysis of lead glaze paint—are also presented, helping to further refine existing understanding of material diversity within the broad category of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels. These results are particularly relevant in identifying a distinct pattern of lead ore use by potters at villages in the Lower Rio Grande region. Finally, I present a case-study evaluating the utility of multilayer network techniques in better understanding of the complexity of regional interaction in the project area and study period. Multilayer network techniques allow for a synthesis of typological data with the two different lines of archaeometric data collected for this project. Results of the multilayer analysis indicate that the structure of interaction among Pueblo villages remained largely unchanged from the 15th century into the early Spanish Colonial Period. Results indicate that Pueblo people found a way to maintain a regional system of interaction despite the impact of Spanish colonial appropriation of Pueblo labor.
    • The New Absurdists: Elements of the Absurd in New Russian Drama

      Lucey, Colleen; Bedoy, Andrew Martin; Leafgren, John; Jens, Ben (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This thesis examines the importance of the absurd in Russia's New Drama movement. Three different plays are analyzed: Russian National Postal Service (1998) by Oleg Bogaev, Vodka, Fucking, and Television (2006) by Maksim Kurochkin, and Man from Podolsk (2017) by Dimitrii Danilov. Each work is used to examine a different aspect of the absurd in the Russian context. Using these plays, which are some of the more prominent works of New Drama, the thesis demonstrates how the socio-political circumstances affected playwriting in the post-Soviet period. The goal is to show how upheaval, confusion, and changing circumstances bore out in the theater scene through a push towards Absurdism in playwriting. The three plays are analyzed through in-depth close reading that connects New Drama to the Theater of the Absurd and Albert Camus' philosophical writings. Ultimately, the thesis shows that what ties New Drama together is not an overemphasis on documentary style (as many scholars have argued), but a distinct reworking of Absurdism to express Russian reality.
    • Urbanization and Grazing Impact on Mesquite Phyllosphere and Soil Microbial Communities

      Barberán, Albert; Cleavenger, Sydney Paige; Blankinship, Joseph; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Dryland degradation driven by human activities, particularly associated with urban and grazing land use types, has been shown to result in an overall loss of biodiversity above and below the soil surface. The modification of microbial community dynamics by these degrading processes can result in ecosystem changes that could potentially lead to the proliferation of invasive species, changes in biogeochemical cycling, and injury soil and plant health. This study attempts to investigate the impacts of urban and grazing land use types on the soil and phyllosphere microbiome associated with velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina). The goal of this research was to analyze differences in the above and belowground microbiomes that are specific to urban or grazing land use types to potentially identify microbial trends associated with land degrading processes. Soil and phyllosphere samples were collected from three land use types including natural, urban, and grazing (light and heavy pressures). Soil bacterial/archaeal communities did not demonstrate significant differences across locations, but soil fungal richness and diversity was significantly lower in urban locations. However, urban phyllosphere exhibited greater average microbial richness and Shannon diversity than natural or grazing locations. Heavy grazing pressure resulted in lower soil fungal diversity, but fungal richness was not significantly different between grazing pressures. Inferred microbial functional group proportions showed that urban soils had the lowest average proportion of nitrogen fixers and cellulolytic microorganisms, but the greatest average proportion of fungal plant pathogens. Light grazing pressure exhibited a significantly greater proportion of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The phyllosphere of urban locations had the greatest average proportion of nitrogen fixers and locations with heavy grazing pressure demonstrated the greatest proportion of phyllosphere fungal plant pathogens and cellulolytic microorganisms.