• Facebook pages and public spaces: Guatemala's 2015 movement and the years that followed

      Chikos, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-01)
      Guatemala’s 2015 Summer demonstrations were the largest public protest in the country since the Guatemalan Spring in 1944. These demonstrations were organized rapidly via social media, with Facebook Pages in particular playing a vital role, making them comparable to other digital mediated social movements and new forms of social protest in Latin America. The aims of this study are to explore the role of Facebook Pages in this historic moment, through an approach that considers both the cultural and political impacts of new technologies. Since the 1960s an emerging discourse around “New Social Movements” emphasizes the communicative and ideological nature of social movements, in contrast to social movements that seek purely political aims. This research found that while the Facebook Page should be understood as a Public Space where cultural forms are challenged and reshaped, it is also a highly political technology with real world effects.
    • EXPERIENCES OF DISCRIMINATION ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

      Warlick, Chloe Danielle (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Introduction: The present study examined experiences of discrimination, discrimination-related vigilance, stress, fatigue, and poor sleep among students at the University of Arizona. Methods: Data were collected using an online survey. Students indicated if they had experienced discrimination and discrimination-related vigilance. Subjects answered a question about their sleepiness in the last 7 days and also answered questions about their sleep, fatigue, and psychological symptoms using the PSQI, the ISI, the FSS, the PSS, and the PHQ9. Relationships among sleep, vigilance, and discrimination were examined and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and estimated GPA. Partial mediation analyses examined whether hypervigilance score partially mediated relationships between EDS or MED and sleep variables. Results: EDS and MED scores were associated with overall sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleepiness, fatigue, sleep latency, and total sleep time. When stress or depression were added to the model, most of these results became non-significant. The relationships between EDS and MED score and sleep variables were, in many cases, significantly partially mediated by hypervigilance score. Conclusion: College students who report discrimination report more sleep disturbances. About 30-70% of these relationships are explained by hypervigilance score. The relationship between stress/mood and sleep subsumed much of the relationship between discrimination and sleep.
    • HOMELESSNESS IN SOUTHERN ARIZONA: USING GROUNDED THEORY

      West, Christina Marie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The unique climate and population of Tucson, Arizona could have a unique effect on those who experience homelessness. In the current study, we obtain qualitative interviews with participants experiencing homelessness in Tucson about their life and healthcare experiences. Elements of grounded theory were used to analyze the data, giving rise to the overarching themes of health, values, institutional resources, and life on the street. Many participants suffer from both physical and mental illnesses, have family issues that contribute to their homelessness, and maintain a spirituality or belief in God. Many report the ever-present risk of having their belongings stolen, and report that women are especially in danger of being taken advantage and threatened with physical violence. The report that many shelters and housing programs have a waiting list suggest that future investigation into the quantification of the types of resources available for the Tucson homeless population could add to a more holistic view of their needs.
    • EFFECTS OF MEMORY INDUCTION ON MEMORY ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

      Coste, Sedona Francheska (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This paper addresses the role of episodic memory induction on memory encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults. This study had 70 participants: 40 young and 30 older, both split into an experimental (episodic specificity induction) group and a control (gist based) group. All participants were asked to recall an event from their life in which they were personally involved and then, based on their pre-assigned condition, were asked questions about the memory either in the episodic specificity interview, or the gist based interview. Afterwards, participants participated in a visuospatial event memory test that consisted of a series of videos, then a filler task designed to distract participants, then were asked to recall as many details about the videos as they could. The number of details recalled served as the dependent variable in the study. The results were that the young adults who had the episodic specificity induction recalled more details compared to the gist based group. There was no significant difference between memory performances in the older adults. Additional probing did not eliminate the advantage for the episodic specificity group in the young adults, the idea that an episodic encoding mode was induced in this group was supported.
    • INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, GENDER, AND APOE ?4 STATUS ON COGNITIVE PERFROMANCE IN HEALTHY OLDER

      Becerra, Marisa Nicole (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This study sought to evaluate the interactive effects of gender, alcohol consumption, and APOE ?4 on cognitive performance (in 207 healthy, older (50-89) adults). The participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests that included measures of global cognitive function, memory, processing speed, executive function, and language. After controlling for age, education, years smoking, hypertension status, and GDS, main effects for gender were found in all tested cognitive domains, except language, with females performing better than males. Moderate alcohol consumption showed a significant beneficial association with measures of memory. There was a trend observed for APOE ?4 non-carriers performing better than carriers in global cognitive function. Results also showed significant interactions between APOE genotype and alcohol consumption, as well as gender and alcohol consumption. Particularly, carriers perform better on measures of language when they consume less alcohol, whereas noncarriers perform better with moderate alcohol consumption. Females performed better in measures of processing speed and language with very low alcohol consumption and males performed better with moderate alcohol consumption. Overall, these findings provide preliminary support for the importance of moderate alcohol consumption, gender, and APOE ?4 as factors that may influence observed differences in cognitive aging.
    • CARE COORDINATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS

      Sahnan, Manpreet (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are those who require an amount of health care services that is greater than normal due to their chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional condition (McPherson). The extra care requires management and coordination commonly known as care coordination. Care coordination looks different in different regions in Arizona, because the primary care coordinator could be the caretaker, primary care physician (PCP), or a social worker. The caretaker is generally the care coordinator for the child which is stressful for parents who are not in the medical field (Lyles). In Arizona, there are multiple systems that are present such as the physician led coordination at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, coordination by the social worker at Tucson Medical Center (TMC), and the caretaker as the care coordinator. Many of the difficulties have been studied and surveyed, but there is not enough relevant literature and current studies are being conducted to understand the process and design a new system for care coordination.
    • HOMELESSNESS IN SOUTHERN ARIZONA: NEGATIVE RECOVERY CAPITAL AS A PREDICTOR

      Ristagno, Michael III (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This qualitative study examined homelessness in Southern Arizona through the lens of a Recovery Capital model. There are four categories within this model: social capital, physical capital, cultural capital, and human capital. Fifteen homeless men and women were interviewed about their lives and what led them to being homeless. Two individuals provided photos of their lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and examined for aspects of the four categories. The results indicate that within social capital, specific needs include: strong family relationships and connections to jobs. Issues identified within physical capital include: lack of financial resources and savings. Issues identified within human capital: lack of education, work credentials, poor mental health, and drug or alcohol addiction. Issues identified within cultural capital: lack of desire to leave the streets and holding negative views of mainstream society.
    • METAPHORICAL LANGUAGE AND THE EFFECTS ON RETENTION OF NOVEL CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN

      Troncoso, Caleb (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Previous studies have shown that metaphorical language is more emotionally salient and causes significant activation in the regions of the brain involving emotions as compared to literal language. Additionally, since research recognizes that emotional events are more memorable, this study proposes the question, “Does teaching a concept using metaphorical language increase retention rates in children?” The study recruited 30 normally developing children ranging from ages 13-17 to participate. After being randomly split into two groups, participants were taught forty concepts (20 in science and 20 in literature). Half of the concepts were taught used metaphorical language and the other half used literal language in one group and switched in the other. In order to measure changes in scores before and after instruction of the concepts, the participants took both a pre-test and post-test. When comparing the scores between the results of the tests, there was a higher increase in scores with the metaphorically taught science questions as compared to the literally taught questions, however the difference was not statistically significant. The literature questions showed higher scores for the literally taught topics going against the initial hypothesis.
    • STRESS, HAPPINESS AND DISHONEST BEHAVIOR: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

      Medai, Evelyn Maria (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Dishonesty in the workplace is nothing new. For years, researchers in economics, business management, and psychology have sought to understand what causes people to act dishonestly. Our experiment aims to find out if emotions have an effect on honesty. Using a simple dierolling task created by Fischbacher and Föllmi-Heusi (2013) to detect levels of dishonesty, we tested the effects of induced Happiness, Anxiety, and Neutrality on students at the University of Arizona. The experiment is designed in such a way that dishonesty cannot be detected on an individual level, and instead is measured by analyzing the aggregate data of a certain group of subjects. This gives subjects an incentive to behave dishonestly and maximize their payoff without fear of repercussion. This also allows us to measure levels of dishonesty and compare moderate lying to severe lying. Through our analysis, we found that people do indeed behave more honestly in a state of Happiness than they do in a state of Neutrality or Stress.
    • A MEASURE OF THE IMPACT OF BCOM314 CLASSES ON THE TUCSON JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTER

      Scibilia, Natalie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The purpose of this thesis is to quantify the impact of Eller BCOM314 student groups on The Tucson Jewish Community Center (The J), where the groups offer strategic plans for various program and operational improvements at The J, as requested by management. I created a logarithmic regression model to test how membership level was impacted by each of the recommendations upon implementation. The overall impact of the implementation of BCOM314 groups’ recommendations was estimated to be positive. This was due to the implied positive effect of the recommendations on new membership and lack of effect on cancellations. Because this study was observational, the regression model could not distill the effect of each recommendation and the small sample size caused large standard errors, both of which mitigate the conclusiveness of the results. However, this methodology can be applied to other Eller initiatives to measure their impact in the community.
    • CQA INVESTMENT CHALLENGE: APPLIED KNOWLEDGE

      LeDuc, Joseph Russell III (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The CQA Investment Challenge primarily explored the realm of portfolio management, offering a chance to learn and apply equity analysis and selection in a simulated hedge fund experience. This endeavor drove me to apply the knowledge I have gained about finance and the financial markets throughout my time at the University, serving as an ideal culmination of my experiences from the past four years. In a group of four other Honors students, we were responsible for managing money, describing our investment process, and reviewing the performance of our portfolio, while competing against approximately fifty other teams from various colleges across the country. We placed in the top thirty, realizing nearly flat returns, while employing a factor-based strategy based on our predication of an imminent flat-to-down market. The range of returns between all teams ranged from -9.49% to +9.25%. Ultimately, we prevented significant losses in a market that did not perform according to our forecast.
    • FAST, ACCURATE, AND LOW-COST SENSING OF REWARD CONSUMPTION AND LICK RESPONSES IN RODENTS

      Clark, Nicholas McKinley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The accurate measurement of reward consumption and timing of that consumption is a key component of reward driven learning in psychology and neuroscience research. Likewise, food consumption is important in nutritional research to understand consummatory patterns. While previous methods can time lick responses in these sub fields of research, none can detect reward consumption or lick force. Moreover, these methods can introduce electrical artifacts in other sub-fields of research acquiring electrophysiological and electrochemical data. We have developed a novel, inexpensive, and open-source system to measure consummatory behavior in rats and mice for both solid and liquid food. Here we show that this system can accurately measure the amount of liquid or solid food dispensed and consumed by rats or mice with high temporal precision and accuracy. This lick detection system can be used to time individual licks, quantify the force of those licks, and can be used without introducing electrical artifacts into electrophysiological recordings while keeping calibration over extended periods of data collection.
    • BRIDGING THE GAP: A CULTURAL COMPETENCY TRAINING PROGRAM FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

      Harris, Christina Nicole (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Introduction: Recently, a topic of discussion within the field of public health has been the diversity of population of the United States and abroad. The world is becoming more and more diverse, which means that more and more cultures are being represented. Within the sphere of health care delivery, this means that it is important to try and cater to all of these different types of cultures. With the increasing cultural group representations, it is important for both medical and public health professionals to be culturally aware and sensitive to their patients’ needs and care. However, the sphere of health care delivery does not seem to culturally sensitive to the people that they are serving. Not everyone is getting the same level of care within the patient provider interaction, and this translates into overall patient dissatisfaction. In order to increase patient satisfaction, people are turning to cultural competency training programs so that health professionals can provide excellent culturally responsive health care to their patients.. Federally, this has been addressed through Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Service guidelines, or CLAS Guidelines, but the problem of culturally insensitive health care delivery still continues to exist. To supplement CLAS guidelines, health care facilities have mandated that their employees go through a cultural competency training programs. Cultural competency is regularly becoming important components of the curriculum in some heath professional schools. There are many different types of trainings regarding cultural competency available, however the problem of culturally insensitive health care delivery still exists. Specifically within Pima County, medical professionals, public health professionals, and community health workers have local resources such as the Western Region Public Health Training Center, which is located at the University of Arizona, however with a diverse population of different cultural groups, such as various Hispanic groups, American Indian groups, Asian groups, Pacific Island groups, and Black and African American groups, it is imperative that health care professionals receive cultural competency training. Bridging the Gap is a cultural competency training program that is designed for health care managers in order to address this problem. It is a training program that consists of three workshops and an orientation session that discuss issues of culture and health, communication between providers and patients, and how to train employees to talk with their patients. Each of these workshops will have activities that will allow the health care managers to practice skills that they will use within their health care facilities.
    • PROBIOTICS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

      Dhanoa, Harman (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The human body contains millions of diverse microorganisms that collectively make up the human microbiome. There are variations in the density of bacteria across body sites, and the composition of these microbial species is regulated by several factors including genetics, diet, infectious agents, and other environmental triggers. Pioneering research in this field hypothesized that host-microbe equilibrium is essential for the health of the host and that changes or dysbiosis within the equilibrium are associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. Recent studies have utilized new sequencing technologies to draw an association between dysbiosis and inflammatory disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease in which synovial inflammation causes joint failure. Probiotics have the potential to stabilize the host-microbe equilibrium and decrease the inflammatory process. The available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) show that probiotics can reduce proinflammatory cytokines; however, the clinical effects of probiotics on RA disease activity remain unsettled.
    • EPISODIC SPECIFICITY INDUCTION AND THE EFFECTS ON REMEMBERING AUTOBIOGRAPHICALS EVENTS

      Landry, Janet Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The effects of using an episodic specificity induction before encoding of event memories in younger and older adults were explored. The research question is if an episodic specificity induction is presented before the encoding of complex events, will the induction affect how younger and older adults generate and encode details. Participants were randomly divided and counterbalanced into either the episodic specificity induction group or the general impression induction group. Participants were asked to recall an event they were personally involved in and were interviewed according to their randomly assigned induction condition. After completing this task, participants watched 14 short visually rich videos and were asked to recall 12 randomly selected videos after a short 10-minute filler task. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed by an independent research assistant. Data were coded for average number of details per video and types of details (internal vs external) generated. Data analysis used a 2 (group) x 2(detail type) ANOVA and a 2(group) x 5 (detail type) ANOVA. Results from this study were that the episodic specificity induction enhanced encoding of internal and external details for younger adults but not for older adults.
    • “NATURAL DISASTERS, CAR ACCIDENTS, AND BOAT CRASHES! OH MY!” THE LONG TERM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NON-ABUSE TRAUMA IN CHILDHOOD

      Fay, Colleen Marie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Over the last century the leading cause of death in the United States has moved from infectious diseases to heart disease (Tippett, 2010). Heart disease, among other chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, cancer), is affected by personal behavior choices (e.g., tobacco use, diet, alcohol use, number of sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases) (Leather, 2009). With this shift in causes of mortality, the question becomes what leads to the risk-taking behavior that can lead to chronic disease? Although both abuse and non-abuse trauma in childhood can lead to risk taking behavior, abuse trauma has received much more attention. This paper will review the important research studies concerning non-abuse trauma. As a comparison, the first section will review research from the Adverse Childhood Experiences study, which draws a strong connection between childhood abuse trauma, risk taking behaviors and chronic health problems. The second will review research related to betrayal trauma, which is not necessarily related to childhood abuse. The third section will address Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) developed following natural disasters, traffic accidents, and PTSD following major accidents. This paper concludes with a focus on the future implications for both research and post trauma childcare for caregivers and medical providers.
    • BRAIN, PSYCHOLOGY, AND MATE VALUE: MATING PREFERENCES IN A 53-YEAR OLD MALE FOLLOWING A SURGICALLY PLACED LEFT AMYGDALA LESION

      Kline, Ian Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      For this study we investigated the relations among brain structure, psychological states, and perceived mate value of self and others. We hypothesized perceived mate value of self and mate value of others is a function of lesion to specific of regions (i.e. the amygdala). We administered self-report questionnaires to a single participant to capture this construct. Our results indicated a lack of interest and desire for indicators of reproductive success. Indicators for companionship and friendship remained intact. Presently, there is evidence supporting the claim that the amygdala plays a role in mediating sexual desire but firm causal claims cannot be made without experimental design.
    • PREFERENCE FOR COMMUNAL OR AGENTIC TRAITS IN PARTNERS AND CHILDREN

      Galinsky, Cindy Joy (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      People’s preference for communal or agentic traits in their future partners and future children and the connection to the self-extension model will be explored. Four-hundred-and-fifty undergraduate heterosexual students were asked about their own preferences for communal and agentic traits in future partners, sons, and daughters. The participants also rated the expected level of self-extension toward these future family members, and their own levels of agency and communion. The results show that men prefer more agentic sons and daughters compared to partners, and more communal partners than sons. Women preferred more agentic sons compared to partners. Self-extension acts as a partial mediator, where the more both men and women self-extended to their future children, the more agentic they wanted them to be compared to their partners. Implications of the results for future research will be discussed.
    • NINTENDO POWER: AN EXAMINATION OF CONSUMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOR AND VIDEO GAMES

      Franklin, Austin Edward (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This study examined the Nintendo brand of video games from a retail perspective by analyzing the purchasing behavior and perceptions of the people who purchase and play them. Concepts such as nostalgia, value and loyalty were defined based on secondary consumer research, and an online survey questionnaire was developed to measure these concepts within a gaming context. The research question was “Do consumers continue to buy older Nintendo games that have now been rereleased in some form because they are driven by nostalgia, which evokes fond memories of value they perceived in the past, in order to experience that same value they felt in those memories by purchasing the games again?” According to the survey results, consumers do repurchase Nintendo games, and they do perceive a degree of both nostalgia and value. However, the results do not suggest that nostalgia is strongly connected to the repurchasing behavior. The type of value perceived by most consumers of Nintendo games is believed to be hedonic value, although there are many other factors to be considered such as specific characteristics about the games, the people whom these consumers play the games with and the intellectual properties that these games are based on. Although it is not believed that consumers are loyal to the Nintendo brand, they continue to repeatedly purchase newly released games to this day for a variety of reasons.
    • AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOM PETIOLE TISSUE SAMPLE NITROGEN CONTENT AND YEAST ASSIMILABLE NITROGEN IN VITIS VINIFERA WINE GRAPES

      Kramer, Preston Howard (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen plays an extremely important role in the fermentation of grape juice into wine. Suboptimal or superoptimal levels of YAN in must can lead to sluggish and stuck fermentations as well as off aromas and tastes in the final wine. Application of nitrogen fertilizer in the vineyard pre-harvest can increase YAN content in grapes to optimal levels and is cheaper than post harvest YAN adjustments. This article explores the relationship between bloom petiole tissue sample nitrogen content and YAN at harvest do determine if bloom petiole tissue sample nitrogen content can be used as an early season indicator of the necessity of nitrogen fertilizer to raise YAN content in grapes. The relationship is explored by analyzing previously published articles that contain both YAN and bloom petiole tissue sample nitrogen content, compiling the data, and determining through linear regression if a linear relationship exists between the two data points. The article concludes that no linear relationship exists between the two data points and that bloom petiole tissue sample nitrogen content is not an appropriate early season predictor of nitrogen fertilizer need.