DeMartino, Linsay A. (The University of Arizona., 2016)
The demographic composition of the United States population continues to change, becoming increasingly more diverse. But, unfortunately, the U.S. education system too often fails to reach all students. Historically marginalized students from groups based on race, ethnicity, class, gender, language, ability, and/or sexual orientation are routinely excluded from the mainstream school community. Since the backgrounds and interests of these students typically do not match the dominant ideologies and norms of the perceived authoritative group, their needs have largely been ignored by educational institutions (Bartlett & Garcia, 2011; Lee, 2005; Valenzuela, 1999). Therefore, it is vital that educational institutions become more flexible and inclusive. Some contemporary charter schools have aimed to do just this. They are innovative and progressive. In these schools, with the greater flexibility, leaders in charter schools are able to play important roles in shifting conventional and bureaucratic public schooling to a more organic and supportive school community that includes our increasingly diverse student population. This 18-month critical ethnographic study at Millennium High School, a small, urban, non-profit charter public school located in the Southwest United States is an example of the transformative leadership framework merging with tempered radicalism and power-with structures to develop and sustain a modern school community. I draw from 27 interviews and over 80 hours of observations, including traditional and participant observations, to develop and support my argument. My results indicate, since leadership still plays an important role in shifting educational consciousness, the contemporary transformative leader develops and sustains a larger educational community by acknowledging the importance of transformative leadership practices, tempered radicalism, and the modern school community.
Marei, Mahmoud Sayed Mahmoud (The University of Arizona., 2018)
International educational migration continues to increase (OECD, 2016). After the Second World War, student migration was predominantly unidirectional, from developing countries, to the core nations (Altbach, 2004). Recent studies, however, show that there is a shift in this migration patter due to the emergence of regional educational hubs (Jon, Lee, & Byun, 2013; Lee, 2014). Previous research has examined some educational hubs around the globe (Cantwell & Lee, 2009; Jon et al., 2013; Kondakci, 2011; Lee & Sehoole, 2015) but there is dearth of information on this significant trend in North Africa and the Middle East. Egypt was chosen for this study because it attracts the highest number of international students in the region (Huisman, Adelman, Hsieh, Shams, and Wilkins, 2012). Our study explores international student “orientations”—dispositions, experiences and expectations—toward studying in Egypt (Cantwell, Luca, & Lee, 2009). Data collection included twenty-three semi-structured interviews with international students from sixteen different countries attending three Egyptian universities, and examination of pertinent books and documents. The decision-making process of international students to study abroad varied by students’ degree choice. All regional and non-regional international undergraduate students chose the host country, Egypt, before the institution. Non-regional international graduate students gave selection of institution, host country, and the critical time in Egypt’s history as responsible for their choice. Reasons for selecting Egypt as a host nation included its historical, social, cultural, and educational significance and the perception that Egypt is a safe country in which to live, study, and travel, safer than other countries in the region. The study also provides evidence that students’ region of origin, degree program, and institution attended mattered in their international educational experience. For instance, regional international students sensed neo-national sentiments within their institutions. It was also evident that degree-seeking, regional and non-regional international graduate students considered attaining a degree from Egypt superior to earning the same degree from their home countries. Finally, the study also offers recommendations for policy practices for the betterment of international student experiences in Egypt.
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