• Neural Network Algorithms for Ontology Informed Information Extraction

      Bethard, Steven; Xu, Dongfang; Cui, Hong; Surdeanu, Mihai; Miller, Timothy (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Ontology, as a formal and explicit specification of a shared conceptualization for a particular domain, is useful in information extraction. On the one hand, since information extraction is concerned with retrieving information for a particular domain, formally and explicitly specifying the concepts of that domain through an ontology defines the boundary of what information needs to be extracted. On the other hand, an ontology, typically consisting of classes (or concepts), attributes (or properties), and relationships (or relations among class members), contains the structured information that information extraction systems aim to extract. In this thesis, we are interested in how using an ontology can improve the information extraction process. We explore two research directions that both employ ontologies in the information extraction process, temporal normalization and biomedical concept normalization. In both research directions, we show that leveraging resources in ontologies helps to build high-performance information extraction systems, and presenting the extracted output using such ontologies makes the structured information concise and interchangeable.
    • Data Assimilation and Applications in Forecasting

      Morzfeld, Matthias; Harty, Travis Michael; Snyder, Chris; Venkataramani, Shankar C.; Arellano, Avelino F. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The work presented here spans two projects which are connected by data assimilationand specifically the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The first explores how spatial localization, an important method commonly used in the EnKF, can be extended to multiscale problems. Rather than using a single length scale when localizing, we construct a localized covariance matrix through the estimation of eigenvectors. Specifically, we estimate the leading large-scale eigenvectors from a sample covari- ance matrix calculated from a spatially smoothed ensemble with spatial localization applied with a long localization distance. We then create projection matrices from these eigenvectors which allows us to calculate the space orthogonal to these initial large scales. This process can then be repeated for multiple scales if required. We present numerical experiments using this localization method using both simplified examples in which the correct covariance matrix is known and cycling experiments with the Lorenz Model III. The second project explores an application of the EnKF. We use the EnKF as part of a system to forecast cloud cover. Cloud cover forecasts are useful when forecasting solar power generation because clouds are the primary driver of reducing irradiance and therefore solar power generation. Our method uses satellite images, optical flow, and numerical weather prediction (NWP) in conjunction with an EnKF to estimate cloud motion vectors (CMVs) which are then used to advect cloud index (CI) fields using a 2-D advection scheme. This system produces an ensemble forecast which can be used to produce deterministic forecasts. We explore the effectiveness of these forecasts over Tucson, AZ.
    • Sensing and Arresting Corrosion of Haynes 230 Alloy in Molten Chloride Salts at 800°C

      Gervasio, Dominic; Sasaran, Vlad; Farrell, James; Guzman, Roberto (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The corrosion of metal in molten chloride salt is studied and lowered using a power supply. A particular emphasis is on the ternary eutectic sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride (MgCl2-KCl-NaCl) salt with a melting point of 387°C, because it is the high temperature heat transfer fluid of choice in electrical power generators and Haynes 230 alloy (H230), because H230 is a ductile metal which retains its strength at high temperatures (800oC). A potential negative of the open circuit potential of H230 metal alloy in ternary eutectic MgCl2-KCl-NaCl is applied, the cathodic potential generates a negative (cathodic) current for the reduction any oxidants, such as metal ions, oxygen and water, in the molten salt. The magnitude of the cathodic current is a signal of the level of oxidants present in the salt. Applying the cathodic potential also arrests ionization of metal, that is, corrosion of the metal. The increasing level of oxidant impurities, (particularly water) in the molten chloride salts causes the open circuit potential (OCP) of H230 versus a silver and silver chloride reference electrode (SSE) to shift positive, which gives a warning that the molten chloride salt heat transfer fluid is corrosive to metal. The OCP is crudely measured by direct readings of H230 and SSE with a voltmeter and refined by potentiodynamic scans of current versus potential of H230 versus SSE, where the H230 potential is scanned 30 millivolts starting negative of to positive of the OCP found with the voltmeter. A linear rate equation, called the Stern-Geary method is used to find corrosion potentials and estimate corrosion rates (CR) of H230 alloy in molten salt at various relative humidity (RH) of Argon atmospheres equilibrated with the molten salt. In oxidant free ternary MgCl2-KCl-NaCl eutectic molten salt, the OCP of H230 vs SSE is -866±24 [mV] and CR of 85±9 [micron/year]. In ternary eutectic molten salt equilibrated with a 40% RH Argon flow the OCP of H230 vs SSE is -363±1 [mV] and CR of 4670±780 [micron/year]. When a negative potential, of -200mV from OCP in anaerobic salt, is applied to a H230 working electrode in eutectic molten salt at 800oC and 100% RH Argon flow is flowed over salt for 20h, it was found that this H230 working electrode (WE) was cathodically protected, because the WE (cathode) lost only 0.0552g while the counter H230 electrode (CE), a “sacrificial” anode, lost 0.4513g. This gives a preliminary assessment a cathodic potential is effective for arresting corrosion of H230 metal in oxidant-contaminated salt at temperatures up to 800oC.
    • Eddavidite, a New Mineral Species, and the Murdochite (Cu12Pb2O15Cl2)-Eddavidite (Cu12Pb2O15Br2) Series

      Downs, Robert T.; Rosenblatt, Melli; Holliday, Vance; Thirumalai, Kaustubh (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Eddavidite is a new mineral species (IMA2018-010) with ideal formula Cu12Pb2O15Br2. It has cubic Fm3m symmetry; a = 9.2407(9) Å; V = 789.1(2) Å3; Z = 2. Eddavidite is the bromide analog of murdochite, with which it forms a solid solution series. The type locality is the Southwest mine, Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.A. Eddavidite also occurs in the Ojuela mine, Mapimí, Durango, Mexico. Eddavidite forms zones within mixed murdochite-eddavidite crystals. Spot analyses of Bisbee samples show up to 67% eddavidite component while Ojuela samples show up to 62%. Eddavidite-murdochite crystals show forms {100} and {111}; the habit grades from simple cubic through cuboctahedral to unmodified octahedral. Eddavidite is black and opaque with submetallic luster, and visually indistinguishable from intergrown murdochite. Its Mohs’ hardness is 4. Eddavidite exhibits good cleavage on {111}. The empirical formula, normalized to 12 Cu apfu is Cu12(Pb1.92Fe0.06Si0.06) (O15.08F0.02) (Br0.99Cl0.89•0.12). dcalc. = 6.33 g/cm3. dmeas. = 6.45 g/cm3. The crystal structure consists of corner sharing square planar CuO4 units, arranged in Cu12O24 metal oxide clusters, which encapsulate Br atoms. PbO8 cubes share edges with Cu12O24 clusters in a continuous framework. Eddavidite is one of only 10 mineral species with essential Br. Eddavidite crystallizes from bromine enriched fluids leftover from desiccation of paleo-seawater at its two known localities.
    • Modernizing Conquest

      Waterstone, Marv; Banister, Jeff; Kinnison, Jedediah; Williams Jr., Robert A.; Perez, Emma; Oglesby, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      My research leads me to the conclusion the international human rights system's separation of the “indigenous problem” from the “colonial problem” is important. It is important to the way in we understand indigenous rights today, and it is important in terms of the ways in which we understand this fundamentally statist system. First, we must first ask in what sense and to whom these "problems" are problems requiring resolution. In theory, the UN system is established to safeguard the basic rights of all peoples to a dignified existence. And yet, to believe that this represents the UN founders’ intentions for the new system would be tantamount to believing that America’s founders intended to protect the equal rights of Black peoples when they drafted Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3—the three fifths clause—of the US Constitution. The issues are further clarified if we ask why the UN posed and then bifurcated the questions of what to do with: (1) colonized peoples, and (2) Indigenous peoples. The world system continues to deem it necessary to push the discussion of the multitude of problems presented by European colonization along two discrete tracks, with neither track on course to reach any destination. As the leaders of the euro-derivative world order strive to convince everyone that they have put an end to the colonial destruction of every Indigenous culture on the planet, a primary strategy is to bifurcate the problem of European overseas colonialism and to treat both of the resulting halves of discussion as if the other half never existed.  This division permits the United Nations (UN) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to engage in discourse regarding Indigenous peoples that are so misrepresentative that they would qualify as farce if the actual problems were not so tragic.  It also facilitates revolutions in social consciousness, producing gaps in social memory that are filled by new narratives celebrating the new tragedies in the making, those posed by hyper-individualism-based market logics and deculturation through statist democracy building and large-scale structural integration programs.  Indigenous societies remain under attack, and post-colonialism perpetuates the status quo of colonial territoriality and neocolonial economic dependency.  The international system and its discourse plays an important role in this perpetuation. The "new" mode of thought and material production that emerged in the prelude to the “decolonization era” puts all life on an omnicidal track.
    • Lithospheric Structure of the Ecuadorian Orogenic System and Event Location using the Seismoacoustic Wave Field

      Beck, Susan; Johnson, Roy; Koch, Clinton; Kapp, Paul; Richardson, Randall (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Seismologists use the seismic wavefield to image the Earth’s structure at a wide range of scales, from a few meters to 1000s of km. Sources (earthquakes, explosions, etc.) of seismic waves can also be located and distinguished using the seismic wavefield. In this dissertation, I utilize both of these aspects of seismology. The major part of this dissertation focuses on the use of naturally occurring seismic sources (earthquakes) to elucidate the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Ecuadorian orogenic system (Appendices A-C). In the final section, I explore the seismic location problem by combining seismic and infrasound phenomena in a Bayesian framework (Appendix D). Ecuador, the focus of the first three studies, is a complex tectonic region spanning several tectonic provinces. Offshore, the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American plate creating major stresses that build up and result in megathrust earthquakes along the boundary between the two plates. Following a magnitude 7.8 earthquake offshore Pedernales, Ecuador in 2016, seismic instruments were deployed to study the seismicity and tectonics of the region. This collaboration between US institutions (University of Arizona and Lehigh University) and the Instituto Geofísico at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador also opened up a wealth of data from the Ecuadorian permanent seismic network which enabled a higher resolution study of the arc region. Appendix A presents a detailed study of the tectonics of the forearc region and the relationship with the megathrust behavior. The results indicate that the complex accretionary history of Ecuador resulted in a forearc that exhibits significant variations in the seismic velocities along the strike of the trench. These variations appear to align with the style and behavior of the seismicity in the region, suggesting that the structure of the upper plate may play an important role in controlling megathrust behavior. Appendix B shifts the focus towards the Andean region and the active volcanic arc. The Ecuadorian Andes contain a broad (~150 km wide), active, arc that extends from the Western Cordillera into the Subandean zone. Here, a map of crustal thickness beneath the Ecuadorian Andes is presented, which shows that it is largely in isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Observed low-velocity regions are beneath several active volcanoes are interpreted as regions of long-term magma storage, consistent with crystal mush zones. To connect the arc and forearc, earthquake-generated surface waves and the Automated Surface Wave Phase Velocity Measuring System are used to measure phase velocities in Ecuador. Appendix C reports on the results of this method. Periods between 25-50 seconds show good coverage across the array and image a faster forearc region and a slower arc region, likely reflecting a thicker crust in the arc region. At periods ≥ 60 seconds coverage is limited to the arc region where a longer period of data was available. These results serve to extend the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise deeper and begin to offer constraints on the upper mantle beneath Ecuador. As more data and more stations are deployed in Ecuador it may be beneficial to revisit this analysis at a later time. In the final Appendix, the focus shifts from lithospheric structure to explore the event location problem. Here, we combine seismic and infrasound observations for locating a seismoacoustic event. A Bayesian framework is developed to better estimate the uncertainty associated with the location. This new method is tested on data from a surface explosion from the Bingham mine in Utah and shows that combining the two phenomena can improve the location beyond what either method can obtain individually.
    • Using Big-Data to Develop Catchment-Scale Hydrological Models for Chile

      Gupta, Hoshin V.; De la Fuente, Luis Andrés; Condon, Laura E.; Ferré, Paul Ty (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Streamflow prediction is very important to the economic and human development of a country. For example, it is used in the quantification and distribution of the water resource, and in the design of new hydraulic infrastructure, risk quantification, rapid response to mitigate flooding, etc. For this reason, learning how to improve our estimation of streamflow must be one of the aspirations of any surface hydrologist. Chile has an extensive stream gauge network, which is part of the new CAMELS-CL database. This database also includes data about several static attributes for each of the 516 catchments represented within it, which provides us with a valuable database that can be used to develop process-based and data-based models with the ultimate goal of implementing a national hydrological model.Recent studies have shown that Machine Learning (ML) can provide better predictive performance than traditional process-based (PB) models. In hydrology, Kratzert et al. (2019), Nearing et al. (2020a), and others have reported similar results when comparing an ML-based model with the extensively studied and calibrated SAC-SMA and other benchmark models over the USA. This finding creates the opportunity to bridge the gap between ML-based and PB models by transferring insights gained via the process of developing a ML model into improvements of the PB model(s). With this in mind, we implemented the GR4J process-based catchment model as a baseline, and two ML-based models, Random Forest (RF) decision tree approach, and the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) dynamic state variable approach, on 322 selected Chilean catchments. The three models were compared in detail to examine their strengths and weakness, and to determine the best candidate for a national model. Our results showed that none of the three models performed “best” across the entire country, and all of them had problems in the north of Chile, indicating that additional informative attributes and variables must be incorporated into the database. Furthermore, the models showed complementary performance abilities, which opens the opportunity to develop an ensemble of the three or more models in the future to merge their respective strengths. Overall, the model performance results were found to be related to the meteorological forcings, but also with certain climatic conditions such as aridity, which emerges as an important variable to characterize the behaviors of different catchments.
    • Testing the Intrinsic Benefit Model of the Signaling Theory

      Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Okada, Sosuke; Breiger, Ronald; Kugler, Tamar (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This study proposes the intrinsic benefit model of the signaling theory for sociology. The signaling theory is a subtheory of the game theory. It was developed independently within Evolutionary Biology and Economics, and it is concerned with the communications under the situations with asymmetrical information. Although the signaling theory have been widely adapted across social science, its influence within Sociology has been limited so far. This study proposes the argument that the signaling theory can achieve the increased relevance within Sociology by focusing on the role of (perceived) intrinsic benefit obtained from the signal production. The focus on the intrinsic benefit would allow the signaling theory to be applied on the broader range of phenomena which are of sociological interests, while at the same time analytically integrating additional social and symbolic contexts of the signals. Based on this argument, the propositions were developed about the role of the signal visibility and the intentionality of the signal. The three experiments were conducted to test the propositions. The two vignette experiments were conducted to test the effect of signal visibility on the signaling of environmental commitment through the purchases of electronic vehicles. A laboratory experiments was conducted to test the effect of the intentionality of the signal on the signaling of trustworthiness through donations. The first experiment gave the strong support to the propositions, whereas the second and the third experiment produced the mixed results. The author suggests that the overall findings are consistent with the main argument underlying the intrinsic benefit model.
    • Beyond Goodbye: Daily Emotion Regulation from Network Members and from Thoughts of Deceased Loved Ones

      O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Butler, Emily; Greenberg, Jeff; Mehl, Matthias; Sbarra, David (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Background: The present daily diary study tested the ERROSS model (Stelzer & O'Connor, under review), examining whether conjugally bereaved individuals benefit from a diverse repertoire of social interaction partners and daily emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Beyond living supportive others, the study investigated associations between daily ER from thoughts of the deceased loved one and mental health, and the potential role of attachment moderators.Method: Participants were 156 community-dwelling adults (86% females) who experienced the death of a spouse or romantic partner up to five years prior. In a structured two-week long daily-diary, participants listed their daily interaction partners and the ER strategies provided by them as well as their daily mental wellbeing and grief. In addition, participants reported on their mental interactions with their deceased spouse and described the felt ER evoked by those interactions. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses found that at the within-person level, daily repertoire was positively related to positive affect, and daily network size was negatively related to life satisfaction. At the between-person level, greater averaged repertoire and network size were positively associated with mental wellbeing (i.e., greater positive affect and life satisfaction, lower negative affect). For ER from the deceased, ER strategies from the deceased were associated with increased negative affect on a daily level, but positively associated with positive affect and life satisfaction on the between-person level. No significant mental health associations emerged for daily grief. Conclusion: These results provide the first evidence of the ERROSS model in a naturalistic setting, and highlight the benefits or a diverse repertoire of ER during the transition to widowhood.
    • Transitions from Jail in the Rural Community for Adults with Mental Illness

      McEwen, Marylyn; Langley, Carrie Ann; Kahn-John, Michelle; Rainbow, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1.) to address the gap in our understanding of the factors that facilitate the use of community-based transitional support services post-release from jail when transitioning into the rural community for adults with mental illness and 2.) to address the gap in our understanding of the factors that inhibit the use of community-based transitional support services post-release from jail when transitioning into the rural community for adults with mental illness and 3.) to determine the acceptability of a biological sample to measure interlukin-6 (IL-6) for future research. Annually, nearly one million people are incarcerated in jails throughout the United States, with over 80% of them experiencing a mental illness. Rural communities have greater rates of disease burden and fewer community-based resources. These factors combined with the lack of mandated jail-to-community transition programs complicate the transitional experience for individuals living with mental illness. The transitional period, from jail to the community is filled with competing demands and can cause stress and anxiety. Acute stress has been associated with inflammation. This population often expresses resistance in providing biological samples, so aim three will allow for planning for future research involving biological specimen collection. This qualitative descriptive study provided a rich account of the inhibitors and facilitators experienced among individuals transitioning from the rural jail to the rural community while experiencing mental illness. Meleis’ Transitions Theory provided the conceptual underpinnings for this study. Data sources included interviews, a demographic data questionnaire and field notes. Data analysis was developed through qualitative content analysis through open coding, which allowed the researcher to build concepts and categories, forming themes. This iterative approach allowed for the grouping of similar codes and clusters. The results of this study illuminated several points. “Out of Jail but No Freedom” established the overarching theme for this study in which the facilitators and inhibitors of situational and health-illness transitions for adults with mental illness transitioning to the rural community is described. This research is significant for nursing practice and policy reform. Systematic reform is needed within jail medical operations, clinical models of community provided care, within policy that guides healthcare funding and delivery models, as well as court services. Mandated policies, unfunded and directed to be financially supported by communities further perpetuate disparities and social determinates of health, significantly impacting our most rural and socioeconomically depressed locations. This study illuminates the need for systematic reform within our medical divisions of rurally located jails as well as within public policy that guides healthcare funding and clinical models of care. It has become evident from this research the transition from jail is largely shaped by the experience while incarcerated. Individuals who experience jail incarceration have a right to evidenced-based standards of care, and transition programs to assist them back into the community.
    • Language Usage of Stress-Induced Individuals

      Killgore, William; Ventola, Gabrielle (The University of Arizona., 2020-08)
      Social stress manifest as both physiological effecs (such as sweating or increasing one's heart rate), and psychological effects (like anxiety and depression) (Newman 2003, Thayer et al., 2011). One manifestation of stress that curiously provides an insight into both the physiological and psychological impacts upon an individual is the way that one chooses words to use. The primary objectives of the Stress Study are to determine the relationship between personality factors and emotional state characteristics under stress. This study proposes that language usage and emotional state determinants are identifying factors that predict performance under stress. We hypothesize that those participants who use less emotionally driven language should have decreased cortisol levels to baseline. Conversely, those who use more emotionally driven language should have increased cortisol levels to baseline, thereby showing that language usage can identify factors of stress resilience or vulnerability in given individuals. The data collected did not prove statistically significant, however, three underlying trends arose. 1. We observed an increase in cortisol levels at initial collecting of saliva and after the modified Trier Social Stress Test, but not during the post-stress reminder time period, which creates an interesting notion that the participants were more stressed when initially entering the testing site and once the speech was concluded. 2. The simple scatterplots conveyed that specific LIWC word choice may be used as a way of a coping mechanism to decrease stress level 3. The results of the ANCOVA's and simple linear regression models suggested that with a more in-depth statistical analysis word choice can be indicative of one's resiliency to stress. Collectively, these findings indicate that word choice and language usage could be an identifying factor to determine if someone is resilient or not resilient to stress. These results have the potential to be used in future studies that can perform on a higher level of statistical analysis and compare a variety of factors that are not just limited to word choice.

      Muñoz, Manuel; Rush-Miller, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2020-07)
      This excerpt, from a book length project, follows the lives of four families, beginning in the late 1990s, as the fathers/husbands slowly become addicted to the opioids Oxychotin and Oxycodone prescribed by their doctors for chronic pain. These stories coincide with the over-prescribing of opioids on a national level initiated by the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma. As other companies follow suit, a national epidemic ensues manifesting in over half a million deaths due to the overdose of pain-killers and heroin. This excerpt is told in the first person through the experiences of myself and the three other mothers/wives as we attempted to contain the slow decline of our spouses and their physical and mental health--loss of careers, marriages, and in one case, life, is the final outcome as these insidious drugs take over. Interviews of the eight children, friends, physicians, and addiction counselors are also utilized. Combined with additional research, areas such as: pain, suicide, self-harm, addiction, healing, the medical community, politics, and the history of opium are covered within this body of work.

      DiCindio, Carissa; Byrd, Kayah (The University of Arizona., 2020-06)
      Many western avant-garde movements have outwardly criticized the commercialism of the art market and held disdain for the large role that collectors played. Yet with many modes of resilience, almost all of these movements have been enfolded into collections and museums, even contemporary works which clearly critique the exorbitant prices at auctions and galleries and those who purchase them. Considering this phenomenon, I explore the reasons so many artistic movements fail in eschewing the commercial sector and use the expertise of economists and historians studying the contemporary art market as to what artistic practices might succeed. I posit that it is a true subversion of authorship, or rather anonymity which is key to subverting commodification. The conception of authorship within the paper is informed by Foucault’s ​What is an Author?​, looking at the ways in which authorship influences the contextualization of an artist's work and the discord it surrounds. I use Atelier Populaire, a poster workshop and artistic collective active during the revolts of 1968, as a case study to examine my theories of anonymity as an effective practice to critique and avoid the embrace of the art market. Paris during the 1960s was a wellspring of philosophy, literature, and fine art that questioned the predominant role of authorship within their field. Atelier Populaire expanded on the practices of their predecessors and embraced anonymity within their work. They utilized three crucial tactics which allowed their work to circumvent the monetization. These methods were anonymity through collectivity, anonymity of intellectual labor, and anonymity by lack of proper authentication.

      Koshy, Anita; Kumar, Sakthi (The University of Arizona., 2020-06)
      Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular parasite that infects the central nervous system (CNS) in up to one third of the human population. T. gondii persistence in the CNS is thought to be due in part to an inability of neurons to clear intracellular parasites. In this project, I have studied the mechanisms by which neurons are able to clear T. gondii and whether they are able to do so in vivo. Using a novel reporter system, we have determined that neurons are capable of clearing parasites in aninterferon-γ (IFN-γ) dependent manner. Furthermore, our results suggest that neurons can clear parasites in vitro through the activation of a set of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulated immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) known to be involved in the clearance of the parasite in other cell types. Additionally,we have tested this reporter system in a model of infection allowing us to establish whether neurons clear parasites in vivo.

      Rosales, Cecilia; Camps, Kelsey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Promotoras Rompiendo Cadenas isa program that exists at the Youth Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) which is a nonprofit in the local area of Tucson. This program is a training for becoming and responding as a promoter. A promotora provides health education and assistance in the Hispanic/Latinx community through compassion and a will to help others. It was recognized that there needed be more of a focus on sensitivity to trauma when these women work with individuals or families. To begin, more knowledge of the areas of trauma that are most prevalent in this demographic of Tucson needed to be sought out. The development of a survey was the start to investigating what particular topics of trauma might go unnoticed or are stigmatized. A focus group was conducted which allowed for further evaluation of possible adversities that needed to be addressed as well. Upon review of the survey data of 22 participants and the collective focus group responses, a curriculum was then structured. Curriculum topics for two workshops were presented to four interviewers whose background ranged from a psychologist, a counselor, and two current promotoras. Suggestions were implemented and the drafting process of the deliverables began. Curriculum for five, three hour, culturally tailored trauma sensitivity trainings have been developed. However, I have chosen to only include my three most valued workshops. These workshops focus on emotional evaluation, trauma over the course of a lifetime, and empathy and compassion. The final two workshops focus on suicide prevention and mental health, which was an area of need expressed through surveyed data, along with practical role playing to prepare for outreach in the community. The goal of this curriculumis to provide an extended education about how to support those who have endured trauma in their life through additional workshops incorporated into the original Promotora Rompiendo Cadenas program.

      Cohen, Zoë; Caryl, Natalie (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Biologics, the cutting-edge drugs that bombard your commercial breaks, comprised seven of the ten top-selling drugs in 2018, raking in $125 billion dollars for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. With such a significant amount of money to be made, many important details regarding the history and development of biologics are not widely emphasized. As first-generation biologics continue to be used today, second-generation biologics build on these principles to create drugs that treat some of the most widespread diseases in society. In addition, the pharmacological success of current biologic treatments for some of the most difficult diseases to treat, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and hepatitis C, point towards the biologic drug’s innovative mechanisms of action that employ immunological techniques to target the source of these diseases. With so much success in recent years, the production of biosimilars aim to cut into these profits and decrease the cost of biologics. These biosimilars are not without their own challenges, as they face scientific and legal hurdles during development and testing. This thesis examines the past, present, and future of biologics and biosimilars, with a focus on the immunological principles that have allowed for the rapid success of these unique drugs.

      Maves Braithwaite, Jessica; DeMers, Tyler (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      This paper will conduct a review of the field of transitional justice, with a focus on reviewing trial mechanisms at the local, national, and international levels in Rwanda, as well as in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This thesis seeks to understand if authoritarianism is linked to certain transitional justice mechanisms, specifically trial mechanisms. First, a literature review is conducted that reviews the academic literature of the field of transitional justice, trial mechanisms, and authoritarianism as well as relevant UN resolutions and publications, and international law and human rights civil society organizations publications. Then, an empirical evaluation will be conducted that examines the relationship between transitional justice mechanisms, and the level of authoritarianism and rule of law within states, as measured by the Polyarchy and Rule of Law Indices from Coppedge et.al (2019) Varieties of Democracy Dataset and the Binningsbø et al (2012) Post Conflict Justice Dataset.. This will then be compared between states in the trial mechanism group that underwent similar trial mechanisms, as well as between those states and Rwanda. The results of this thesis did not support two out of three hypotheses, specifically that domestic trial mechanisms lead to increased authoritarianism and that hybrid trial mechanisms lead to decreased authoritarianism. One hypothesis was upheld by the results of this thesis, that international trial mechanisms nave no discernable effect on the Rule of Law or Polyarchy indices for countries.
    • The Role of Prebiotics on Nutrient Sensing and Metabolic Homeostasis in the Small Intestine

      Duca, Frank; Berthiaume, Kayleigh (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes are a significant health and financial burden for many countries, particularly the United States, highlighting a need for successful treatment options. Therapeutic efforts to treat metabolic diseases are beginning to target the communities of bacteria residing in the gastrointestinal tract, coined the gut microbiota. The treatment of the gut microbiome with prebiotics like oligofructose (OFS) has demonstrated beneficial effects like reduced body weight, adiposity and even alleviating hallmark symptoms of T2D like insulin resistance. Previous OFS studies have observed an increase in secretion of gut peptides from enteroendocrine cells (EEC). Interestingly, it has been proposed that gut peptides can regulate glucose homeostasis, partly via a reduction of hepatic glucose production through a neuronal gut-brain-liver axis which is regulated by the small intestinal gut microbiota. In this study, we observe that altering the microbiome of high-fat (HF)-fed rodents via OFS treatment restores small intestinal nutrient-sensing mechanisms, which could lead to the improvements in glucose homeostasis. We observed that expression of nutrient sensor, CD36, in the jejunum of the small intestine was significantly decreased after high fat-feeding and restored with OFS treatment. Similarly, we observed an increase in GLP-1 release in the hepatic portal vein and increased c-FOS expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and area postrema (AP) of the hindbrain of prebiotic-treated HFD rats. Lastly, we observed an increase in c-FOS expression in the NTS and AP of the hindbrain of HFD-fed rats swapped with the microbiota of a prebiotic-treated HFD rat compared to the prebiotic-treated rat swapped with HFD-fed microbiota. Collectively, these results demonstrate the implications of HFD and the benefits of prebiotic treatment on the gut microbiota, small intestinal nutrient sensing, and metabolic homeostasis.

      Baliani, Patrick; Cannon, Marisa (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), are therapies that can aid in the symptoms and emotional distress associated with breast cancer. The integrative health of the patient is explored through the following question - “How might CAM therapies, specifically yoga, massage therapy and Chinese medicine, collectively contribute to the psychology of healing in breast cancer patients?”. Breast cancer patients and survivors have constant emotional distress and physical problems with their diagnosis and subsequent treatment (Kacel et al. 2019). Yoga and meditation have been shown to have anti-depressive effects (Rao 2019), decrease IL-6 and salivary cortisol levels (Lengacher et al. 2019), and provide the ability to enhance acceptance of emotions (Henderson et al. 2012). Chinese Medicine has varying effects on breast cancer treatments symptoms such as: alleviating hot flushes and insomnia, reduce the risk of endometrial cancer induced by tamoxifen, and improve bone loss (Wang et al. 2019). Massage therapy techniques are helpful in aiding the physical toll of cancer. Swedish massage therapy (SMT) showed clinically significant relief of cancer related fatigue (CRF) (Kinkead 2017) and Classical massage may decrease the side effects of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy from paclitaxel (Izgu et al. 2019). Through these CAM therapies, by treating the patient as a whole and being dedicated to their health in an all-encompassing approach, patients can achieve their new-found definition of health throughout their cancer journey.

      Hoffman, Daniel; Bryant, Bianca (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The continuous growth of Mexico City has made the city a vibrant, complex, and unstable place. As infrastructure becomes stressed, it is important to realize designs that respond to the needs of both the people and the environment. In the case of Mexico City’s Centro Histórico, the three main areas of interest are addressing water concerns, providing affordable housing, and preserving historical site significance. Each of these factors contribute directly to the conceptual design of the proposed project. Vecindad Viva is a mixed-use residential project that focuses on revitalizing Mexico City’s historic network by providing a commercial ground floor with various amenities to bring people into the site. The three upper stories contain residential cohousing elements that provide much needed affordable housing to the area while also encouraging the traditional close-knit relationships commonly found in Mexican households. The structure evolves the form of the typical Mexican vecindad, or “neighborhood,” typology by providing dynamic stacked courtyard spaces. Lastly, the materials and the outdoor plaza address environmental issues such as water scarcity, flooding, and pollution through methods of water collection and carbon sequestration.