• Dynamic Bioreactor For Engineered Cartilage Tissue

      Redford, Gary; Tat, Trinny (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cartilage within the knee joint that is damaged in younger patients due to sports injuries and other traumatic events does not heal spontaneously. Cartilage damage leads to pain, decreased mobility and can eventually progress to diffuse cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis of a joint. There are no current medical or surgical treatments that restore osteoarthritic joints to their native condition and patients will commonly require joint replacement. In order to develop new treatments to regenerate damaged cartilage, stem cells have been used to produce cartilage like tissues. The Dynamic Bioreactor for Engineered Cartilage Tissue shall mimic loads that are observed from humans’ natural gait onto stem cell seeded scaffolds, specifically for creating tissue that will have similar histological and mechanical properties as that of native cartilage. The aim is to provide shear of 5%-10% and axial compression of up 20%, a sterile environment for cell growth, as well as regulate and record the axial strain and shear strain. For the various phases and milestones of the project, refer to Appendix A. This report is a comprehensive summary of our final project and its associated documentation.
    • Selective Relationships Between Sensory System White Matter Connectivity And Sensory And Cognitive Function In Aged Macaques

      Barnes, Carol; De La Peña, Nicole Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Normative aging results in deficits in both auditory and visual function, along with degradation of select cognitive functions. Studies have shown that sensory function is a predictor of late-life cognitive abilities, though the neurobiological base of this relationship is unclear. Previously our group found that the connectivity of medial temporal lobe-associated white matter was related to better auditory processing abilities and temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions. This study concluded that shared impacts of aging on temporal lobe structures could account for the selectivity in these relationships. However, little is known about the association between sensory system white matter connectivity and sensory and cognitive function with age. In this study, adult and aged bonnet macaque monkeys were behaviorally characterized and evaluated for auditory and visual function. Measures of auditory and visual system white matter connectivity were extracted using diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography. We found that higher connectivity of callosal auditory fibers was associated with better auditory function, and higher connectivity of the posterior forceps and optic radiation were associated with better visual function. Higher connectivity of auditory system white matter was associated with better performance on certain temporal-lobe dependent cognitive tasks. Our results support the idea that a shared impact of aging on temporal lobe structures could partially drive relationships between auditory processing and temporal lobe-dependent cognition.
    • Visual Natural Language Processing Of Medical Images For Enhanced Value

      Redford, Gary; Alcantara, Diego Kantack (The University of Arizona., 2019)
    • The Role Of Endohyphal Symbionts In Influencing Fungal Degradation Of Plant Cell Walls Under Field Conditions

      Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Thomas, Kendra Allyson (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Many plant-associated fungi form symbiotic relationships with endohyphal bacteria (EHB), which live within fungal tissue. Our goal was to evaluate how EHB (here, Pantoea spp.) influence the ability of fungi to degrade plant material under field conditions, thus extending previous research based only on in vitro assays. We examined the degradation ability of two fungi (9133 and 9140) with (+) or without (-) EHB on foliage of three plant species (Platycladus orientalis, Cupressus arizonica, Juniperus deppeana). Plant material with one treatment (9133+, 9133-, 9140+, 9140-, or control) was placed into mesh litter bags and deployed into field plots. After three months we found that treatment with fungi, regardless of EHB status, increased mass loss relative to controls for two species (C. arizonica, J. deppeana). In contrast to expectations based on in vitro results and a small pilot study, EHB did not increase degradation of plant material by fungi. We anticipate that biotic interactions with other decomposers in soil, especially in a relatively rainy winter with robust microbial activity, could explain the observed results. Future experiments might focus on how EHB influence interactions among the diverse fungi that play a role in plant tissue degradation in complex natural systems.
    • Putting An End To Homelessness Of Pregnant Women: Holistic Interventions For Addressing Birth Outcomes And Maternal Risks

      Lamoreaux, Janelle; Ryan, CJ (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Homelessness is an epidemic in the United States, where over half a million people find themselves without housing nightly. This is especially concerning when considering those who are forced to bring in the next generation into an unstable home environment – those who find themselves in the unique situation of experiencing homelessness and pregnancy simultaneously. Children born to mothers who were homeless during pregnancy are at a higher risk for intergenerational poverty, homelessness, victimization, substance abuse, and chronic illness – many of which stem from the lasting health effects from disproportionately high rates of fetal birth defects, underdevelopment, and low birth weight in these babies. When the health of the mother and their child in gestation are understood as interconnected, we can focus on factors which contribute to the holistic picture of the mother’s health – and consequently their infant’s health. This involves a close look at the socioeconomic and environmental factors which contribute to the prevalence of poor birth outcomes in the unique population of homeless, pregnant women. With understanding the intersecting factors which shape their overall picture of health, the model of shelters as a novel intervention can then serve as a treatment which may address many of these concerns in a long term, effective, and comprehensive way. This intervention seeks to understand and eradicate the underlying socioeconomic burdens which underscore the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes among this population in the first place.
    • Neurolinguistic Processing And Social Stress Of Emojis In Emotionally Ambiguous Texts

      Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Armstrong, Emma Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Emojis are symbols that are utilized in computer-mediated communication to provide emotional and social cues to interlocutors. There is little prior research regarding the processing of emojis with or without context. We investigated neural responses to positive and negative emojis both before and after emotionally ambiguous sentences. Our research sought to identify the differences in processing between negative and positive emojis, and between emojis with and without context. We found that negative emojis produced a stronger N170 effect than positive emojis when placed before texts, and that they produced a stronger P200 effect than positive emojis when placed after texts. Emojis placed before texts produced stronger N170 effects than punctuation, indicating they are processed fully as faces. Emojis placed after texts produced stronger LPC effects than punctuation, but no significant N170 effect, indicating that they are instead processed for only emotional content.
    • On The Classification Conception Of Modality

      Turner, Jason; Jones, Dakota Scott (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Modality is the study of two different modes 1 of truth; possibility and necessity. These notions are completely pervasive to our everyday life, but there is a specific species that philosophers are most interested in -- metaphysical modality. Metaphysical modality hopes to capture everything that could’ve possible been and everything that must be. In the current literature on metaphysical modality, there are two competing views -- the Governance and Classification conceptions. The Governance conception argues that necessity in some way governs truth. The Classification conception argues that modality is simply a classification of what kind of a truth some particular truth is. Viewing modality in either light has rippling effects on what kinds of modal theories one can endorse. In this paper, I will present two such Classification style theories. In doing so, I aim to show that similar objections apply to both. Furthermore, I argue that any theory viewing modality through the Classification conception will be open to such objections. Lastly, I argue that the debate between the Classification and Governance conceptions should be carried out further before debate over specific theories continues.
    • Robotic Gait Simulator

      Redford, Gary; Osorio, Miguel Angel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Continuing the evolution of orthopaedic solutions to common musculoskeletal disorders and injuries results in the need for increasingly complex and physiologically accurate models of human movement. As such, lower limb cadaveric simulators are suitable for investigating the biomechanics of the foot/ankle in a controlled, clinical setting and provide insightful information to the researchers concerning gait cycles. The interdisciplinary team was tasked with modifying an existing Robotic Gait Simulator (RGS) in order to enhance the capabilities of the previous model. The solutions are implemented easily and designed to interface with the current system. These include: additional tendon simulators – linear actuators – and replacement with more robust versions – capable of delivering larger forces at higher speeds – , updated load cells and electronics, a Guided User Interface (GUI) to operate the system, modifications to the aluminum frame to accommodate the supplemented tendons, a “flange” designed to maintained correct tendon-pull direction, and a friction-power treadmill to provide ground reaction forces of the foot/ankle model during varying gait. The finalized RGS was successfully built and tested with approximated tendon-force curves developed via a MATLAB program. The analysis showed promising results and its modular design opened the possibility of future enhancements.
    • A Virtual Reality System For Realistic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training

      Redford, Gary; Bergeron, Hannah Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Introduction: In the United States, more than 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur annually. CPR, while lifesaving, needs to be performed accurately to be effective. This study aims to implement virtual reality (VR) with wearable sensors to measure compression acceleration, frequency, and depth while providing real-time feedback to the user for immersive and effective CPR training. Materials and Methods: VR scenarios were customized in Unity video game engine to serve as the user interface and feedback environment. An HTC Vive VR system immersed the user into a real-world CPR scenario while an HTC Vive tracker tracked the position of a CPR mannequin in VR. An MPU6050 accelerometer was programmed with an Arduino Micro to process compression acceleration data. Leap motion hand tracking technology was utilized to track the user’s hand position. Speech recognition was implemented to recognize key phrases, such as “call 911,” spoken by the user to a non-playable character in the VR scenario. Quantitative and qualitative performance feedback was provided to the user in the form of visual and auditory cues to correct CPR compressions. Conclusions: This system is an innovative proof of concept for a VR-based CPR training system that can provide compression feedback for high quality CPR.
    • Virtual Mapping Of Data Centers With Robots

      Redford, Gary; Avila, Rigoberto, Jr. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this project was to virtually map the inside of Microsoft’s data centers using robots. This final report serves to provide information on setup of the system. Additionally, it gives details on testing procedures and the results of those testing procedures. The report also presents the various models that were used in initially creating the data center mapping system. Ultimately, the senior design team was able to put together a fully functional data center mapping system with live stream capabilities, functioning telemetry support, and 360 degree panoramic of the mapping locations
    • Robotic Gait Simulator

      Redford, Gary; Thurgood, Harrison Taylor (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The continuing evolution of orthopaedic solutions to common foot and ankle problems means engineers and clinicians need increasingly complex and physiologically correct models of human movement. The design uses new parts and improved methods designed to interface with current machines and operating procedures that simulate the movement of human walking. The team added three additional tendons to the foot-ankle model and replaced the current tendon actuators with more robust models, capable of larger forces and faster movement. These additional tendons resulted in the design, validation and implementation of additional actuators, load cells and accompanying electronics. Adding these components required designing a spacing flange to maintain physiologically accurate tendon pull direction while providing the necessary space for the movement systems. The team overhauled the electrical system so it could provide necessary power to all components. The sponsor can use these new additions to the robotic gait simulator to better model orthopaedic solutions to gait defects, such as poor posture and injury.
    • Autonomous Greenhouse Watering System

      Redford, Gary; Bebongchu, Syntia Nkemzi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This report is responsible for presenting a greenhouse smart watering (GrowSmart) system in critical detail. This document will also discuss the reason for such a design, design subassemblies and their functionality, design models and analysis, software algorithm, subassembly tests, and results. The scope of this project is to design, build and test a fully autonomous greenhouse watering system that utilizes a cloud database to interpret and write crop data. The purpose of the project is to simplify crop growth. Challenges with greenhouse systems involve intense labor and severe inconsistencies with the human component of crop watering. The GrowSmart system will monitor and record sensory feedback using a cloud-based data storage.
    • System On A Chip Video Encoding System

      Redford, Gary; Oura, Kaitlyn Akiko (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      PROJECT GOAL: To evaluate the performance and demonstrate the video encoding/decoding capabilities of the Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ Multi-Processor System on Chip (MPSoC) device. The project tests the performance of the MPSoC device by running software that serves as a benchmark to compare with a contemporary device. The software consists of an algorithm that uses cross-correlation for signal detection. The system demonstration has signals feeding into the algorithm coming from a directional antenna that detects wifi signals. The result of the cross-correlation software as well as video feed from a camera are displayed on a monitor to visualize the signal strength at a specific location. The benchmark software uses math functions ported over from the contemporary device to ensure an accurate performance comparison between the new and current systems. The benchmark software measured the total elapsed time taken to correlate one million input signals with one reference signal. The results from this test were delivered to General Dynamics Mission Systems to have the comparison of the devices done internally to see if the MPSoC device should be considered for future products.
    • NASA Challenge: Conversion Of CO2 To Glucose

      Ogden, Greg; Headley, Ryan James (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Utilizing physicochemical and catalytic reactions, our team developed a non-biological process and scalable apparatus to produce selected carbon-based sugar molecules using only CO2 as a carbon source. The process consists of a multi-step reaction pathway in which carbon dioxide molecules are photochemically converted to formaldehyde, and then catalyzed via a formose reaction scheme to produce four to seven carbon sugars. Complex sugars such as D-Glucose and 6-carbon sugars (hexoses) are considered most desirable by NASA; therefore, the process also includes a separation phase in which 6-carbon and 7-carbon chains are output as products and smaller molecules are recycled as substrates to the formose reaction to form longer carbon chains. Multiple alternatives were evaluated to determine reaction conditions which produced the greatest yield and efficiency. The system was designed to have low power, mass, and volume requirements and to be feasible for potential future space missions.
    • Frangible Bearing Support High-Cycle Fatigue Test Rig

      Redford, Gary; Bernas, Olivia Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Our project goal was to design, build, and test a functional test rig that would simulate high-cycle fatigue icing conditions on a turbofan engine frangible bearing support (FBS). The FBS is a turbofan engine component designed to break under extreme conditions, such as fan blade-out, to prevent damage to the main structure of the engine. It must, however, be able to withstand icing loads, which are less extreme. Icing loads occur when condensation gathers and freezes inside the engine, creating an imbalance on the main shaft and imparting a rotating load on the FBS. The FBS was recently redesigned to meet a stricter icing life requirement of 5,000 pounds radial load for 30 million cycles. Our new test rig design simulates high-cycle fatigue under icing conditions. The cycle count for this test was adjusted to 100,000 cycles with a rotating load of 8,500 pounds, applied radially outward on the inner cylindrical wall of the FBS. The test rig applied the load through the use of two actuators with connections to a puck in the center of the FBS. The test rig was designed to last 250,000 cycles so it can test both the original and redesigned FBS.
    • QR Codes For Good

      Redford, Gary; Miner, Corey Justin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This project is a payment transaction system based on QR codes. The purpose of the project is to create a system where you can donate to homeless people electronically. 70% of people today no longer carry cash, so homeless people are no longer getting the donations that they once got. Using QR codes, the homeless person can go to the public library and print a QR code, and then any person who wants to donate only needs to scan the QR code to donate. By having the money electronically, by partnering with homeless shelters or EBT program, the recipient of the donation can be restricted in what they can purchase. Not allowing them to buy alcohol or drugs can make people donating feel better about their donations as well. Overall, people are donating less and cash can be spent anywhere, but with this project, donations can be sent quickly and painlessly through a QR code.
    • Vehicle Detection For Cyclist Safety

      Redford, Gary; Purdy, Ruben (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This document contains the final results of Senior Design Project 18037: Vehicle Detection for Cyclist Safety. In the following sections, we present a deep neural network enabled vehicle detection system which can be run in real time on self-contained, portable computer hardware, which in turn can be attached to a bicycle. We outline the architecture of our system, and then provide technical details of both the software and mechanical design in a technical data package. Furthermore, we detail the procedure and results of the analyses and tests performed on the system. Lastly, we present our final budget and reflect on the lessons learned during this project.
    • Family Perceptions: Measuring Beliefs About Whether Gender Roles Are Transmitted From Parents To Children

      Croft, Alyssa; Coles, Mathew Ryan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Prior research has examined perceptions of adults who violate gender stereotypes and shown on numerous occasions that these adults are at risk for receiving social and economic repercussions in the form of perceptual evaluations. However, research has yet to address whether the negative judgements of and backlash against gender nonconforming adults will be transferred onto perceptions of their children. The current study investigates how adults perceive children belonging to non-traditional (i.e., gender non-stereotypical parental roles) and traditional households by showing adults illustrations of these ostensible children within the family context. Results show that parents belonging to non-traditional families were generally perceived in accordance with backlash theory. The non-traditional mother received higher rating of perceived success, but lower rating of perceived morality in comparison to their non-violating other. While the non-traditional father was perceived as more likable but less successful then the non-traditional mother and received lower rating of success in comparison to their non-violating other. These findings did not extend to children in the way that was originally hypothesized, and instead non-traditional children received ratings similarly to children with traditional parents but received a boost in perceived success and likelihood to pursue counter stereotypical occupations.
    • A Creative Investigation Into Epic Poetry: Solead

      Christenson, David M.; Walker, Katherine Lauren (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In the manner of an epyllion, this fictional poetic piece explores how a modern epic might be constructed. Using a science fiction setting, two sides of a growing conflict in Earth’s solar system are followed on their respective journeys and in their inevitable convergence as each group fights for the truths or lies they have come to believe. It also serves as an investigation into the composition process of an epic in an effort to better understand the creative choices of classical works of this genre.
    • The Female Gaze: Nuanced Censorship Of Women

      Geary, Adam; Funess, Veronica Chloe (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      While some may believe sexism and discrimination have evaporated or are less severe amongst other forms of violence, they are kept under wraps in current patriarchal society and prevail to maintain inequality. In a world informed and structured by social systems, institutions, play a role in carrying out male dominance and female subordination through discrete mechanisms. One means of patriarchal safeguarding in Western society—in acquiescence with projecting ideas that support traditional gender, racial, and sexuality norms—is censoring ideas that alternatively challenge hegemonic beliefs and may disrupt social, political, economic, hierarchical arrangements (Rich 228). While research on gender discrimination in censorship, particularly the arts, widely exists, the persistence in different spaces assures its importance for examination. Because of new technologies, forms of consumption, and an increasingly visual culture, this generation is marked by nuanced censorship thus needing feminist analysis. I perform one case study examining the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), the operator of New York public subway stations and trains, banning women’s sexual health and wellness advertisements—using feminist scholarship, and analysis of approved versus rejected advertisements, along with analysis of the MTA’s advertising policies—to look at the role of institutional power and gender bias in censorship.