• Facebook pages and public spaces: Guatemala's 2015 movement and the years that followed

      Chikos, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-01)
      Guatemala’s 2015 Summer demonstrations were the largest public protest in the country since the Guatemalan Spring in 1944. These demonstrations were organized rapidly via social media, with Facebook Pages in particular playing a vital role, making them comparable to other digital mediated social movements and new forms of social protest in Latin America. The aims of this study are to explore the role of Facebook Pages in this historic moment, through an approach that considers both the cultural and political impacts of new technologies. Since the 1960s an emerging discourse around “New Social Movements” emphasizes the communicative and ideological nature of social movements, in contrast to social movements that seek purely political aims. This research found that while the Facebook Page should be understood as a Public Space where cultural forms are challenged and reshaped, it is also a highly political technology with real world effects.
    • A Classical Insight Into the Separation Between Church and State

      Videla, Gabrielle Marie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This paper connects events of the late Roman Republic with the United States of America’s principle of separation of Church and State. Many scholars find similarities between the Roman Republic and the U.S., but do not know the depth of connection or how the founding of the nation was impacted by the classical world. In the first sections of this paper I define the Roman state cult and examples of how it was abused during the turbulence of the late Republic. The next section describes the classical education the Founding Fathers received. There follows an indepth explanation of the creation and support of the principle of separating church and state during the founding of the United States. To conclude, connections are drawn between that principle of separation and the troubling events of the late Roman Republic that the Founding Fathers would have read from classical authors. It is hoped that this paper shows how a study of the classical world offers modern scholars a chance to understand the modern world.
    • “THIS LOCK, THE MUSE SHALL CONSECRATE TO FAME:” CLASSICAL RECEPTION IN ALEXANDER POPE’S THE RAPE OF THE LOCK

      Wong, Jennifer Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This thesis examines reception of Classical authors in Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock. The first chapter is concerned with the reception of Catullus 66 and the active character of Berenice II. The chapter also analyzes how Pope’s Belinda is a negation of Berenice II’s agency, making her a passive character and victim. Chapter 2 focuses on Pope’s use of Homeric type scenes and tropes as a more direct interaction with Classical epic. Through irony, he establishes the poem’s situation in which Belinda exists as an antihero. Chapter 3 examines Pope’s use of Virgilian epic reception to continue the characterization of Belinda as an antihero. By examining the Classical reception in The Rape of the Lock, Belinda’s character can be read as an antihero which reexamines her narrative of victimhood.
    • THE EFFECT OF AUTOPHAGY ON NEISSERIA GONORRHOEA INFECTION

      Mai, Annette (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Autophagy is the intracellular degradative process whereby cellular components are broken down and recycled. This process plays a role in regulation of cellular homeostasis and in intracellular defense against invasive pathogens. Pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) causes a sexually transmitted disease and has an intracellular phase in its life cycle. Ngo attaches to human epithelial cells for extensive periods of time, however, few viable intracellular bacteria are recovered until 4 hours post-infection. We observed an increase in viable intracellular CFU count when lysosome formation was inhibited. Since autophagy is a lysosome-dependent mechanism, we seek to determine whether autophagy influences intracellular survival of Ngo. With the use of chemical inhibitors, RNAi, immunoblots and immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that autophagy is induced by Ngo through the Type I membrane protein CD46-cyt1 and its interacting partner GOPC. Although this autophagic response kills off early invaders, Ngo is able to promote its intracellular survival at later stages in infection by inducing shedding of CD46 and remodeling lysosomes. This mechanism allows Ngo to inhibit initiation of autophagy and reduce degradation of cell parts and pathogens in the autophagic complex.
    • YOUNG PEOPLE, HIP-HOP, AND THE MAKING OF A ‘STREET UNPOLITICS’ IN SARAJEVO, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

      Kadich, Dino (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, a growing community of young people are using hip-hop music and the culture surrounding it as a grammar with which to evade the ethno-political fixity imposed upon them equally by projects of political nationalism and of reconciliation. Insofar as they respond to the legally and socially imposed regime of fixed ethnic identity and the precarious economic conditions they are faced with, they do so by imagining, playing, and working within the city as an archipelago of cosmopolitan spaces. In doing so, they also make urbanity and urban belonging an alternative pathway to political belonging, one that is premised in opposition to the country's ethno-national regime. Within these archipelagic spaces, young people develop a “grammar of politics” deeply influenced by local and global hip-hop by which to narrate and understand their own lives and mark their resistance to the status quo and the project of Bosnian state-making in which they are inevitably entangled. Following Rys Farthing, I argue that this set of discourses and practices represents a “youthful unpolitics"--a form of politics replete with nihilism and contradiction, that fades in and out of legibility, and that offers a political alternative precisely by not offering an alternative. In order to do so, I visit the spaces in which these young hip-hop fans circulate, and show how their construction of a culture around both 'local' and 'global' hip-hop provides a site in which alternative futures are imagined and the 'meantime' present is policed in order to effect such futures.
    • SEPARATION, VIOLENCE AND THE DEVIL: MISOGYNY IN MACBETH

      Ketterling, Camerin Alexa (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      King James I of England and VI of Scotland influenced the writing of William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. The king was an open homosexual who disliked women. Similar to many men of his time, James distrusted women’s power and sexuality and he argued for the reality of witches. In Macbeth, men must separate themselves from women in order to be successful and they must use violence to prove their masculinity. References to Christianity, the devil, and Lilith underlie the belief that women will cause men to sin and consequently suffer for doing so. Although Shakespeare condemns women and witches in Macbeth, he is much more sympathetic to women in some of his other plays. Thus, Shakespeare’s actual views on women remain unclear.
    • PHONG CACH MOI SAIGON (NEW STYLE SAIGON): TAILORING SAIGON’S FASHION LABORATORY

      Le, Di (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      New Style Saigon Laboratory, a clothing/fashion production, is a place to make, fosters businesses and learning, while celebrating Vietnamese trades, beauty, and pride. The crafts of cloth-making and is a business that gain Vietnam economic significance globally, as well as preserving the respect of traditional clothing. For example, the Ao Dai is a cultural object – a hand-made apparel made using local textiles and dyes, and its light materiality cools the body in Vietnam’s humid climate. Generative of the Vietnamese dress, the architecture integrates the contextual phenomena and narrates clothing as a metaphor to form spaces. The building block along this street is atmospherically charged, intensified with light jagged balconies, sectional occupation, and program density taking place in tropical Vietnamese climate. The design of New Style Saigon intends to embody this atmosphere of ground fluidity, vertical program, and liveliness of the common. The project uses the metaphor of clothing such as folding, fitting, and draping for programs and circulation, and building envelope.
    • AUSTEN’S PERSUASION: MERITOCRACY, MASCULINITY, AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE

      Harper, Haley Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This essay analyzes the pieces of Jane Austen’s Persuasion in which the author compares the aristocracy and the meritocracy through various interactions and portrayals of values in order to illustrate the moral superiority of the returned sailors. The meritocracy, social success through hard work and amiability, contrasts starkly with the established aristocracy, who only recognize those with noble bloodlines. Through analysis of the aristocracy and meritocracy’s relationships to community, possessions, and women, her political message becomes clear: the lifestyle and values of the meritocracy is more desirable than that of the aged aristocracy. Persuasion contrasts the masculinity of each system, favoring the meritocracy, marked by manners and morals tested in action, over the inheritance of the aristocracy. Informed by her personal experiences with the Navy, the political climate, and her nation’s international history, Austen subtly participates in the political dialogue through her work Persuasion to advocate for the new masculinity promoted through the meritocracy.
    • THE EIGHT STAGES OF GENOCIDE 20TH CENTURY GENOCIDES ACCORDING TO GREGORY STANTON’S CRITERIA

      Kmeid, Amani (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Through the analysis of three 20th century genocides: the Holodomor, the Holocaust, the Cambodian genocide, this research paper will utilize Gregory Stanton’s (1998) original genocide criteria. He describes eight key stages of a genocide: classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination, and denial, in that particular order. The recognition of these phases has allowed for the identification of past genocides whose statuses were once disputed by providing a rubric to compare other events to, while also aiding in the de-escalation and prevention of future genocides by allowing officials and the global community to recognize what is occurring, and stop it before it progresses. These examples of genocides were chosen without any prior knowledge as to whether or not they would in fact fit Stanton’s structure, but selected as a random sampling of 20th century genocides from various regions of the world. This paper also tries to understand how these three aforementioned genocides each conformed to Stanton’s rubric long before any official publishing, while also being geographically distant and culturally dissimilar. Were the methods applied in each of the eight stages similar? How successful were they in their genocidal process? Alongside historical evidence, testimonies, and scholarly discussions, this paper seeks to address all of these questions and more.
    • DER KULTURELLE UND INSTITUTIONELLE UMGANG MIT HASSIDEOLOGIEN IN DEUTSCHLAND UND DEN VEREINIGTEN STAATEN: EIN VERGLEICH DER HERANGEHENSWEISEN UND DEREN EFFEKTIVITÄT ALS ERINNERUNGSSTRATEGIEN

      Daniels, Ciara Ann (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This thesis analyzes the ways in which Germany and the US deal with hate ideologies through memorialization and how effective these strategies have proven to be. Germany’s history of National Socialism and the Holocaust resulted in the development of a “memory culture” (Erinnerungskultur), comprised of institutional and cultural measures that address the horrors committed during the Holocaust. These measures include laws against glorifying or denying the Holocaust, limitations to freedom of speech in the areas of hate ideologies, and cultural monuments that memorialize the victims of hate. While the US also has hate incidents and genocides in its past, there has been no extensive implementation of legal or cultural initiatives to proactively fight hateful ideologies. After evaluating and comparing German and American memorialization strategies through several examples, it becomes evident that Germany effectively and proactively confronts various forms of hate, largely because of the boundaries set after the Holocaust, which serves as a precedent for dealing with hate. This thesis therefore suggests that the US can learn from these proactive strategies by limiting the freedom of hate speech and creating cultural monuments both to honor victims of hateful events and warn against the re-emergence of hate.
    • APPLE’S NEW APPROACH TO MARKETING AND THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES

      Attar, Tamer (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This research examines Apple’s dynamic approach to marketing strategies in the United States of America, a country that has transformed from an agrarian society to an economic and technological powerhouse within the past century. Apple, one of the most innovative technological companies in the 21st Century, exemplifies the “can-do” American culture. How American culture influenced Apple’s marketing strategies is the subject of this paper. In order to accomplish this, the nature of Apple’s domestic marketing vision must be examined and understood in light of the complexities of American culture in order to optimize an effective advertising campaign that will reach a complex and diverse audience. My study’s first step is to determine how a specific culture can influence marketing trends. The second step is to place these marketing trends into context through an analysis of the research. I will also discuss and evaluate implications of the research to understand the effects of a national culture on Apple’s marketing strategy.
    • The Rise and Fall of Building and Loans in the U.S., 1920-1940

      Mani, Amir (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The financial crises of 2008 have inflamed the interest in looking back at the Great Depression and reexamining its causes and consequences. Although unlike the recent financial crises mortgages are not considered as the primary reason for the Great Depression, extensive research from Brocker and Hanes (2013) indicates that the 1920s real estate boom was a major contributor to the severity of the Great Depression. Also, the interventionist policies of the Roosevelt administration followed by the Great Depression triggered some of the significant changes in the US housing market that are still in effect. In this paper, I present information on the growth in institutional lending within the US mortgage market in the 1920s. I outline major structural changes in mortgages, in particular mortgages from Building and Loan Associations (B&Ls), and finally I use data from the balance sheets of B&Ls in the states of New York, Iowa, Wisconsin and North Carolina to examine how building and loan mortgages grew in the 1920s and then estimate the relationship between mortgages and building permits, interest rates and real estate owned assets.
    • CONTENTIOUS: CANDIDATE INCIVILITY ON TWITTER IN THE 2016 GENERAL ELECTION

      Witt, Alexandra Danae (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The relationship between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton’s campaigns during the 2016 general election can be best characterized as uncivil. With Twitter as the vehicle, the candidates seemed to trade insults and accusations on a frequent basis. To assess this frequency, a content analysis of the tweets posted by each candidate and their campaign’s official accounts during the general election period (N=8,141) was conducted. Results show that incivility occurred in 11.6% of the total tweets posted. The most common type of incivility found in tweets was name-calling, with accusations of lying coming in second. Most tweets only contained one form of incivility.
    • THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SIMPLE CROSS HEDGES FOR SORGHUM AND SUNFLOWER SEEDS

      Grenham, George Edward (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      One key purpose of futures markets is allowing firms to trade contracts which will change in value in the opposite direction of the value of the product which the firm produces. This process, known as �hedging�, allows firms to decrease their risk of large losses. Cross-hedging occurs when a firm tries to hedge a product with a futures contract which is tied to a different product. In this paper, I examine the viability of cross hedging sunflower seeds with soybean meal and soybean oil, as well as sorghum with corn. The suitability of these commodities for cross-hedging has not been thoroughly studied recently, despite their substantial role in the U.S. and world economy. I used historical data to determine how closely changes in the given futures prices are linked to changes in the spot prices of sorghum and sunflower seeds. Using two different hedge intervals, I found that corn provided an effective hedge against sorghum, while soybean meal and soybean oil failed to adequately hedge against sunflower seeds. I also found that longer hedge intervals improved hedge effectiveness. These results inform hedgers on the quality of the hedging strategies, and shed insight into sorghum and sunflower seed markets.
    • VISUALIZING AMERICAN POLITICAL SPEECH IN THE 21ST CENTURY

      Martin, Cassidy Taylor (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In order to see how political speech has changed over time in the United States, I created a data visualization project that takes speeches made by U.S. politicians and shows the usage of popular topics and the words in those topics. My project focuses solely on the 21st century and uses a flower design to represent each topic. Using transcripts of political speeches, along with natural language processing and topic modeling tools, I was able to create a visual representation of what politicians talk about in the U.S. and how those topics have changed.
    • A LONG-TERM ANALYSIS OF FISH SPECIES PROPORTIONS IN SONOITA CREEK, ARIZONA

      Wolsiffer, Sarah Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Desert streams are unique and fragile ecosystems that are extremely sensitive to system changes. Dams and diversions, introduction of exotic species, global warming, and pollutant runoff from cities and mines are all anthropogenic changes to stream behavior that have resulted in low flow, increased competition, increased temperature, and higher concentration of pollutants. Sonoita Creek, Arizona has experienced all of these stressors and we examined if the native and exotic fish species composition has shifted and the potential roll of these stressors. This paper follows a 36-year (1991-2017) meta-analysis of the proportions of three primary native fish species found in Sonoita Creek; desert sucker, Pantosteus clarki, longfin dace, Agosia chrysogaster,and speckled dace, Rhinichthyes osculus, In the beginning of these surveys in 1991, longfin dace was highly dominant in the creek but decreased over time, likely due to a change in discharge. This analysis shows us that there is a definitive change in species composition. While the trend does provide insight into the stream status, further studies need to be done to determine what surrounding covariates are affecting these changes the most.
    • JOHN KEATS’S THEORY OF IMAGINATION

      Pearce, Kendall Renee (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Romantic poets, including John Keats, were known for their emphasis on nature as an imaginative cognizance of external objects. They believed the imagination was signified as the coincidence and fusion of the expressed and inexpressible. Keats’s contemporaries thought of the imagination as deeply intertwined with these poet’s fervent emphasis on nature and therefore, their creative emphasis on imagination. Keats however, had a unique perspective of the imagination compared to his fellow Romantics. The vital force behind his poetry was his power to apply imagination to every aspect of life. His poetry exposes the delusive fantasies that create our reality, a reality which lingers in uncertainty beyond its aesthetic potential. The imagination embraces what Keats coined as negativity capability and obstinately refuses to establish social and political constructs. Through works such as Endymion, Lamia, Isabella,The Eve of St. Agnes, Hyperion, and the Odes of 1819, Keats expresses his desire to immerse himself into an imaginative dream world, while simultaneously playing a responsible part of procuring painful reality. John Keats’s theory of imagination is defined by his expression of the connection between the conscious and unconscious creative mind through his representation of conflict between thought and feeling and reason and consciousness.
    • RADAR-BASED VEHICLE LOCATION AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

      Jimenez, Diego (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      As autonomous vehicles become increasingly popular, their success is dependent on their ability to maintain accurate GPS connection. Without GPS connection, the autonomous vehicle is incapable of navigating around its surroundings. This loss of connection is typical in areas such as parking garages, tunnels, valleys, etc. The vision of this project is to create a GPS free navigation system that can be placed onto vehicles and will create an inferred location of the vehicle following the loss of GPS connection. The inferred location of the vehicle will be determined from the data collected by two ViaSat radar modules and the last known GPS location of the vehicle. Following data collection, the data will be input into MATLAB for postprocessing where an inferred location of the vehicle will be determined. Our team is responsible for packaging all hardware such that it is easily attachable onto a vehicle and generating the software algorithm that calculates the inferred vehicle location during data post-processing. This thesis will contain a complete technical data package that will explain each system sub-assembly in depth. To supplement the technical data package, we will also provide the acceptance test procedures and acceptance test results for all system requirements.
    • THE TEXAS ECONOMY DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION: 1930-1940

      Garza, Susan Jane (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The goal of this project is to understand the unique consequences of the Great Depression on the state of Texas. This was done through historical research of the events, debates, and laws in the state during the 1930s, as well analysis of economic data. It was found that Texas, while struggling with many of the same issues as other states, also struggled with a shaky oil market and political stagnation. Like other plains states, Texas struggled through the dust bowl, becoming a leader in land conservation. It was also found that the two factors that influenced Texas’s state revenues the most, the gas tax and the property tax, also affected the revenues of thirteen other states as well.
    • PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS; KNOWLEDGE, PEDAGOGY, AND PERCEPTION REGARDING STUDENTS DIAGNOSED WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

      Nulsen, Alexis Victoria (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common pediatric chronic illnesses with approximately 1 in 400 youth diagnosed. There is little research done at the pre-service teacher level on training and knowledge retention of T1DM. This is a two-phase pilot study aimed at examining pre-service teacher knowledge on working with students with T1DM. A training program was developed to test the hypothesis that the designed training would be effective in supporting holistic classroom management and better prepare teacher candidates on their knowledge, perception, and pedagogy of students diagnosed with T1DM. Phase 1 of the study analyzed findings from literature review and completed studies on school success of students with T1DM. Findings showed a high absence rate, lack of parental knowledge regarding school support, and decreased academic performance according to glucose control. These findings were applied during Phase 2 to adapt training materials using an iterative process. Phase 2 tested participants’ working knowledge of T1DM through a knowledge survey related to their perceptions, knowledge, and pedagogy before the training. Using a quasi-experimental. pre-post design, participants who attended the training re-answered the questions. The results from this study help predict change in training and protocol for pre-service teacher educators.