• Facebook pages and public spaces: Guatemala's 2015 movement and the years that followed

      Chikos, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-01)
      Guatemala’s 2015 Summer demonstrations were the largest public protest in the country since the Guatemalan Spring in 1944. These demonstrations were organized rapidly via social media, with Facebook Pages in particular playing a vital role, making them comparable to other digital mediated social movements and new forms of social protest in Latin America. The aims of this study are to explore the role of Facebook Pages in this historic moment, through an approach that considers both the cultural and political impacts of new technologies. Since the 1960s an emerging discourse around “New Social Movements” emphasizes the communicative and ideological nature of social movements, in contrast to social movements that seek purely political aims. This research found that while the Facebook Page should be understood as a Public Space where cultural forms are challenged and reshaped, it is also a highly political technology with real world effects.
    • Health care expenditures and outcomes in the United States and Japan: you don't always get what you pay for

      Shulby, Michael William (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      For the first time in decades, life-expectancy in the United States declined, while U.S. per capita health expenditures hit an all-time high - more than 2.5 times the average for all other countries. In contrast, Japan spends far less per capita on health care, yet has the highest life expectancy of developed countries. This thesis explores correlations between health care financing and population health outcomes in the U.S. and Japan. Research included an extensive literature review and analysis. Lessons from Japan’s health care system could inform U.S. health reform initiatives such as investing in and expanding primary and preventive services. As Americans shoulder more health costs through co-pays, deductibles, and cost sharing, more transparency and education about the cost of care could affect individual decisions about accessing health services.
    • Synthesis and structural characterization of silver (I)-(D-, L- and DL-) aspartate and silver (I)-(D- and L-) glutamate coordination polymers

      Zhang, Yongtao (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Chiral assemblies of metal atoms linked by organic ligands are attracting considerable attention for their unique structural aesthetics and interesting properties. In order to explore the novel helical supramolecular of silver with amino acid complexes and develop the potential applications of them, the silver nitrate and two types of amino acid (L-, D- and DL-) aspartic acid and (L- and D-) glutamic acid are used to generate chiral silver(I) coordination polymers. In this work, five coordination polymers, {[Ag3(D-Asp)2(NO3)]}n. nH2O (1), {[Ag3(L-Asp)2(NO3)]}n. nH2O (2), {[Ag4(DL-Asp)2(NO3)2]}n.2nH2O (3), {[Ag4(D-Glu)2(NO3)2]}n· 2nH2O (4) and {[Ag4(L-Glu)2(NO3)2]}n· 2nH2O (5) are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The X-Ray Diffraction and related software were used for measuring and analyzing the crystal structures. X-ray single crystal structure analysis shows that the complexes (1) and (2) are a pair of six-helix bundle with a helical pitch of 70.6 Å. The adjacent helices are connected by argentophilic Ag-Ag interactions to form sextuple. The D-Asp and L-Asp in complex (3) generate achiral layers. Moreover, the L-Glu ligands in complexes (4) and D-Glu ligands in (5) combine with Ag(I) ions, and both the two structures have no charity. However, complex (4) and (5) are a pair of 3D structural enantiomer.
    • Validation of a Semi-Automatic Cell Segmentation Method to the Manual Cell Counting Method on Identifying Proliferating Cells in 3-D Confocal Microscope Images

      Hillis, Yingli (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Sphere-forming assay is an in-vitro technique to assess the self-renewal and differentiation potential of a homogenous or heterogenous population of cells. This technique is commonly used in the stem cell and cancer biology fields to assess the ability of a cell that is capable of self-proliferation and differentiation. (Schmitt, 2011, Lombaert et al., 2008) To detect proliferative growth, Ki-67, a marker of proliferation, is used in immunofluorescence staining of sphere-forming cells. The current gold standard methodology to quantify cell proliferation is to manually count the cells on images obtained using confocal microscopy. However, the reproducibility, the inter- and intra-subject variability, and the time requirement for manually counting cells are often major challenges for researchers. In this study, we propose a semi-automated cell segmentation algorithm using the FARSIGHT toolbox, to automatically count the individual three-dimensional (3-D) cell nuclei. The present work focused on the investigation of two aspects of the algorithm performance: sensitivity and specificity. We grouped images by sphere size to test specificity of the algorithm. For the sensitivity analysis, we tested the segmentation algorithm on both raw uncalibrated images and calibrated images using Fiji ImageJ software. We found that the proposed algorithm could efficiently identify cells and cell boundaries to overcome the background noise. Finally, statistical analysis showed the differentiation index had low percentage matching between the proposed method and the manual counting method.
    • Lateral workplace violence in nursing: best practice guidelines for creating a culture of civility

      Worcester, Laura Sweet (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      This best-practice paper explores research on the phenomenon of lateral violence in the nursing workplace. The research articles reviewed in this paper will discuss factors contributing to workplace violence and possible strategies for mitigating incivility. Articles will focus on student nurses and newly-licensed nurses who are often the primary recipients of bullying behavior. The literature review will discuss the implications of lateral workplace violence including high new nurse turnover, early burnout, inadequate patient care, and increased hospital costs. Beyond the analysis of the current literature, this paper will identify evidence-informed recommendations for best-practice protocols. A proposed implementation plan and evaluation will be applied using the innovation-decision process theory. A five-stage process will be outlined in the final chapter including the knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation of the proposed innovation.
    • A comprehensive overview of Syrian refugees' mental health

      Temple, Cooper Philip (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The Syrian Civil War has led to a devastating refugee crisis unlike any seen in modern history. Millions of people have fled their country and resettled elsewhere, either in refugee camps or host communities. While much of the international focus is on their physical conditions, little attention and funding have been given to the mental health needs of the Syrian refugees. Although ensuring their safety and physical well-being is of primary importance, addressing mental health needs to be better prioritized to avoid the development of significant problems in the future. This paper discusses the significance of the mental health problem in the broader context of the crisis overall, examines the current methods being utilized and their drawbacks, provides a case study of three local refugee organizations, and finally, highlights other programs experiencing success to identify potential opportunities for improvement of care.
    • The flossophy of oral hygiene: the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

      Browning, Jordan Rae (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      It has been estimated that approximately half of the US population has some level of periodontal disease (Paul, 2015). The following paper analyzes four different studies that support my hypothesis which states that a relationship does exist between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. For example, in rabbits, it was observed that periodontal inflammation stimulated by P. gingivalis dramatically increased lipid deposition in the rabbit’s arteries (Jain, A. et al., 2003). Moreover, it was demonstrated that statins have a pleiotropic effect on arterial and non-arterial inflammation. Along with my literature research, I educated first-graders about the importance of oral hygiene. The first part of the lesson included a PowerPoint presentation about a superhero tooth stopping a villain from causing cavities. Following the presentation, the students participated in an activity where they sorted food and activities into different categories based on healthy and unhealthy habits. Overall, this study confirms a relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease in US adults; and encourages public health educational programs to educate cavity prevention starting at an early age.
    • Childhood after the death of a parent

      Arroyo, Corrie Lynell (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The aim of this thesis was to look at the consequences of parental death in children. The first part of my thesis examined what can be expected after the death of a parent. It looks into theories about grief, physiological changes related to grief, behaviors of grief seen in children. The second part of the thesis dealt with potential risks that the individual might present after the death of a parent during childhood. This section looks at the difference in outcomes in respect to how the parent had died and differences in outcomes as related to gender. The third part of this thesis focused on what should be done by caregivers to help the child after the death of a parent. It focuses on the attachments between caregivers and these children who are dealing with the death of a parent. It looks at how the caregiver should talk to a child about death and activities that can help the child with healing. It then looks at the importance of making the deceased present in the life of the child and how to incorporate a new partner into the family dynamic, should this arise in the future.
    • Conquering the terrestrial environment: the evolution of xylem anatomy in early tracheophytes

      Bergman, Elisabeth Anne (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Since the first land plants appeared 480-360 million years ago, natural selection has resulted in continued colonization into increasingly drier and harsher environments. The evolution of traits associated with water transport and avoidance of embolisms allowed plants to conquer increasingly more seasonal and drier terrestrial environments. However, it is unclear just how the xylem anatomy of the first Embryophytes differed from extant (living) taxa and if these differences translated to differences in plant functioning. I measured and compared hydraulic traits from stem cross-sections from extant plants and extinct fossil specimens. For 231 stems comprising 115 extant and 116 extinct taxa, measures of xylem conduit diameter/frequency and segment diameter were measured. Comparing these measures of xylem conductive traits indicates that extant plants, for their size, have more and wider conduits leading to a larger total conductive area and higher rates of water conductance. Further, the combination of xylem traits found in extinct paleo plants suggests that they were less efficient at water transport and likely more restricted to less seasonal and more wet environments. Together, these results reveal a unique insight into the functioning of extinct paleo plants and the evolution of xylem form and function.
    • Expanding the "particular social group" classification in asylum law: an analysis of matter of A-R-C-G-

      Bennett, Mikayla Anne (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      This legal note will analyze the repercussions stemming from the Matter of A-R-C-G- in asylum law. This case allowed women who had endured domestic violence to receive asylum in the United States under the particular social group classification. Part I will discuss the facts and analysis in the Matter of A-R-C-G- case as decided by the Board of Immigration Appeals. Part II will analyze the particular social group classification and its evolution over time. This part will also compare the elements of domestic violence in Matter of A-R-C-G- to the particular social group requirement so as to explain how to apply for asylum under this label. Part III will hypothesize how the precedent set by this case could be expanded to allow women persecuted by gang violence to successfully apply for asylum in the United States.
    • Evidence based practice recommendation: non-pharmacological pain management interventions during labor

      Reed, Sydney Lain (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The purpose of this thesis is to explore best practices for non-pharmacologic pain management during the birthing process in order to create an educational pamphlet that explains to women their options for pain management during labor and birth. The focus of this project is to provide best practice recommendations to pregnant women so that they can make informed decisions on birth plans and specifically decide what pain management techniques they may use during labor and birth. The goal is to inform all expecting women with necessary information to ensure her knowledge about pain control options during the birthing process and promote a healthy birth experience. The author conducted an extensive literature review that explores outcomes of different pain management techniques and focused on non-pharmacologic pain management techniques to provide women with the resources needed to have an improved labor experience. Based on the evidence in the literature review a pamphlet will be created to describe the various pain management options available to women with explained risks and benefits. The hope is that a well-informed decision on pain management to promote a birthing experience in which coping is enhanced and suffering is reduced.
    • Visions of Etruria

      Cook, Ellen Angeline (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      I have used mythology of Etruscan origin and mythology favored by the Etruscans as subject matter for a group of sculpture. While the work draws only a little upon Etruscan pictorial style, with the exception of what is needed to ascertain appropriate details of costume and attributes, it strives to capture the essential content and spirit of the original. Each image is accompanied by a description of its content and historical background, in addition to a description of the broader context of Etruscan civilization. I hope to create an interest in and awareness of this relatively obscure subject matter.
    • Constraining frisbee tracking methods through Bayesian analysis of flying disc models

      Hannah, Elizabeth Mackenzie (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Since the invention of the original Frisbee in the 1940s, disc sports such as Ultimate Frisbee and disc golf have exploded in popularity. Yet despite the expansion of disc sports, the body of literature surrounding Frisbee flight dynamics remains limited. Understanding flying disc physics – which is both easy to observe and nontrivial to model – may improve the performance of disc sport athletes. This Honors Thesis builds on the work of Frisbee Flight Simulation and Throw Biomechanics, published as a master’s thesis by Sarah Hummel in 2003. After exploring the Frisbee model described by Hummel, the work presented here uses a Bayesian approach to compare this model against simulated flight data. By generating a set of synthetic data and using an MCMC algorithm to recover the parameters used to produce the data set, we illustrate a possible approach for assessing accuracy of Frisbee models. We propose that this type of analysis can be used to constrain properties of cameras and develop enhanced tracking methods for flying discs. Since Frisbee data can be easily captured using basic smartphones, the work herein offers an accessible way to test modern parameter estimation and data-driven modeling methods.
    • Best practice guidelines for skin-to-skin contact following birth

      Miller, Melina Rose (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The purpose of this thesis was to develop an educational pamphlet with best practice guidelines for expectant parents and nurses about skin-to-skin contact. The research conducted for this thesis focused on the benefits of skin-to-skin contact for mothers, pre-term infants, and term infants following both vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Skin-to-skin contact has been referred to as the optimal form of care for a newborn (Erlandsson, Dsilna, Fagerberg, & Christensson, 2007). When skin-to-skin contact does not occur following birth, the most common reasons are lack of education among parents and lack of collaboration of the healthcare team (Zwedberg, Blomquist, & Sigestad, 2013). Some of the benefits skin-to-skin contact has to offer for mothers is as a reduction in anxiety, depression, and postpartum hemorrhage (Moore, Anderson, & Bergmen, 2009). Some of the benefits of skin-to-skin contact for infants is a reduction in sepsis, infection, and hypothermia. Pre-term infants are also more likely to breastfeed and gain more weight daily if they engage in skin-to-skin contact (Conde-Agudelo & Díaz-Rossello, 2016). Implementing an educational pamphlet within the setting of a childbirth class would provide expecting parents with evidence-based information on the benefits and feasibility of skin-to-skin contact.
    • The tactic and floral constancy of foraging bumblebees: pure legitimate foragers, pure nectar-robbers, and mixed tactic individuals visiting one or more host species

      Wang, Karen (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Floral visitors in a Colorado bumblebee community engage in two main foraging tactics: nectar-robbing and legitimate foraging. An individual may employ one tactic consistently throughout a foraging bout or switch and may visit one consant host species or multiple. In order to understand foraging strategies, tactic and floral constancy must jointly be investigated with pollen and nectar foraging. I do so in this second ever study to compare floral visit observations with pollen load compositions. I found that nectar-robbers carried pollen less or as often as legitimate foragers, depending on robber and host species. This suggests that pollen-carrying robbers are mixed tactic individuals that could, in one foraging bout, cheat and cooperate with its plant partner. Visitors were observed switching tactic within a host species and switching tactic between host species. Both robbers and legitimate foragers carried pollen from the same host species they visited for nectar when that host species could be both robbed for nectar and legitimately foraged for pollen. These results suggest that tactic switching is more common than previously thought and that floral constancy is frequently maintained across tactic switches, unless host floral morphology constrains behavior and forces a host switch.
    • Can current methods of immune rejuvenation improve humoral immunity against a viral infection?

      White, Sarah Elise (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The process of aging impacts immune defense against infection. This is attributed to immunosenescence, which is defined as a gradual decline in the function of the immune system. This decline is widespread, affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, which both play an integral role in pathogen recognition and elimination. Lymphoid organs are known to undergo structural and functional changes with age and understanding these changes and how they can be prevented or reversed is critical if we are to improve immunity in older adults. We studied two immune rejuvenation methods: the administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, degarelix, and injection of interleukin-7:antibody complexes, and have specifically addressed their impact on humoral immunity against West Nile virus (WNV). We found that while each intervention improved certain aspects of immune cell generation and/or maintenance, neither of the two was able to improve humoral immune responses or immune defense against WNV. Results are discussed in light of current strategies for immune rejuvenation.
    • Implications of orco on olfaction, neural development, and social behavior in ants: A review of the literature

      Agosttini, Joseph Anthony (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Olfaction is one of the most essential sensory modalities amongst insects. Not only is this behaviorally observed, but it is also anatomically evidenced. A range of social behaviors, including communication, foraging, and reproduction to name a few, immensely rely upon chemosensation. However, studies examining the genetics and neuroethology underlying this sociality in eusocial species, such as bees and ants, have been scarce, thus limiting our understanding of the molecular mechanisms needed for these species to thrive. This review examined the current literature on the orco-encoding gene and the effects that its mutagenesis had on ant olfaction, neural development, and behavior, specifically on Harpegnathos saltator and Ooceraea biroi ants. Results from these few but insightful studies included an observed decrease in the number of olfactory sensory neurons and glomeruli; reduced antennal lobe size, an inability to detect foraging and reproductive pheromones; non-cooperative behavior; and diminished egg laying and longevity, indicating that orco is a crucial protein needed for normal ant development and sociality. These findings show that ants make a prime model to study the sociobiology of insects and to highlight differences in neural development between eusocial and solitary species.
    • Implicit race bias towads American Indians documented in physicians

      McDermott, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      The present study was designed to examine implicit stereotyping and prejudice towards American Indians in a physician sample. An invitation with a link to the online survey was emailed to Southern Arizona physicians. Participants completed both a stereotype and prejudice Implicit Association Test (IAT) to determine if they held implicit bias against American Indians. It was predicted that participants would be quicker to implicitly associate American Indian stimuli with noncompliance compared to non- Hispanic White stimuli in the stereotype IAT and hold an implicit preference for White stimuli in the evaluative IAT. Results show that physicians implicitly stereotype American Indians as non-compliant and hold negative attitudes towards them, relative to non-Hispanic Whites. These findings have implications for acute and long-term medicaldecision making, as well as doctor-patient interactions.
    • Best practice recommendations to support breastfeeding among low-income women

      Roth, Brianna Marie (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      This paper explores the most current research on the identified gap in breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among low-income mothers when compared with the general population. Women that fall into the “low-income” bracket and who participate in the WIC program are nearly 12% less likely to initiate breastfeeding than the general population, and less likely to continue for a year (Hedberg, 2013). The articles examined discuss the barriers and supportive measures that contribute to or hinder breastfeeding success among low-income prenatal and postpartum mothers. The articles focus on providers knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding in relation to the promotion of breastfeeding among low-income women, interventions to extend the duration of breastfeeding once initiated, strategies to encourage best-practice uptake among nursing staff, ways to motivate low-income women to breastfeeding over formula feed, and the benefits of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food and Nutrition Service involvement. These articles further discuss the impact women’s confidence regarding breastfeeding has on its success, as well as low-income mother’s experience and perceptions of both professional and peer breastfeeding support. Beyond the review of current literature, this paper will identify best-practice recommendations, a proposed implementation plan, and a proposed evaluation of the implementation process.
    • The perception of students on organic versus conventional foods

      Mosqueira, Lucia (The University of Arizona., 2017-12)
      Introduction: There are several obstacles consumers face when it comes to purchasing organically processed food products. For the organic food industry to satisfy consumer needs and preferences, the barriers of buying organic foods must be evaluated. Methods: The data in this study were collected using both an online survey and hard copy survey. It was also sent to a total of 2,300 University of Arizona students. The survey evaluated the perception of students on organic versus conventional fruits and vegetables, poultry, meat, dairy products, and processed foods regarding price, health benefits, taste, effect on environment, appearance, and quality. Results: There was a significant association (P=0.001) for top meaning of buying organic and buying more than 25% organic. The greatest difference was seen in “helping the environment” and “better for myself”. Discussion: Price and acceptance could be a great influence since most organic buyers stated that “feel like wasting money” or “more expensive” were their major reasons for not purchasing organic foods. The main considerations participants named in our study when it came to organic food consumption were health and environmental factors.