Miller, Deretha Sharon. (The University of Arizona., 1992)
Increasing demand coupled with declining resources make it impossible for community colleges to realize their comprehensive mission without employing part-time faculty. This study examined the impact of the part-time faculty upon the mission of the community college by interviewing board members, administrators, national experts, and by surveying full-time and part-time faculty. Empirical data were gathered regarding load and student credit hours generated in each mission function by part-time and full-time faculty. Financial allocations associated with salary were reviewed. Responses from those interviewed were determined to be imbedded in four themes: position within the organization, the concept of "appropriateness," mission support activities other than teaching, and the personal goals of faculty. Experts, board members and administrators indicated that the use of part-time faculty was more acceptable in some mission functions than in others. They endorsed the use of part-timers in the community/continuing education and occupational/career functions but they had strong reservations about their use in the transfer function. They indicated that while part-timers had limited impact on the counseling/guidance function they had strong impact on the remedial/developmental, occupational/career, and community/ continuing education functions. Intergroup faculty responses were more divergent. For all mission functions, the full-timers indicated that part-timers had less impact than part-timers indicated for themselves. Based on direct instruction, the empirical data evidenced that the impact of part-time faculty varied with the mission function. Ranked from least to greatest part-time faculty impact, the mission functions were: counseling/guidance; community-continuing education; general education; academic transfer; occupational/career; and, most heavily impacted, remedial/developmental. Financial data affirmed that the use of part-time faculty had saved millions of dollars and that it costs two-and-one-half times as much for a full-timer to generate one credit hour of instruction as it does for a part-timer. Full-time and part-time faculty did not differ greatly in their goals for teaching students. However, full-timers placed higher intrinsic value on participation in collegial activities than did part-timers.
Glasper, Rufus. (The University of Arizona., 1995)
This study examines trends in national and State of Arizona college and university administrative expenditures, in particular expenditure shares for administration versus those for instruction, public service, and research. Separate case studies for the Arizona Community Colleges and the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD) provide data to explore administrative expenditure trends in some detail in the state community college system and in one type of institution. The results are intended to increase understanding of higher education administrative expenditure patterns in the United States. Toward this goal, possible explanations for rising administrative costs are assessed using one theoretical framework, Organizational Complexity, and one mechanism, Organizational Distance and Budgetary Authority. A single research question with four sub-questions compares the community college expenditure patterns, over time, to those of four-year colleges and universities. An additional research question with two sub-questions examines data by functional category in order to identify how and why disproportionate changes in expenditure patterns occur.
Jamison, Alton L. (The University of Arizona., 1993)
This study examined the college student experience from a student perspective. The conceptual framework of Strauss' negotiated order was used to examine the relationship between structure and process in organizational settings. The ways in which students linked their immediate and larger social worlds were examined as an element in the adjustive processes of the organization. The data consisted of time activity reports, unstructured interviews, and a shadowing experience with a small sample of middle-class Mexican-American students at the University of Arizona. Content analysis of the data was conducted across three dimensions of "Making It On Campus"; Making the Grade, Making It With Others, and Making Money. Findings indicated that students perceived their experience from a generalized goal of becoming "On Your Own." Student coping strategies across the three areas of Making It became shared patterns of activities centered around attempts to organize their world, assert some control, and develop independence and autonomy.
McClung, Samuel Alan. (The University of Arizona., 1993)
The purpose of this study was to describe the views of peer evaluators within a career ladder system in one school district in the Southwestern United States. The methods and data analysis used 3 parts of a theoretical framework developed by Lortie (1975): goals sought in the workplace (perspectives on purpose), effective teaching (and the effects of endemic uncertainties of teaching to effectiveness), and preferences in job tasks (logic of sentiments). Eleven peer evaluators were interviewed. The data from the interviews were qualitatively analyzed and presented. Among the findings, peer evaluators' perspectives on purpose included goals to gain experience for leaving the classroom. Peer evaluators' endemic uncertainties included the assessment of teaching and the description of an effective teacher. Within peer evaluators' logic of sentiments, they preferred to observe students and work with teachers. Peer evaluators disliked determining the compensation of teachers. Within their logic of sentiments, peer evaluators viewed teachers as a well-qualified group willing to continue their own professional growth. Peer evaluators found their relationship with teachers constrained because of their roles of assisting teachers in their professional growth and summatively assessing teachers. Implications of this study include the need for further study to describe the views of teachers involved in differentiated staffing in career ladder programs. Additionally, further study is needed to determine the relationship of the views of teachers within a career ladder program to the success of the policies and activities of these programs.
Philpott, Rodger Frank. (The University of Arizona., 1994)
The emergence of the global economy has forced the Australian government to revise economic strategies and to seek institutional changes. Higher education's new roles in research and human resource development, have been manifested in university commercialization activities. Mindful that Universities are prestige rather than profit maximizers, this study applies Schumpeter's (1942) theoretical model for the survival of a firm under financial stress. The model's responses, extended to education by Leslie and Miller (1973), include new products, new markets, restructuring, increased productivity and new supply factors. University entrepreneurial activities have monetary and non-monetary impacts. The non-monetary costs and benefits of Australian university enterprise were studied by Leslie (1992) and Leslie and Harrold (1993). In this study, academics at Curtin University of Technology (Perth, Western Australia) were selected as entrepreneurial or non-entrepreneurial subjects and surveyed on the non-monetary costs and benefits of entrepreneurial activities affecting Curtin's teaching, research and public service mission. This data were analyzed and subsequently compared with data obtained by Leslie (1992). Differences in academic perceptions were found among the Curtin respondents by gender, academic status, discipline area, entrepreneurship and non-entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurial revenue importance. Using the Leslie data inter-institutional differences were examined and an order of entrepreneurial institutional types proposed, with Curtin University described as a frontier entrepreneurial university. The taxonomy of costs and benefits developed by Leslie (1992) was revised with the addition of personal social costs, stress, networking and professional development. An estimate was made of the dollar value of non-monetary items; non-monetary benefits were three times the dollar value of monetary benefits; non-monetary costs were less than half the monetary cost levels. The ratio of non-monetary costs to benefits was 1:3.5. Academics in the disciplines of engineering and science had more favorable perceptions of entrepreneurial costs and benefits than respondents in business studies. Health science respondents were described as having pessimistic perceptions. Future research may look at the levels of commercial revenue and investigate the effects of the amount of financial success or failure on the entrepreneurial efforts of academics. In university enterprise successes seem to foster success and the favorable perceptions of academics.
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