• A Comparison Of Two Procedures For Analyzing Spontaneous Language In Preschool Children With Developmental Language Disorder

      Plante, Elena; Lovelace, Kenna Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The purpose of this study is to make a comparison of the SALT and SUGAR language sample analysis procedures in gathering evidence of language impairment from spontaneous language samples. Three preschool children with developmental language disorder (DLD) participated in the study. The children were asked a variety of open-ended questions in order to obtain a conversational sample. A total of 50 utterances were then transcribed and analyzed using the SALT and SUGAR analysis procedures. The results were then compared against the normative database for each procedure. The SALT analysis identified 2 out of 3 children as being outside one standard deviation (SD) relative to database peers on measures common to both procedures whereas the SUGAR analysis identified only 1 of the 3 children. SALT provided additional measures in which all 3 of the children fell outside of one SD relative to database peers. Based on the results, researchers determined that despite the SUGAR analysis being more efficient, the SALT analysis provides much more detailed data about expressive language development. Therefore, the SALT analysis should be used over the SUGAR analysis to analyze spontaneous language and provide supporting evidence for diagnosing children with DLD.
    • A Conflict Evaluation: Assessing China’s Interests In The South China Sea

      Schuler, Paul; Eulano, Alec Cole (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This paper explores the interests that China holds within the South China Sea. Firstly, it details the validity of China’s historic claims to the South China Sea, as well as the international laws dictating territorial rights. Along with assessing the legality of their occupation, this paper assesses the concrete, or tangible, and conceptual, or intangible, benefits of controlling the South China Sea. Issues such as the oil reserves, the fisheries, and the amount of trade in the South China Sea is assessed in relation to China’s interests and possible gains. This also includes the effects of occupation on their nationalism, and the hypothetical gains in military or global leverage. While mostly focusing on China, this paper briefly touches upon neighboring countries’ competing interests as well as assessing their effect on China’s role in occupying the South China Sea. Finally, it argues that the main compelling interest for China is the military utility gained by securing the South China Sea.
    • A Creative Investigation Into Epic Poetry: Solead

      Christenson, David M.; Walker, Katherine Lauren (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In the manner of an epyllion, this fictional poetic piece explores how a modern epic might be constructed. Using a science fiction setting, two sides of a growing conflict in Earth’s solar system are followed on their respective journeys and in their inevitable convergence as each group fights for the truths or lies they have come to believe. It also serves as an investigation into the composition process of an epic in an effort to better understand the creative choices of classical works of this genre.

      Neumann, Todd; Schmietenknop, Stefan Earl (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This paper will discuss the topic of sovereign debt in the United States as well as analyze different countries’ historical strategies to lower their own sovereign debts. These strategies have prevented other countries from losing international reputation, which causes them to no longer be able to borrow from foreign lenders. This topic of the United States’ sovereign debt problem is widely discussed as it as viewed as not urgent in today’s day in age, but unsolved it could lead to serious repercussions for the United States. Upon analysis of other countries’ historical strategies this paper will outline specific cuts in spending as well as increases in specific revenue areas that will ensure a reduction in the United States sovereign debt.
    • A Design Space to Amplify Playtime as a Foundation for Inclusivity

      Leslie, Kelly; Colantuoni, Carolina Alicia (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Playtime has a vital role in children’s development. Personal growth and the evolution relationships within their lives highly depends on they way they perceive, interact and experience the world. Through play, children are able to explore their surroundings, each other and themselves in a safe environment. There is an opportunity to use this crucial time in children lives to introduce diversity and prevent exclusivity from increasing as they age. To reach an inclusive future, design can be employed to create an experience for children of diverse backgrounds, abilities and cultures to connect to one another, learn about each other and form the foundations for understanding. To amplify playtime, the needs of children around the ages of 6-8 must be taken into consideration as well as all accessibility needs for those with different physical abilities or language barriers. This project explores the design thinking method and how visual communications comes alongside the design thinking process to speak of values and ideals. A visual language and game, that stems from a core mission statement, has been created for a fictional company. In the future, the game could carry in to tools, like an app, to carry on the learning experience and provide other environments for connection.

      Mugmon, Matthew; Troyani, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      This thesis examines the historical and musical context of the Antiphonarium, a Dominican chant book from the sixteenth century current housed in the University of Arizona Special Collections Library. Designed to be read by both laypeople and experts, this thesis first explores the history of the Dominican Liturgy before 1529 and the general structure of Gregorian chant notation and performance. It then examines the Antiphonarium specifically, focusing on its physical characteristics, its formatting and notation, and its writing and art styles. An analysis of three important chants from the Antiphonarium is also included, highlighting the historical and musical depth contained within the chant book. Finally, it briefly looks at the modern significance of the Antiphonarium, and of Gregorian chant music more generally. The purpose of this thesis is to provide insight into the significance of the Antiphonarium and chant books like it. By providing historical and musical context, as well as physical and musical analysis, it shows that chant is an historically and aurally rich music, and that the ancient chantbooks that contain it deserve careful study and attention.

      Rankin, Lucinda; Dickson, Denali (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Global Brigades (GB) works with international communities to address immediate medical concerns and develops public health infrastructure to promote disease prevention and long term sustainability. The purpose of this thesis to assess the effectiveness of Global Brigades in identifying issues affecting the health within rural communities, analyzing infrastructural changes and addressing the management of both acute and chronic medical conditions. While GB is able to provide immediate medical relief, the ultimate goal is to provide access to resources for the development of the community so that GB will no longer be needed. This long-term impact comes via public health improvements and training of local community health workers to broaden access to healthcare. By reviewing the common medical diagnoses seen at medical clinics in 2 communities in rural Honduras, a decrease was seen in both respiratory and digestive system issues, which correlates with the implementation of public health projects to construct eco-stoves and access to clean water. The review of the data suggests that Global Brigades has been successful in its mission and that the improvements to community infrastructure have benefited the quality of life while the continued medical clinics has benefitted the community’s health.

      Duncan, Burris; Sorkow, Noah Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Obesity affects people with Down Syndrome at nearly twice the rate of the general population, with dietary behaviors being significant contributors. We thus sought to qualitatively assess the feasibility of implementing a plant-pure diet in families of children with Down Syndrome. This diet is correlated with healthy weight loss and decreased incidence of chronic conditions linked to obesity (Campbell, Parpia, & Chen, 1998). Following a health education event, the CDC’s Health Related Quality of Life Core Module (HRQOL-4) and a cookbook usage survey gauged dietary implementation and participants’ reactions over a 4-week follow-up period. The health education event, attended by 12 people including independent people with Down Syndrome, parents, and children, was successful. Following plant pure meals, a documentary, and a healthy eating discussion, attendees formulated ideas for dietary implementation and explicitly stated changes in perspective. Eight families (66% of attendees) consented to the follow-up study but compliance with protocol was poor. The event’s community setting, a speaker with Down Syndrome sharing his dietary successes, and addressing concerns via discussions appeared to contribute to the attendees’ favorable opinion. Further research is still needed to determine the feasibility of implementing this diet in families of children with Down Syndrome.

      Oberman, Hester; Clark, Alexis Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Because of the 5.8 billion individuals in the world engage in religious practice, it is important to know how religiosity and religious practices affect the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of an individual. This fact is only enhanced by the fact that these numbers are expected to rise by 32% by 2060, according to a 2015 Pew Research study. 29By noting the various neurophysiologies between those who are religious and nonreligious, society can better understand the psychological processing that goes behind groups forming political policy, health care systems, and humanitarian efforts. Within this literature review, I research how genetic predisposition can impact associated religious affiliation, what influence spiritual experience has on the brain and how religious affiliation, or lack thereof, can mean for individual behavioral tendencies. The review concludes that there is a plethora of data showing both how religion affects the brain and how the genetically predisposed brain structure can influence religious practice.

      Marian, Mary; Shaw, Karrol Anne (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Cancer is currently the second leading cause of death in the United States, and is expected to surpass heart disease as the leading cause in the coming years. Recent research has suggested that adhering to a whole-foods plant-based diet high in fruits, vegetables and unrefined grains, and low in red meat, processed meat, refined grains and added sugars, can assist in the prevention of cancer onset and recurrence. This analysis will explore dietary risk factors associated with the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer, as well as certain components of a plant-based diet that can aid in the prevention of various types of cancer. An extensive body of evidence in the literature supports the finding that a plant-based diet composed of whole plant foods, in contrast to the traditional western diet high in meat, processed food, and dietary fat, can significantly reduce the risk of developing cancer. For example, a plant-based diet has been shown to positively affect survival rates in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Further studies will need to be conducted in an effort to validate the findings that support the adoption of a whole-foods plant-based diet in the prevention of cancer onset and recurrence.

      Wolsiffer, Sarah Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Desert streams are unique and fragile ecosystems that are extremely sensitive to system changes. Dams and diversions, introduction of exotic species, global warming, and pollutant runoff from cities and mines are all anthropogenic changes to stream behavior that have resulted in low flow, increased competition, increased temperature, and higher concentration of pollutants. Sonoita Creek, Arizona has experienced all of these stressors and we examined if the native and exotic fish species composition has shifted and the potential roll of these stressors. This paper follows a 36-year (1991-2017) meta-analysis of the proportions of three primary native fish species found in Sonoita Creek; desert sucker, Pantosteus clarki, longfin dace, Agosia chrysogaster,and speckled dace, Rhinichthyes osculus, In the beginning of these surveys in 1991, longfin dace was highly dominant in the creek but decreased over time, likely due to a change in discharge. This analysis shows us that there is a definitive change in species composition. While the trend does provide insight into the stream status, further studies need to be done to determine what surrounding covariates are affecting these changes the most.
    • A Longitudinal Study Of The Drivers And Effectiveness Of Brand Storytelling

      Nielsen, Jesper; Watts, Hannah Caitlyn Ann (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      With the ever-increasing number of advertisements in the market, consumers are becoming bombarded with messaging, and brands are trying to find ways to break through it all to reach consumers on a meaningful level. Marketing experts recommend brand storytelling as a way to improve the effectiveness of advertising by increasing the emotional appeal. However, the theory of brand storytelling and implementation among brands does not align; oftentimes in practice, brand storytelling merges into a blurry distinction between its core concept and simply narrative stories. This study set out to discover the differences in persuasion between brand storytelling and narrative advertising within marketing efforts. I explore which driving forces – narrative transportation and cognitive evaluation – lead to consumer persuasion in brand storytelling and how those effect long-term brand perception. The results show brand storytelling creates shortterm effects on cognitive evaluation and narrative transportation, but does not cause a significant difference in persuasion. Across time, brand storytelling does not differ from narrative advertising after a single exposure. Therefore it is recommended, among other things, that organizations utilize brand storytelling in an omni-channel strategy to increase impressions while integrating narrative advertising for repeat exposure as it offers less structure and lends to greater innovation.

      Solon, Gary; Scibilia, Natalie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The purpose of this thesis is to quantify the impact of Eller BCOM314 student groups on The Tucson Jewish Community Center (The J), where the groups offer strategic plans for various program and operational improvements at The J, as requested by management. I created a logarithmic regression model to test how membership level was impacted by each of the recommendations upon implementation. The overall impact of the implementation of BCOM314 groups’ recommendations was estimated to be positive. This was due to the implied positive effect of the recommendations on new membership and lack of effect on cancellations. Because this study was observational, the regression model could not distill the effect of each recommendation and the small sample size caused large standard errors, both of which mitigate the conclusiveness of the results. However, this methodology can be applied to other Eller initiatives to measure their impact in the community.

      Price, Eric; Saleem, Mohammed (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      While originally intended to be a full textbook including all organ systems, we ultimately decided on focusing on the respiratory, cardiovascular, and immune systems. We took a unique approach to writing a high school level anatomy and physiology textbook by focusing on rare/complex diseases and using those diseases as a mode to communicate basic concepts of physiology. The name “Think Zebras Not Horses” comes from the phrase “When you hear hoofbeats think horses not zebras” which is medical slang instructing students and residents to focus on the obvious and likely diagnosis rather than a complex and unlikely one. Oftentimes, students are more inclined to learn about the complex and rare diseases, as it provides a sense of strong learning-in that, the uniqueness of a lesson or topic ultimately results in students becoming more immersed in the material. The goal of this book is not to teach how to diagnose or treat such rare diseases, but rather the rare diseases are used as a doorway to understand these three organ systems by relating dysfunction and abnormalities to the normal.
    • A New Venture And Its Possibility In Sonora, Mexico: $plit, The Future Of Turning Tables

      Alsua, Carlos; Morgan, Jack (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      $plit is a venture that I created throughout the academic year of 2018-19. This venture is aimed at solving long wait times, and checkout process at restaurants. $plit does this by simplifying and accelerating the full-service casual dining restaurants’ payment processes for the restaurant and end user through our POS integration and mobile platform. As $plit is a business that is scalable beyond the US Market, I turned to Sonora, Mexico to not only learn more about business culture, but the viability $plit has in that market. This thesis will include $plit’s business plan, as well as the research and validation conducted in and about Sonora, Mexico as a business culture and market.

      Khanna, Rajesh; Hassan, Yezan Haitham (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The study of nociception has been a very electrifying field in neuroscience, pharmacology, and medicine over the past several decades. Pain in living organisms is a homeostatic, sensory-based process that alerts beings to possibly damaging or noxious stimuli from the environment. However, this sensory mode is extremely dynamic and can be influenced by cognitive states, reflex responses, inhibitory or faciliatory neurons, etc. This literature review that addresses the currently understood system of pain transmission, the anatomy/nociceptive functionality of the periaqueductal gray, and phantom limb pain to reinvest research towards top-down treatment of chronic pain syndromes.

      Sbarra, David; Cook, Chelsea Claire (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Marital separation and divorce are stressful life transitions associated with increased risk for a range of poor mental and physical health outcomes. A key task for research in this area is to identify individual differences that may shape risk for these adverse outcomes. This report examines the association between DNA methylation across the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter region and self-reported emotional distress in a sample of 47 adults following a recent marital separation. Greater relative hypermethylation in the gene was associated with less subjective separation-related psychological distress. Significantly stronger negative associations were observed between methylation and psychological adjustment among participants who had more recently separated from their former partner. Although results derived from small samples should be considered preliminary, the current study raises a series of new questions about the role of DNA methylation and psychosocial adaptation to stressful life events such as divorce, and future studies can be informed by these findings.

      Redford, Gary; Zenhausern, Ryan (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Project goal:​​ To design a precise brachytherapy device to deliver twice the radiation dose to cancerous tissue than to healthy tissue for patients with esophageal cancer. Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy in which a small radioactive seed is placed in close proximity to cancerous tissue in order to minimize damage to the healthy surrounding tissue. Non-specific brachytherapy exposure minimizes both treatment efficacy and maximum applied dose in the treatment of esophageal cancers. A precision brachytherapy device was sought after to improve patient care. A precision brachytherapy device utilizing multiple seed channels was created using materials compatible with gamma radiation used during the procedure, ethylene oxide for sterilization of the device, and diluted acid to simulate the conditions of the esophageal tract. Water and contrast mixture, used for visualization during a CT scan, were used to fill balloons which function to stabilize the device. The multiple seed channels were compatible with existing brachytherapy equipment and the device does not require additional training of radiation oncologists or medical physicists. Analysis proved that the device achieves twice the dose of radiation to cancerous tissue than healthy tissue in patients.

      Pettygrove, Sydney; Larson, Jaclyn (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological and social experiences of families feeding their child with a gastrostomy tube (GT) in public and community settings. Ten caregivers were interviewed whose children with a GT ranged from 11 months to 16 years in age. Caregivers’ accounts of their experiences tended to revolve around three primary groups of people contributing to their community feeding experiences: (1) nuclear family; (2) extended family; and (3) community members. Each of these three domains had several sub themes. While there were some caregivers who described positive experiences in most of the themes across each domain, there were no caregivers who shared only positive or neutral experiences. Even those who described positive experiences of the primary family accepting the GT (theme: caregiver self-efficacy) still reported having negative social perceptions of GT feeding in the community (theme: social perceptions). This suggests that despite stating they are accepting of the GT families may still hold reservations surrounding GT feeding in the community. Critical themes that can be easily addressed and prevented for families new to GT feedings include avoiding themes of self-imposed isolation and normalizing extended family in the GT feeding process.

      Knapp, Darin; Faber, Tatum Riley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      A family in which the children are being raised temporarily or permanently by one or more grandparents is an increasing phenomenon in the United States, altering many family dynamics. Research has shown that as grandparents take on primary caregiving responsibilities, they are likely to experience stress. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative analysis was to increase understanding of the unique grandparent experience of raising grandchildren and distinguish and identify protective, buffering factors to stress. A small sample size of four grandparents were identified, who were currently or had previously raised their grandchildren for at least one year. These grandparents were interviewed about their individual experiences and interviews were analyzed. Specific themes emerged from the data as stress-buffering factors: child factors, community resources, family resources, financial resources, and personal growth. One of the main findings identified the relationship between grandparent and grandchild to be a major buffering factor for grandparent stress. Implications regarding community and professional awareness are discussed as are future research directions.