Now showing items 21-40 of 36969

    • FIRING PROPERTIES OF RAT MOTOR UNITS DURING VOLUNTARY CONTRACTION

      Fuglevand, Andrew; Shao, Siyi (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The properties of motor units have been well studied in anesthetized rats with current injection. Investigators have collected a large amount of data to support hypotheses about the relationship between firing rates and force. However, a very limited number of studies have been done in awake animals doing voluntary contractions. Because it is suggested that discharge properties of motor units mediated by current injection are different from that with natural synaptic inputs in intact animals, the current study aims to identify differences between the two modalities of activation. We recorded motor unit activity using intramuscular electromyography in left hindlimbs of 5 rats after they underwent behavioral training protocol to perform isometric plantar flexion. We found that the minimum firing rates in intact rats are much lower than those in current injection studies, while the positive relationship between firing rate and force still exists. Possible reasons for the results we observed are discussed, and we proposed some modifications for future studies based on limitations faced in the current one.
    • LOOKING FOR METHANOL: IDENTIFYING THE EXPANSE OF THE GALACTIC HABITABLE ZONE

      Ziurys, Lucy; Sephus, Cathryn Dawn (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      Defining the expanse of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) has long been a major debate in astrobiology. The GHZ is known as the region within a galaxy where life is most likely to develop. Older definitions propose the GHZ spans a radial distance of about 9 kpc from the galactic center based on conditions such as metallicity and supernovae discharge. A recent survey of formaldehyde suggested the GHZ extends as far as 25 kpc from the galactic center based on distributions of prebiotic molecules. In order to further investigate and constrain the extent of the GHZ, we surveyed methanol molecules in 17 molecular clouds in outer regions of our galaxy. This initial survey consisted of clouds located between 13.2 and 22.6 kpc away from the galactic center. Methanol (CH3OH) is the starting ground of many prebiotic species such as sugars, amino acids, and other important biomolecules. We detected methanol in 82% of our surveyed molecular clouds, including 5 clouds with 𝑅𝐺 >18 kpc (detection rate 100%). Establishing the quantity of methanol dispersal in far regions of the Milky Way allows us to get one step closer to defining the region in our galaxy where life has the possibility to arise.
    • BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS TO SUPPORT KANGAROO CARE IN PRETERM INFANTS IN THE NICU

      Goldsmith, Melissa; Scruggs, Kaitlin Zhong Ni (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      This thesis investigates credible medical and nursing journals on the topics of kangaroo care in preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit setting. These research articles focused on interventions and recommendations that maximize the benefits of kangaroo care in this targeted population. Research and education on this topic is much less utilized compared to kangaroo care in full-term infants. Implementation of kangaroo care in the clinical setting is slow-moving, during its transition state from the literature to execution (Ludington-Hoe, 2011). Many variations of kangaroo care are explored in these research articles, thus there is great room for interpretation into best practice recommendations. The purpose of this thesis is to create best practice recommendation to support kangaroo care in the NICU, and promote utilization of such recommendations. Along with various interventions, many outcomes and benefits were analyzed in these articles as well. The proven benefits and positive outcomes for the use of kangaroo care have been momentous and have a potential to play a crucial role in the clinical setting. The culmination of this paper will establish best practice recommendations, an implementation plan for an educational bulletin board in a kangaroo-a-thon, and an evaluation of the participation in the kangaroo-a-thon.
    • INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN NATIVE AMERICAN FAMILIES

      Ottusch, Timothy; Norris, Melissa Terese (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The prevalence of Native American women becoming victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) is much higher than the general population and any other ethnic group. IPV can impact the relationship between a child and their parent and can shape how they view themselves and others. This study sought to understand how IPV impacts the parent-child relationship within Native American families before, during and after the experience. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with Native American parents and children who previously experienced IPV. Results implicated parent-child relationships can withstand the negative effects of IPV with involvement and continuing support from their abused parent, regardless of how their relationship quality was before the IPV began. The relationship quality was also dependent on the parental protectiveness interpreted by the child. Conversations about the abuse and emphasis on healthy relationship building has allowed the relationships to evolve over time. Internal working models were found to be affected by the mother’s involvement in the IPV relationship. Barriers for Native American women leaving the relationship were found to be inconsistent with previous findings. However, contributors to increased violence was consistent. Professionals, tribal policy makers, and law enforcement should work to together for the sake of future generations.
    • THE EFFECT OF ARCHITECTURE ON CONSUMER REACTION TO BRAND ASSOCIATION

      Savary, Jennifer; Nakonechny, Tess Alaina (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      In my thesis, I explore the idea that architecture has an effect on brand personalities and consumer reactions when utilized as a branding device in advertisements. To begin, I demonstrate that architecture is utilized as a branding device in several advertisements, whether or not this was intentional on the part of the marketer. Then, I prove that consumers have different reactions to architectural styles. The findings in this study are important and valuable to both marketers and future researchers as they can use architecture as a new and effective tool to create impactful, lasting brand personalities and ultimately better understand and appeal to their consumers.
    • THE EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND MILD DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS ON GRAY MATTER VOLUME AMONG COGNITIVELY HEALTHY OLDER ADULTS

      Ryan, Lee; Gregolynskyj, Amanda Brittany (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The present study of 64 older adults (60-80 years) investigated the impact of depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) on gray matter volumes. Participants’ depressive symptoms were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and their CVRF status was determined based on the presence of obesity and hypertension. Participants underwent neuroimaging and gray matter volumes were compared using voxel-based morphometry. Higher GDS scores (greater number of symptoms endorsed) were associated with lower gray matter volumes in the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, right superior frontal cortex, left insula, and bilateral angular gyri. CVRFs were associated with larger gray matter volumes in mostly posterior regions, ranging from the middle frontal gyrus to the occipital lobe. Individuals with both CVRFs present had smaller volumes in the right lingual gyrus with higher GDS scores. In contrast, higher GDS scores were associated with larger gray matter volumes in the right parieto-occipital region among individuals who exhibited only one CVRF. Our results show the complex interactive roles of depressive symptoms and CVRFs on gray matter volumes and support the need for future research investigating the effects of mental and physical health on the brain.
    • Extension of the Group Invariance Theorem for Perceptrons

      Lin, Kevin; Gordon, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      Most of statistical machine learning relies on deep neural nets, whose underlying theory and mathematical properties are currently not well explored. This thesis focuses on the theory of Perceptrons, a form of shallow neural network mostly explored in Minsky & Papert’s book “Perceptrons: an Introduction to Computational Geometry”. Their analysis relied on the use of groups that describe the global symmetries of what is to be computed. However, all real images have an input space with finite length and height, and it is often the case that machine learning systems have disconnected input spaces. This means that real-world systems must actually rely on a concept of local symmetry, if any at all. This paper explores the implications of having a bounded and possibly disconnected input space, and generalizes the Minsky & Papert result, proving that the implications of the group invariance theorem can be retained by using groupoids instead.
    • THE IMPACT OF THE GREAT RECESSION ON DEMOCRACIES: DID THE FINANCIAL CRISIS CAUSE GLOBAL DEMOCRATIC BACKSLIDING?

      Volgy, Thomas; Surmacz, Alex Adi (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      Economics and Political Science are two fields that study distribution. Economics studies the distribution of resources under scarcity. Political Science is a study of who gets what, when, and how. Despite being inextricably linked, the two fields are often studied in complete isolation. The Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 sent shockwaves across the world. Economists have studied and published an immense amount of papers and articles describing the economic impacts of the recession. However, there was very little literature on the global political impacts of the Great Recession. This paper is an attempt to bridge the two fields and understand what impacts the Great Recession had on democracies around the world. This study answers this question by looking at World Bank data that describes the economic impacts of the recession on democracies. It also uses the World Bank to understand levels of inequality in these countries. Next, using extensive data from Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) it measures the levels of democracy on three major indexes- the Egalitarian Index, the Deliberative Index, and the Liberal Index. The study is concluded with an interpretation and discussion of the results as well as the implications of these findings.
    • INTEGRATIVE TREATMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: A BEST PRACTICE APPROACH

      Lacasse, Cheryl; Postal, Morgan Alexandra (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The purpose of this thesis was to create best practice recommendations to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) during the first 24 postoperative hours in patients undergoing general anesthesia. PONV is a multifaceted and unpleasant phenomenon, increasing length and cost of stay. Pharmacotherapy is most often used to treat PONV though it may not be the most cost-effective intervention nor patient preference . The literature review was conducted through CINAHL, Embase and PubMed. The keywords used to search were PONV, postoperative nausea and vomiting, aromatherapy, P6 acupuncture, supplemental oxygen, supplemental fluid therapy, intravenous fluid therapy, pharmacotherapy, ondansetron, and 5HT3 antagonists. Dates of publication were limited to 2008 to 2018. The literature revealed evidence to support using acupuncture on the P6 acupoint site (N = 5), supplemental intravenous fluids with crystalloids (N = 4) and the use of ondansetron as a first line antiemetic in combination with dexamethasone (N = 4). Based on these results, a best practice recommendation for integrative nursing to treat PONV includes a bundle of interventions of controlled breathing, acupuncture of the P6 acupoint, intraoperative supplemental intravenous fluid of 30 mL/kg/hour crystalloid solutions, and the use of ondansetron as a first line antiemetic therapy combined with dexamethasone.
    • CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION ANALYSIS OF CANNABIS RETAIL DATA: A MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH

      Thompson, Richard H.; Papetti, Ryan Henry (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As the legal cannabis industry emerges from its nascent stages, there is increasing motivation for retailers to look for data or strategies that can help them segment or describe their customers in a succinct, but informative manner. While many cannabis operators view the state-mandated traceability as a necessary burden, it provides a goldmine for internal customer analysis. Traditionally, segmentation analysis focuses on demographic or RFM (recency-frequency-monetary) segmentation. Yet, neither of these methods has the capacity to provide insight into a customer’s purchasing behavior. With the help of 4Front Ventures, a battle-tested multinational cannabis operator, this report focuses on segmenting customers using cannabis-specific data (such as flower and concentrate consumption) and machine learning methods (K-Means and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) to generate newfound ways to explore a dispensary’s consumer base. The findings are that there are roughly five or six clusters of customers with each cluster having unique purchasing traits that define them. Although the results are meaningful, this report could benefit with exploring more clustering algorithms, comparing results across dispensaries within the same state, or investigating segmentations in other state markets.
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE ESKAPE PATHOGEN GROESL CHAPERONINS

      Chapman, Eli; Panfilenko, Iliya Vitalievich (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      GroESL is an essential bacterial chaperone system comprising the homotetradecameric, double ring GroEL and the homoheptameric cochaperone GroES that is highly conserved from bacteria to man. This class of chaperonins (large, double ring chaperones are called chaperonins) uses ATP binding and hydrolysis to fold nascent or stress denatured polypeptides into their appropriate native conformations. E. coli GroESL has been shown to be the only chaperone system required for organismal growth and viability under all conditions and thus has been posited as a potential antibiotic target. To date, nearly all functional studies have been carried out in E. coli GroESL and it has been assumed this is a viable surrogate for other bacterial GroESLs. In this work, we show that despite high GroESL sequence identity between E. coli and the ESKAPE pathogens, there are distinct structural and functional differences that were previously unappreciated. This observation may have critical implications for the development of small molecule inhibitors to target GroESL folding function. Attempted expression of the GroESL chaperonin complex native to each ESKAPE pathogen in E. coli unveiled that only K. pneumonia, A. baumannii, and E. cloacae were capable of rescuing GroESL deficient LG6 (lac regulated chromosomal groESL). More thorough evaluation of these strains revealed that P. auruginosa, E. faecium, and S. aureus had a dominant negative effect when expressed in LG6. To circumvent this, we employed two distinct genetic strategies to generate an E. coli strain in which native GroESL could be replaced with ESKAPE GroEL without the potential for translation of both ESKAPE and E. coli GroEL: one with chromosomal GroEL removed, but contains a GroEL plasmid capable of negative selection, and the other where chromosomal E. coli groESL was replaced by ESKAPE groESL. We found that all of the ESKAPE chaperonins could compliment in the clean genetic background, except for S. aureus. Using a series of chimeras, we identified which GroEL domains from P. auruginosa and E. faecium may have been responsible for the observed dominant negative effect in the presence of E. coli GroEL. Coexpression of P. auruginosa/E.coli or E. faecium/E.coli GroEL produced mixed tetradecamers. The chaperonins generated by this method exhibited diminished ATPase activity, suggesting compromised chaperoning ability. The results of our studies suggest that the expression of GroESL in nonnative organisms may be affected by the formation of hypofunctional mixed rings as a consequence of allosteric differences which are to be further investigated.
    • “SEARCHIN’ MY WEARIED MIND FOR DE DAWN OF LIFE”: CREATING A LITERARY AND CULTURAL IMAGINARY OF THE CARCERAL STATE

      Dotson, Jerome; Fauland, Haley Rose (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The mass incarceration of African Americans in the United States is the product of generations of white hegemony and racial divide. The introduction of the 13th Amendment posed an obstacle for slaveowners, but legal loop holes maintained white economic status and racial order through the creation of a Carceral State. Carceral scholarship analyzes the systematic oppression of U.S. institutions with a top-down method, painting an incomplete picture. This project creates a literary imaginary of communities disproportionately affected by interactions with the Carceral State, giving their consciousness a human voice. The analysis of the violence and inhumanity through art will provide a comprehensive scrutiny of the United States prison system, while adding faces and stories to the scholarly research. By consuming this project, readers will comprehend the insidious ways the U.S. justice system has stifled the creativity and existence of people of color, how captives have separated consciousness from corporeal limitations to create beauty, and how generations of forced interaction with slavery and the Carceral State have shaped communities of color. This project seeks to add to Carceral scholarship from the ground floor to build a cultural history from the words and voices of the people it tends to forget.
    • DESCRIBING MEMORIES- THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEMANTICS AND THE SELF-CONCEPT

      Grilli, Matthew; Encinas, Garrett Thayne (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      This study focused on the effects of semantic autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval on one’s self-concept. Participants recalled and wrote about up to four life chapters (specific time periods during their life) or recalled and wrote about up to four general knowledge (GK) stories (i.e. non personal information) in the form of fairy tales. The fluency and accessibility of the self-concept was measured using the “I Am” assessment (Charlesworth, 2015), and was operationalized as three different identity statements: personality traits, physical traits, and identity roles. Participants were initially given one minute to generate as many “I Am” statements as possible (i.e., Fluency portion), and were then given as much time as needed to generate all 20 statements (i.e., Accessibility portion). Participants then used a Likert scale to rate the information they recalled out of five points. In the Fluency portion, the control (fairy tale) group, who recalled GK, generated significantly more personality traits relative to the experimental (life-chapter) group, who recalled semantic AMs. During the Accessibility portion, the life chapter group generated significantly more identity roles relative to the fairy tale group. There were also differences in the total number of personality traits generated for the fairy tale group, relative to the life chapter group, however, this group difference was only marginally significant.
    • BEST PRACTICES FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION: NURSES SUPPORTING THE INTEGRATION OF DOULAS INTO A CARE TEAM

      Kiser, Lisa; Copley, Hannah Garis (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      Doulas are becoming more common at hospital births in the United States, and nurses are working alongside doulas to support laboring women more frequently. Using research obtained from a literature review and the personal experience of the author as a doula, this paper aims to create best practice recommendations for nurses to support the integration of doulas into the care team. Findings of this review suggest that many nurses are unfamiliar with the role of the doula and could benefit from education on the doula scope of practice and role on the care team. Research and expert opinion support the creation of hospital-based doula programs to encourage oversight of doulas and collaboration between doulas and nurses.
    • Motion Events in English and Polish Monolinguals and Bilinguals

      Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Georges, Daniela (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      When classifying motion events, speakers classify motion in language-specific ways. In the following study, we asked whether bilingual speakers shift their event classification preferences based on the language in which they verbally encoded those events. Polish-English bilinguals, English-Polish bilinguals, and English monolinguals described events in either Polish or English. Additionally, they judged the similarity of motion events in a triad task. Participants who performed the task in English mentioned manner more often in their verbal responses than Polish participants. In the similarity judgement task, judgement was modulated in bilinguals by the age of acquisition of the second language. The younger age English was acquired, the more the participants were likely to judge similarity based on manner.
    • DOMESTIC MINOR SEX TRAFFICKING: THE REALITIES, PERCEPTIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH, TREATMENT, POLICY AND ACTION

      Parker, Sheila; Glassy, Rebekah Gabrielle (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      This honors thesis addresses the pervasiveness of the sex trafficking of minors in the United States, more specifically in Pima County, Arizona. Sex trafficking is one of the most prevalent epidemics in the world. It generates over US$99 billion each year. It most widely involves women and children who do not have the resources or knowledge to escape or remove themselves from the captivity of sex trafficking. Minors at high-risk for entering the sex trafficking industry are marginalized by their sex, sexual identity, financial status, ethnicity, disability, and more. While there are in-depth interventions for human trafficking worldwide, there are few that focus specifically on minors ages 18 and under who live in the United States. As a result, the average American does not know how to address sex trafficking of minors in their own city, let alone their own neighborhood. This initiated the beginning of an interventional program titled “Sex Trafficking Education and Prevention Program” (STEPP). This intervention builds up the protective factors while reducing the risk factors each individual has for entering in the sex trafficking industry. Hopefully this paper will provide the groundwork for action against sex trafficking for the benefit of all victims.
    • A TEXTING INTERVENTION FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS EXPERIENCING PARENTAL DIVORCE

      Sbarra, David; Freeman, Alexa Elena (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      Parental divorce while in college affects young adults in numerous ways, especially the increased pressure of maintaining parent-child relationships. This study tests the feasibility of conducting a texting intervention for college students experiencing parental divorce. Young adult participants (N=6) received daily text messages that taught skills on how to cope with their parents’ divorce, including Muscle Relaxation, Cognitive Restructuring, Mindfulness, and Communication. Results of the study indicated that there were some barriers to administering a texting intervention such as the ability to follow the text message handbook, and the repetitiveness of receiving daily text messages. Participants stated that the intervention was easily accessible since it was completely over the phone and that it felt personal as they were able to reflect on the coping skills presented in the videos on their own time. The current study has implications for developing a successfully administered texting intervention.
    • I LOVE YOU; NOT ENOUGH

      McLoof, Ted; Romano, Avery Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      I Love You; Not Enough is an exploration of family dynamic, relationship dysfunction, secret pasts, and the manner in which individuals handle a drastic shift in their current realities. The story of this family begins in the summer after Janie’s first year at college, when she comes home only to find that their dynamic has been uprooted by her father’s affair. Following are five short stories, a mixture of experimental and traditional fiction, that explore the summer following Janie’s return. Though it begins with a simple view of the family as a whole, as time progresses it is revealed that there is much more to this family than meets the eye. As the collection progresses, it seeks to examine the differences in relationships, the underlying factors in how those act in them, boundaries crossed and limits reached, and what brings a relationship to it’s end.
    • GOLF PRO SOLUTIONS: EXPLORING INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN SONORA MEXICO

      Alsua, Carlos; Francis, Jahron David (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The focus of my thesis is on exploring manufacturing opportunities in Mexico that can be used to benefit Golf Pro Solution. The research for this project was conducted throughout my senior year in the McGuire New Venture Entrepreneurship Program and culminated with a trip to Sonora Mexico. The Initial steps in my thesis required gathering information. This information was gathered in numerous ways including: online research, in class lectures, and field research from our trip to Hermosillo and San Carlos, Mexico. The online research I conducted revolved around the cultural norms and traditions in Mexico. While in Mexico conducting my field research, I was able to examine, and experience first had some of the differences in Mexican culture. Resource was also conducted on manufacturing in Mexico. Advantages were examined with respects to the benefits for Golf Pro Solutions. My thesis also includes information obtained through lectures throughout the semester. These lectures consisted of guest speakers (three in total) whom came to our class to discuss doing business in Mexico. Justin Dutram, Consul General Virginia Stabb, and Laura Provencher. Each of these speakers provided their own unique experience and expertise on the topic of “Doing Business in Sonora”.
    • Spectral Gap in the Ferromagnetic Heisenberg Spin-1⁄2 Quantum Spin Chain

      Sims, Robert; Brown, Colby Austin (The University of Arizona., 2019-12)
      The ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1⁄2 quantum spin chain describes a quantum spin system of spin-1⁄2 particles on a one-dimensional lattice. In the thermodynamic limit, the spectral gap of this system closes at rate of O(n−2). We demonstrate this by proving an upper bound on the spectral gap using the variational principle and a lower bound using the martingale method.