• Facebook pages and public spaces: Guatemala's 2015 movement and the years that followed

      Chikos, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-01)
      Guatemala’s 2015 Summer demonstrations were the largest public protest in the country since the Guatemalan Spring in 1944. These demonstrations were organized rapidly via social media, with Facebook Pages in particular playing a vital role, making them comparable to other digital mediated social movements and new forms of social protest in Latin America. The aims of this study are to explore the role of Facebook Pages in this historic moment, through an approach that considers both the cultural and political impacts of new technologies. Since the 1960s an emerging discourse around “New Social Movements” emphasizes the communicative and ideological nature of social movements, in contrast to social movements that seek purely political aims. This research found that while the Facebook Page should be understood as a Public Space where cultural forms are challenged and reshaped, it is also a highly political technology with real world effects.
    • A REVIEW ON THALAMO-CORTICAL FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

      Rodriguez, Graciela Abigail (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that causes a series of symptoms that affect how a person perceives the world around them. There have been many studies researching the way that connectivity between specific brain regions are altered due to the onset of schizophrenia, and many have concluded that the thalamus is one of the most important brain regions associated with altered functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this review is to evaluate this altered functional connectivity and to determine how different connectivity patterns determine different symptoms that are typically associated with schizophrenia. Through conducting a literature search in PubMed on articles relating to schizophrenia, the thalamus, and independent component analysis, we found that hyper-connectivity between the thalamus and areas of the brain such as the auditory, motor, and visual networks is associated with the ‘positive’ symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions. We also found that hypo-connectivity between the thalamus and areas like prefrontal regions of the brain is correlated with the ‘negative’ symptoms such as deficits in working memory and decision-making. This information could lead to further studies looking into how thalamo-cortical connections influence the perception of different stimuli.
    • ACCELERATING RADICALISM: PRIMARY CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE TALIBAN AND THE RISE OF THE ISLAMIC STATE IN AFGHANISTAN

      McGee, Anthony (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The intended goal of this research project is to elaborate on the methods and conditions which contributed to the dramatic entrance of IS Khurasan into the fray of the Afghan insurgency. Though the insurgent group has witnessed short lived success, they have openly challenged the Taliban in direct action in a bold attempt to supplant the dominant insurgent element. It is necessary to evaluate the current literature on the Afghan conflict with a focus on the years following the Taliban’s formation in 1994 to the recent power struggle between the rival organizations. This provides an understanding of the strategic decision making processes apparent in the advances of IS Khurasan in the provinces of Nangarhar, Helmand, and Farah. A bulk of the material related specifically to IS Khurasan is derived from journalistic sources due to the extremely current nature of this insurgency within an insurgency. The sensitive nature of information related to key battles and current military operations, limits the research of the IS phenomenon in Afghanistan. Unfortunately, a more complete evaluation of these events will not be available for a number of years.
    • LIMITING SPEECH AND POLITICAL CORRECTNESS: AUTHORITARIAN BELIEFS AND TENDENCIES

      Capozzoli, Talia Alexis (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This thesis looks at authoritarianism and its effect on public opinion, specifically attitudes towards limiting speech and political correctness on college campuses. This research was conducted through the use of a survey, which was distributed to 201 students at the University of Arizona. The survey tested authoritarian tendencies through child-rearing questions. Each participant received one of three random news articles with either a control, mixed, or conservative threat. While the study tested a few different attitudes, one of the more prominent results is authoritarians who received the conservative article believed that political correctness is becoming a more wider issue. Another is that participants who identified as a Democrat and read the article containing the conservative threat were significantly more likely to suggest limiting speech on college campuses by preventing political rallies and speaking events from right-wing speakers. These findings are relevant to the polarizing political climate we are seeing throughout the United States, and it also is a testament to the types of threats which may trigger authoritarians and non-authoritarians to sway in from their stereotypical tendencies.
    • HITCHING A RIDE ON THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT

      Maher, Ashlyn Julia (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The National Defense Authorization Act has been passed by Congress for each of the last 56 years. This “must-pass” piece of legislation provides a unique opportunity for members of Congress to offer provisions - some unrelated to defense - to the defense authorization as an amendment in order to get them passed into law. Since the 1950s there has been a steady decrease in the number of bills passed by Congress caused by a steady increase in partisanship and many other contributing factors. It is now more difficult for members of Congress to pass legislation. Non-germane amendments to the defense authorization often have a long legislative history and their addition to the NDAA is a last-resort effort to get the bill enacted. The NDAA is a good candidate for non-germane amendments since it is seen as a must-pass bill that encourages bipartisan coalitions and as few filibusters as possible. As paths for legislation to become law get fewer and fewer, the NDAA will remain an important outlet for those seeking to make or change laws.
    • EPISODIC ENCODING: SPECIFICITY INDUCTION AND GENERATION OF DETAILS IN YOUNG AND OLDER ADULTS

      Mangen, Kathryn Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The effect of an episodic specificity induction on the amount and type of details recalled from unique events was examined. Forty young adults and thirty older adults were asked questions about a recent event. Either an episodic specificity or a gist mode of thinking was induced during this brief interview. Then participants were shown a series of videos, given a filler task, and asked to recall the content of the videos in as much detail as possible. These memories were scored for total detail generation to determine whether older or younger adults recalled more episodic details. It was predicted that an episodic specificity induction would increase encoding and recall of episodic details relative to a gist-based induction, and there would be a greater increase in detail generation in the older adults relative to younger adults. It was found that young adults who received an episodic specificity induction generated more details than young adults who received a gist-based induction. In regard to episodic detail content, the episodic specificity induction selectively benefited the encoding of perceptual details. There was not a significant difference in memory between the older adult groups, indicating the episodic specificity induction did not alter encoding among older adults.
    • MAKING VOTES COUNT: JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE REMEDIES FOR ENSURING PROPORTIONALITY IN CONGRESSIONAL AND STATE ELECTIONS

      Rounseville, Isaac (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The focus of this paper is identifying a partial remedy to exceptionally low rates of voter turnout in the U.S. The remedy requires rectifying a systematic problem at the heart of the U.S. Single Majoritarian District (SMD) system of elections: disproportionality between the share of votes of a particular party and the share seats that party has in government. This system is incompatible with the principal of voluntary proportionality, a principle which guarantees the equal power and effectiveness of all votes as outlined by the U.S. Constitution and Supreme Court. After outlining the place of voluntary proportionality in the history of U.S. voting rights, I will specifically examine what structural remedies are available for helping the U.S. electoral system realize this principle. These remedies will include systematic changes that local, state and federal legislatures can quickly and effectively implement. I will also review a proposed judicial remedy to the structural problems of the U.S. SMD system, as well as reasons for and against this solution. I will argue that, with historical evidence from U.S. cities and states, an electoral system that adheres to voluntary proportionality can enjoy benefits like increased voter turnout, greater satisfaction in government and more competitive elections and greater responsiveness of elected officials to the wishes of their voters. Finally, I will argue that while a system guided by the principle of voluntary proportionality may not be feasibly implemented on a national level anytime soon, a more realistic approach may involve smaller changes at the state or municipal level.
    • EFFECTS OF RACIAL STEREOTYPES ON PERCEPTIONS OF A SPORTS CONCUSSION

      Winer, Rachel Beth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The purpose of this study is to examine if racial bias impacts the perceptions of a concussion in female athletes. There are stereotypes that Black Americans have a higher tolerance to pain than whites, thus causing them to get under treated for pain. Participants read a vignette under a time constraint about a Black or White female soccer player suffering either a mild, moderate, or severe concussion. They then responded to questions asking about the athlete’s concussion, pain level and how long they should sit out for. After using a 4 way ANOVA test (target race, type of concussion, time variable, perceiver’s gender), the results revealed several marginal interaction effects showing that race and perceiver’s sex moderated how the injury was perceived. As predicted, males were less likely to say she was concussed when she was Black compared to White when the injury was mild. However, this is not consistent over all explicit measures; therefore, racial bias when analyzing pain perception may not be a main factor. There were limitations that may have led the study’s results such as sample size. There are still future questions about this topic in particular to improve the health disparities amongst blacks and whites.
    • THE POWER OF PRESIDENTIAL PROPAGANDA: EXECUTIVE INFLUENCE ON THE INCREASE OF ISLAMOPHOBIA IN THE UNITED STATES

      Ott, Bridget Shea (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      During his 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump used a variety of platforms to release derogatory statements regarding Muslims. Through campaign rallies, speeches, and Twitter, Trump’s messages quickly spread across the country. At the same time, the amount of hate crimes against the Islamic community in the United States rose, reaching its peak in November 2016 after Trump won the election. This project sets out to determine the reasoning behind this increase in Islamophobia. It studies the role of Muslims as the “other,” how Muslims are portrayed as an out-group, and the influence the Trump Campaign had on the increased amount of domestic Islamophobia in the United States.
    • THE ROLE OF SANCTIONS IN DENUCLEARIZATION NEGOTIATIONS

      Janzen, Jacob Craig (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Most scholars and experts on the two Koreas diverge between sanctioning and engagement when considering foreign policy directed towards a nuclear North Korea. Sanctioning, on its own, has failed to denuclearize or create regime change in North Korea, which has led overall policy to oscillate between sanctioning and engagement. This relationship between sanctioning and engagement can prove fruitful for nonproliferation negotiations as long as sanctioners understand how certain mechanisms of sanctions undermine diplomatic attempts to make deals. In this paper, I analyze the three primary types of sanctions and how they either contribute to or work against nonproliferation negotiations in the pre-negotiation, negotiation, and post-negotiation stages. Analysis of sanctioning theory and U.S. foreign policy with Iran and North Korea suggests that trade and financial sanctions support nonproliferation negotiations in the pre/post-negotiation stages, while symbolic sanctions may prove counterproductive during the negotiation/post-negotiation stage.
    • ANALYZING IDEOLOGY SCORES IN THE SUPREME COURT CONFIRMATION GAME

      Dunlap, Madeline (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In this paper, I will analyze how ideology scores of senators, the president and Supreme Court nominees are critical to predictions of the Supreme Court nomination and confirmation game. First, I will describe how ideology scores are formulated, and compare the values of various types of ideology scores. Then, I will explain how ideology scores are specifically important to the “move- the- median” (MTM) theory of predicting the Supreme Court nomination and confirmation process. I will then introduce Cameron and Kastellec’s challenges to classic MTM theory and explain their alternative models for describing nomination and confirmation process. Lastly, I will provide a case study of the final two vacancies by Justice John Paul Stevens and the late Justice Scalia from the Obama presidency to illustrate how these theories apply to modern political processes. Through statistical analysis, I will describe how the Senate composition is critical in the president’s selection of a nominee, as well as the Senate’s final confirmation. Through this paper, I will show that that political factors are pivotal in understanding the decision- making process of senators and presidents in the confirmation process, and while ideology scores give a reasonably close prediction on their own, they fail to include the political complexities associated with Supreme Court nominations and confirmations that fall outside of the calculus of ideology scores.
    • WHY SUPREME COURT JUSTICES DON’T DIE ANYMORE

      Knobel, Clark Charles (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Over the past 100 years Supreme Court Justices are retiring at a much higher rate than their predecessors. The question becomes what sparked this changed? The change from ~67% of Supreme Court Justices dying during the early years of the court to ~83% of justices who served in the modern court (1900-present day) retiring from office (Hylton 2012). It is not only important to only understand that there is a shift in how justices are leaving the court, but rather grasp the implications this shift has on the court. One possible result of this shift could be a change in the ideological makeup of the court. That these justices aren’t dying in office anymore because they wish to retire under a political climate that will appoint a justice that is like-minded to the justice that is leaving office. By retiring these justices are taking away the chance that they could die under an unfavorable political climate. This paper will explore the possible effects that justices could produce by retiring at a greater rate than previous years.
    • LANGUAGE USE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN BEREAVEMENT: A MIXED METHODS APPROACH

      Miller, Elizabeth Skylar (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The death of a loved one is an extremely psychologically and physiologically taxing event. The present study explores the language used while experiencing this loss to better understand how individuals cope with their loss. Interviews from 9 bereaved and 10 non-bereaved participants were analyzed. Cardiovascular biomarkers were recorded and analyzed in conjunction with anger and emotion regulation. The present research looks specifically at anger, sadness, and metaphor incidence in relation to coping outcomes and cardiovascular risk biomarkers. This study explored the relationship between anger and blood pressure, metaphor and meaning making, and heart rate variability and emotion regulation indicated by interview behaviors laughing and crying. We also examined the differences between bereaved and non-bereaved individual’s indication of anger, sadness, and metaphor. We found significant results in the use of metaphor and finding meaning after the event, as well as a significant difference in the incidence of sadness between bereaved and non-bereaved individuals. The present study contributes to the growing body of research on an integrative model of bereavement.
    • Qualitative Content Analysis of Political Rhetoric and Victim Perceptions in the United States

      Huang, Anthony (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Victimhood rhetoric, through which victims of crimes request recompense as a result of their suffering, is easily observed in modern media. This observation poses the possibility that societal perceptions of victims over time may have changed. This study investigates, in all 58 of the United States Presidents’ inaugural speeches, the chronological shift of rhetorical themes associated with victim perception. The themes being evaluated were determined by their relevance to positive and negative valuations of victimhood status. Themes were then separated into several codes: duty to help others and true victimhood codes represented positive victim perceptions; Protestant Work Ethic, isolationism, and untrue victimhood codes represent negative victim perceptions. These codes were applied on a sentence-by-sentence basis to develop initial impressions of trends. Isolationism and untrue victimhood were not correlated with the passage of time. However, associations were found between passage of time and three themes: Protestant Work Ethic, duty to help others, and true victimhood.
    • CULTURAL AND ACCULTURATION DIFFERENCES REGARDING DISTRESS SURROUNDING PARENTAL DIVORCE

      Cornacchini, Siena Kate (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This study examines the long-term subclinical effects of divorce on Hispanic and non-Hispanic White young adults of various levels of acculturation to the majority culture in the United States and their relationships with each of their parents. University students from married and divorced families completed surveys that included the General Ethnicity Questionnaire (GEQ), the Painful Feelings About Divorce scale (PFAD), and free-response questions about their relationships with and attitudes towards their mother and father. Multivariate and univariate ANOVA’s were run to determine if there was a significant difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White young adults on subclinical distress after divorce and attitudes towards parental relationships. Multiple and linear regressions were run to determine if acculturation level was a predictor for subclinical distress or positive/negative affect words used in the free-response questions. One significant effect was found of acculturation levels on positive affect words used when describing parental relationships’ participants who were more acculturated to United States culture used more positive affect words when describing their parental relationships. Attributes of collectivist cultures are used to explain these results.
    • THE CONSCIENTIOUS WAR ON WOMEN: COMPLICITY-BASED CONSCIENCE CLAIMS AND CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION IN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE

      Murray, Casey (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Citing their own personal moral beliefs, some health care providers refuse to provide certain reproductive services, like prescribing contraception or performing abortions. This refusal has contributed to a reproductive health care crisis in the United States that disproportionately affects rural and low-income women. This thesis evaluates whether conscientious objection and complicity-based conscience claims in reproductive health care should be protected under First Amendment freedom of religious expression. In the paper, I differentiate between conscientious objection and complicity-based conscience claims in the context of reproductive health care. I evaluate the current state of reproductive care in the U.S., along with U.S. Federal law and case law, to argue that complicity-based conscience claims in reproductive health care should not be protected, however conscientious objections may be.
    • TOWARD URBAN CLIMATE RESILIENCE: A POLICY ASSESSMENT OF TUCSON, ARIZONA

      Mollaneda, Idrian Carlo (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Climate change is a phenomenon that threatens to alter the way societies exist and function in varied ways. As governments the world over scramble to find solutions in dealing with the effects of climate change, local climate policy arguably matters the most, at least on a short-term level. After all, cities and municipalities are the places in which localized climate effects are felt and seen by individuals. Urban climate resilience is an ideal that envisions cities that are prepared for the challenges that arise with a warming world. An emerging concept for guiding planners and policymakers for dealing with climate change, fostering urban climate resilience has gained traction in governance circles. This thesis focuses on the city of Tucson, Arizona, and the ways that the city has integrated climate resilience-building measures into its planning and policies.
    • ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND MORAL VALUES

      MARKANDEYA, MALHAR NAVINCHANDRA (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Has increasing economic freedom made us lose touch with moral values? Does an increasingly free market erode the moral underpinnings of society? This paper seeks to address concerns with how moral values and economic freedom are related to each other. By using empirical data provided by the World Values Survey and the Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, we will attempt to find if there is a connection between economic freedom and moral values. The goal of this project will be to see if there merely exists a connection between economic freedom and moral values, not specifically how they are correlated. Upon analyzing the data, it seems that there does not exist a clear connection between moral values and economic freedom. While the results are inconclusive there are a few strange things we can take away from the research: Certain values are positively and negatively correlated for different countries, similarities among these correlations are difficult to determine, and certain moral values have increased and decreased with changes in economic freedom.
    • VOWEL EPENTHESIS IN WELSH/ENGLISH BILINGUAL CHILDREN

      Olson, Daniel Rodney (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This study examines vowel epenthesis in Welsh/English bilingual children. Of specific concern are marked word-final Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP) violations repaired by vowel epenthesis (Hannahs 2009). This epenthesized vowel is typologically recognized (Morris-Jones 1913; Lewis and Pederson 1937) as a copy vowel. This study tests the hypothesis that this vowel is a copy of the root vowel. Welsh/English bilingual children with a mean age of 6;5 were given an elicitation task with the purpose of eliciting words containing an epenthesized vowel in their coda. F1, F2, and F3 of both the root vowel and the epenthetic vowel were recorded. A linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to test if the formants of the root vowels were predictive of the formants of the epenthetic vowels. Results showed that the formants of the root vowels had no significant effects on the formants of the epenthetic vowels. The copy vowel hypothesis is, then, unsupported.
    • THE IMPACT OF ADDITIONAL TIME AND PRODUCTION BETWEEN STIMULI ON ADULT LANGUAGE LEARNING

      Ayala-Miranda, Karen Alexa (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This study followed up on a previous experiment, wherein adults were unable to learn a particular type of language sound rule (a Type II phonological rule), which infants were readily able to learn. As in the earlier study, adults participated in a familiarization phase, where they heard nonsense words that followed the rule in question, and a test phase where they had to judge new nonsense words as to whether they fit or did not fit the pattern of the familiarization words. Two factors that might improve learning were part of the familiarization phase of the current experiment (1) addition of time between familiarization words, (2) plus vocal production of each familiarization word. Twenty-five total adults participated, but the results did not indicate any improvement in the participants’ ability to learn the Type II phonological rule based on the manipulated factors. Possible reasons for differences between infant and adult language learning are discussed.