Leinhos, Mary Rebecca (The University of Arizona., 2006)
This dissertation research project examines how contemporary academic bioethics in the U.S. balances the aspiration to guide biomedical research and practice with the need to become an institutionally legitimate influence in society. Since its inception three decades ago, to what extent has bioethics made biomedicine more socially accountable? At the same time, to what extent has bioethics been rendered a public-relations tool for academic and corporate biomedicine? This project investigates the co-production of the legitimacy and the logic of the academic field of bioethics by examining the activities of bioethicists in three professional arenas: the establishment of an academic bioethics unit, discourse on the legal liability of institutional review boards and health care ethics consultants, and the deliberations and recommendations of a federal bioethics commission.Bioethicists' efforts to legitimate their field are viewed as competition and collaboration with other professional groups to stake out an emblematic expertise, which is then tendered to various societal clients. A case study of an academic bioethics unit was conducted to reveal how the unit's efforts to secure material resources and organizational legitimacy shape the center's intellectual output, drawing on the unit's archival documents and interviews with the unit's director, faculty, staff, and graduate students. Discourse analysis was used to explore what anticipated legal liability reveals about the legitimacy of expertise claims and the shaping of those claims. The proceedings of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission related to the human stem cell research debate were used to examine the boundary-work conducted by the commission at the borders between science and ethics, and between ethics and public policy.The research described here shifts attention in the budding sociology of bioethics from clinical to academic bioethics, and highlights the institutional and power relationships amongst bioethics, biomedicine, and public policy. This study also contributes to the fields of higher education studies and science and technology studies, where ethics, and the relationship between legitimacy and expertise, have not been fully explored. The findings presented here provide useful insight into the challenges and opportunities bioethicists face in cultivating socially responsible biomedical science and technology.
Bird, Lee Elizabeth. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
This study examines the psychological, social and environmental predictors of sexually aggressive and assaultive behaviors reported by a sample of 466 males at one institution. Emphasis was placed on determining the impact of Greek affiliation and place of residence on self-reported aggressive and assaultive behaviors. A questionnaire was administered which incorporated demographic and background characteristics, environmental characteristics and attitudes towards women and relationships. Analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant differences among five residential groupings on selected variables. A series of interlocking multiple regression analyses was then performed to determine the predictive influence of factors explored in this study. Results indicate that "peer harassment," including verbal aggression and unwanted touching, was reported by the total sample with great frequency. More severe behaviors were reported with less frequency, however, slightly more than 5% of the men in the total sample reported committing at least one act which met the legal criteria for sexual assault in the academic year preceding the study. Although statistically significant differences among residential groups emerged, attitudes and living environment characteristics found predictive of sexually aggressive and assaultive behaviors were found in all living environments. "Worst" behavior reported was predicted best by rape myth acceptance followed by environmental and background characteristics including the number of sexual partners one had, sexual speculation about women, alcohol consumption and perceived level of impact one had on their environment. Institutions are encouraged to examine the level of sexual violence against women on campuses and marshal the efforts of student personnel administrators as well as faculty in an effort to reduce the prevalence of such behavior.
Volk, Cindy Ellerman. (The University of Arizona., 1995)
Patterns of resource allocation have been studied by a variety of researchers, but this study includes variables in ways that they have not been operationalized or featured in previous studies. The purpose of this study is to analyze patterns of resource allocation across different academic units within a major research university. Eighty-five departments were studied with data gathered for the years 1988-89 and 1992-93. Twenty-six independent variables were analyzed including rational/political and critical/political framework variables. The dependent variable was the amount of state allocations to each academic unit. Regression and correlation analyses indicated that grants/contracts, gender, and ethnicity were highly significant factors in determining the amount of state dollar allocations to a department. Departments generating more in external grants/contracts received more in terms of state allocated dollars to the unit. Departments with higher percentages of women faculty and minority faculty tended to receive less in terms of state allocations. The rational/political theory more adequately described graduate education, while the critical/political theory described undergraduate education. Future research may need to include the effect of complex missions and multiple labor markets on education.
Ramos, Sofia Martinez (The University of Arizona., 2008)
In 2007, the nation's Latino population was estimated at 45.5 million, or 15.1% of the 301.6 million total U.S. population. Latinos are the fastest-growing minority group, exceeding 500,000 in 16 states and representing the largest minority group in 20 states (Bernstein, 2008). The number of Latinos is projected to almost triple by 2050 and will represent about 60 percent of the country's growth with about 128 million Latinos, making up 29% of the total projected 440 million U.S. population (Passel, 2008).Latino's continued population growth makes their educational and occupational success, and their ability to self-sustain and to contribute to the greater good, essential to this nation's economy. Since education is the most critical component in the productivity and self-sufficiency of Latinos, it is important that their representation at all levels of education, including students, faculty and administrators increase along with the population growth. However, Latino representation in higher education has not grown proportionately to their increases in the U.S. population (Haro, 2003). Their representation and voice is lacking in the decision-making, top levels of administration, such as vice presidents, provosts, presidents, and chancellors.The under-representation of Latinas in higher education was the impetus for this study, to identify elements affecting their trajectory to the top ranks of administration, including embedded structures, institutionalized filters, and elements within the social selection process that affect their representation in the presidency and other top-level administrative posts of four-year institutions.Their narratives document Latinas' challenges and successes and validate the importance of culture and identity, and the fact that dual culturalism is a source of strength and not a deficit. This study acknowledges bias in higher education and the need to incorporate mentors, champions and other strategic measures to increase Latino representation in graduate programs, faculty and administration. These Latinas' ability to penetrate the adobe ceiling serves as a model and a "counterstory" for others who aspire to top administrative positions. Their insights and recommendations provide a valuable context to inform practice and research.
Seemiller, Corey (The University of Arizona., 2006)
Leadership courses are emerging across higher education institutions taking various shapes and forms. Some are coordinated and run by faculty sometimes leading to a minor, major, or certificate. Others are coordinated by student affairs professionals. The focus of this study is to understand the experiences that student affairs professionals have in implementing and coordinating leadership courses in academic units. Because on many campuses leadership courses are being implemented by student affairs professionals, there are distinctive intricacies involved. Plagued by the complexity of the inter-profession relationship between student affairs and faculty, implementing and coordinating courses is not a simple matter. In addition to learning about student affairs professionals' experiences, this study also shares strategies that these professionals use in trying to implement and coordinate leadership courses in academic units. Drawing from literature on the professions as well as leadership development helps shed light on the complex dynamics underlying the course implementation and coordination process. Implications for both research and practice are included.
Namuo, Clyne Gill Hanalei (The University of Arizona., 2013)
This multi-site case study is really the story of three same-state community colleges (Bridge and Buffer Community College, Grants and Reserves Community College, and Crystal Ball Community College) two years after they suffered a potentially catastrophic 50% reduction in state allocations. This study examined their responses to those reductions and attempted to frame those responses according to existing research on strategic activity and strategic positioning. The theoretical framework used, referenced as a theoretical mesh, consisted of academic capitalism (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997; Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004), resource dependence theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978), state relative autonomy perspective (Dougherty, 1994), and neo-institutional theory (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). The synthesis of these theories facilitated the analysis of the findings of this study. This study identified three key phenomena: The Quartering of Community Colleges to conceptualize and organize the abundance of external pressures facing community colleges, Mandates to Neutralize to explain the importance of an aggressive and formal approach to neutralizing external pressures, and Embedded Community Colleges whose strategic positions are strengthened through a deliberate, committed approach to fostering close relationships with their local communities.
Callie, Trina M. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
Through a mixed methods approach, this study provides a greater understanding of salary inequality in U.S. business schools and how it changed between 1998 to 2004. The quantitative research examines full-time faculty using individual-level salary data from both a constant sample of 307 institutions and a larger 2004 sample of 464 schools, allowing for in-depth examination of inequality including within institutions. The qualitative research used interviews with business school deans to uncover decisions that, in the aggregate, can impact faculty salary inequality.Quantitative analysis of faculty salary utilized descriptive statistics as well as several inequality measures, along with regression analyses, to reveal the level and structure of inequality and the contributions of within-institution and between-institution inequality. Salary inequality increased between 1998 and 2004. However, contrary to previous research, salary inequality isn't attributed to superstar salaries; the growth in salary inequality is attributable to negative real growth in the lower tail of the salary distribution. Analysis between institutions reveals that the highest paying 10% of institutions are pulling away, increasing stratification between the most prestigious institutions and the others. Although private school faculty earn more than their public counterparts, salary inequality among faculty at public institutions increased more rapidly. Institutional characteristics including Carnegie classification, MBA ranking, degrees offered, accreditation, faculty size, tuition and fees, state appropriations per student and endowment per student contribute to differences in salary inequality between institutions. Within institutions, unionization and higher MBA ranking correspond to lower salary inequality; whereas research/doctoral, public institutions, and larger faculty size correspond to more salary inequality. Differences also exist in the inequality source: upper tail or lower tail.While the primary interview theme is the rule of the market, deans do make individual decisions based on their own competitive marketplace. The qualitative inquiry revealed four decision categories that can affect salary inequality, including: hiring strategies, environmental influences--colleges and fields, compensation challenges and market response strategies, all which may collectively increase or decrease faculty salary inequality. Interview analysis revealed additional questions that need to be answered using quantitative data, from changes in faculty composition, to compression/inversion, and salary inequality differences across fields.
Leonard, Diana Kay (The University of Arizona., 2010)
SHAPING FUZZY GOALS THROUGH TEACHER-STUDENT INTERACTION: A DETAILED LOOK AT THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN COMMUNITY COLLEGE FACULTY AND TRANSFER STUDENTS by Diana K. Leonard Faculty-student interactions have been largely neglected in the research regarding community colleges and community college transfer students. Yet faculty serve as points of institutional contact, and might also serve a central role in student experiences and decision-making. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the dynamics and interactions that impact student experiences and decisions regarding transfer at the community college and to understand how those interactions contributed to goal formation. Symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) provided a framework to guide the mixed-methods approach, which was primarily qualitative, utilizing online surveys and personal interviews to investigate students' interpretations of the student-teacher interactions. Quantitative data analysis measured teacher influence. 429 students who successfully transferred to a Research I university in the southwest, from in-state community colleges completed the survey. Ten students from this pool, subsequently interviewed, reflected various levels of uncertainty in their goals to transfer. These uncertain goals were termed "fuzzy" goals.In addition to symbolic interactionism as a framework, Stanton-Salazar's (1997) concept of institutional agents, supported with Bourdieu's (1977) cultural and social capital and Tinto's (1975) theory of social and academic integration were used to guide this study. Findings illustrated that students did utilize their teachers as institutional agents, who provided them with cultural knowledge and facilitated their understanding of procedures and processes through active as well as passive teacher-agency. Five themes emerged in students' interpretation of the student-teacher interactions: support, motivation, guidance, inspiration, and modeling. All had varying effects on students' uncertainty and contributed to shaping their fuzzy goals and to their social and academic integration into academe.This study can inform our understanding of the well-known gap in BA attainment between students who begin at a community college intending to transfer and students who begin at a four-year institution. Further, this study can inform strategic planning geared toward supporting teachers more fully in their role as institutional agents conveying social and cultural capital to students to increase their leverage for success once they transfer to the university.
Williams, Glenn Harland (The University of Arizona., 2009)
Growth in distance education programs at public postsecondary institutions has been phenomenal. Nevertheless, not all of these institutions achieved their goals that prompted the creation of a distance education program in the first place. In an effort to understand why some programs succeed in achieving goals while others do not, past research has focused on either the technology used in delivering the program or the pedagogy used in designing course content. These studies may not have uncovered the whole story for though distance education programs may be based on technology and pedagogy they are designed and implemented within a social environment which affects the program's design and ultimate achievements. This would imply a need for a better understanding of how different social groups involved in distance education program design and implementation interact during the developmental process.This study sought to understand the effect of the social environment on the design of distance education program. Using Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory, it examined a collaborative distance education program's development from inception to implementation. The goal in investigating the social construction of this distance education program was to determine to what extent the program's final design was shaped by social forces surrounding the technology rather than the technology itself.The study used key social groups' attributes to assess to what extent each group was able to influence the program's design. Without reference to technological or pedagogical systems this study clearly demonstrated the potential of SCOT theory to explain how social groups shaped the program's ultimate outcome.
Smith-Hawkins, Paula L (The University of Arizona., 2005)
A qualitative study of faculty work and technology was used to identify four areas of change to community college faculty work structures; specifically, time, work space, classroom teaching and faculty service work. By examining the policies, programs, and technology initiatives as negotiated by faculty members---their work, their interactions with students, other faculty, administrators, and the local community this writer argues that technology has destabilized the nature of faculty work and the structures once associated with faculty responsibilities. This ethnography relies heavily on the theories of Rhoades, Burris, Perlow, and Vallas to examine how technology has changed the daily work of the community college faculty member.Using the ethnographic approach to qualitative research, the data for this study comes from meetings, formal and informal exchanges, writings, and promotional material handed to faculty over a two year periods. The participant/observer approach utilized in this study allows for insight into the complicated relationships between policies and practices, and formal and informal interactions between various campus groups. This particular campus site struggled with the new policies governing informational and educational technology decisions in a setting that promoted a high degree of faculty input and participation. The information gathered in this study points to the destabilizing nature of technology on faculty work.
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