• LIBRARY TECHNOLOGIES: INCORPORATION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN PUBLIC AND ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

      Lenhart, Laura; Beckner, Malia (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The incorporation of technology into libraries has become an increasingly important matter as technology and library patrons have grown and changed over time. Main questions library staff focus on include which technologies are most requested by patrons and would be most beneficial to the library, along with what resources and training go into the implementation and usage of these technologies. In conducting research on this topic, I sought to understand which technologies are most commonly found in and requested for libraries, both public and academic, along with who uses these technologies and how. I also surveyed my fellow University of Arizona students on their usage of the on-campus academic libraries and their services, and what technologies they use and would like to use or see expansions to in the future. With this information, we can get a better understanding of what exactly library technologies are, why they are important and an over positive for public and academic libraries, and what possible trends in usage of these technologies may come in the future.
    • STATE POLICIES REGARDING OPIOID TREATMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ARIZONA

      Boustead, Anne; Bol, Allison (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The opioid epidemic in America has caused devastation to many communities, and different communities have approached this issue in a variety of ways. In particular, although treatment can improve outcomes for many people who use substances, states have different policies related to regulating or facilitating treatment options. In this essay, I have collected evidence based treatments for opioid use disorder to generate lessons for Arizona as they seek to promote substance use treatments backed by evidence. This would make the healing process more effective and affordable for patients. To propose policy suggestions to Arizona legislators, I compiled different state policies passed by West Virginia, Colorado, Texas, and Washington State, analyzed their usefulness based on previous research, and created suggestions based on the success of the policies passed by the other states. The goal of this essay is to emphasize the importance of evidence based treatment used for opioid use disorder and that the evidence related to opioid use disorder should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Arizona should use the success and failures of policies passed by other states as a guideline to better address the opioid epidemic going on in the state.
    • The Role of Prebiotics on Nutrient Sensing and Metabolic Homeostasis in the Small Intestine

      Duca, Frank; Berthiaume, Kayleigh (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes are a significant health and financial burden for many countries, particularly the United States, highlighting a need for successful treatment options. Therapeutic efforts to treat metabolic diseases are beginning to target the communities of bacteria residing in the gastrointestinal tract, coined the gut microbiota. The treatment of the gut microbiome with prebiotics like oligofructose (OFS) has demonstrated beneficial effects like reduced body weight, adiposity and even alleviating hallmark symptoms of T2D like insulin resistance. Previous OFS studies have observed an increase in secretion of gut peptides from enteroendocrine cells (EEC). Interestingly, it has been proposed that gut peptides can regulate glucose homeostasis, partly via a reduction of hepatic glucose production through a neuronal gut-brain-liver axis which is regulated by the small intestinal gut microbiota. In this study, we observe that altering the microbiome of high-fat (HF)-fed rodents via OFS treatment restores small intestinal nutrient-sensing mechanisms, which could lead to the improvements in glucose homeostasis. We observed that expression of nutrient sensor, CD36, in the jejunum of the small intestine was significantly decreased after high fat-feeding and restored with OFS treatment. Similarly, we observed an increase in GLP-1 release in the hepatic portal vein and increased c-FOS expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and area postrema (AP) of the hindbrain of prebiotic-treated HFD rats. Lastly, we observed an increase in c-FOS expression in the NTS and AP of the hindbrain of HFD-fed rats swapped with the microbiota of a prebiotic-treated HFD rat compared to the prebiotic-treated rat swapped with HFD-fed microbiota. Collectively, these results demonstrate the implications of HFD and the benefits of prebiotic treatment on the gut microbiota, small intestinal nutrient sensing, and metabolic homeostasis.
    • TELEVISION AS TEACHER: STORYTELLING IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONAL MEDIA

      Stevens-Aubrey, Jennifer; Bravin, Ryan (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      This content analysis seeks to uncover the relationship between the stories told in children’s educational media and the educational content they also include. Because media of this type have grown tremendously within the past decade while also become more readily availablefor the average consumer, this research most certainly has the potential to impact the lives of parents and teachers of young children. The present study involves analyzing quantitative data from 40 different episodes that represent a total of 10 children’s television shows, where we consider how well each episode tells its story in addition to how well it incorporates educational content throughout. This involves looking at the narrative structure, the characters present, the nature of the conflict, the degree of clarity given to the educational content, and the degree of separation between narrative and educational content. The results indicate that while children’s educational television episodes are effective in balancing engagement with education, there is a tendency for these shows to have a stronger emphasis on education than they do on engagement. With this in mind, the discussion focuses on the implications of this and revolves around how parents, teachers, and other stakeholders in the lives of young children might practically respond to these findings.
    • VECINDAD VIVA: A REGENERATIVE COHOUSING PROJECT IN MEXICO CITY

      Hoffman, Daniel; Bryant, Bianca (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The continuous growth of Mexico City has made the city a vibrant, complex, and unstable place. As infrastructure becomes stressed, it is important to realize designs that respond to the needs of both the people and the environment. In the case of Mexico City’s Centro Histórico, the three main areas of interest are addressing water concerns, providing affordable housing, and preserving historical site significance. Each of these factors contribute directly to the conceptual design of the proposed project. Vecindad Viva is a mixed-use residential project that focuses on revitalizing Mexico City’s historic network by providing a commercial ground floor with various amenities to bring people into the site. The three upper stories contain residential cohousing elements that provide much needed affordable housing to the area while also encouraging the traditional close-knit relationships commonly found in Mexican households. The structure evolves the form of the typical Mexican vecindad, or “neighborhood,” typology by providing dynamic stacked courtyard spaces. Lastly, the materials and the outdoor plaza address environmental issues such as water scarcity, flooding, and pollution through methods of water collection and carbon sequestration.
    • KGASHANE AND THE ELEPHANT: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARULA TREES IN SOUTH AFRICA

      Koprowski, John; Briand, Hannah (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Marula trees are a staple tree native to South Africa and is a source of profit due to the Marula’s ability to be converted into different types of goods like oils, lotions, and alcoholic beverages. Elephants are seen as a pest, destroying these trees and causing an economic loss. My book aims to provide the developing minds of rural South Africa a different and more honest perspective of the reasons why elephants take down and consume Marula trees, taking a scientific standpoint but expressing it in a way that is colorful, fun, and heartwarming. With this knowledge, the children can grow up having a more forgiving attitude towards elephants and understand why elephants do what they do through a more ecological lens.
    • RECOVERY FROM CIPROFLOXACIN INDUCED TENDINOPATHY

      Margolis, David; Campagne, Mikayla (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Background: Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are commonly prescribed to patients because of their broad coverage in treating bacterial infections. Although effective for many bacterial infections, tendonitis and Achilles tendon ruptures are significant complications associated with fluoroquinolones. The goal of this study is to determine how long it takes for Achilles tendons to return to normal following treatment with a fluoroquinolone. Methods: Rats were treated with the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin for 21 days. Achilles tendons were harvested at 0 days, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks following completion of antibiotic treatment. Tendons were analyzed by histology and mechanical testing. Results: Histological changes of the Achilles tendons between the experimental and control rats were observed. Discussion: The results suggest that tendinopathy associated with fluoroquinolone treatment significantly alters tendon structure following completion of a course of ciprofloxacin.
    • IN PARTNERSHIP WITH YWCA PROMOTORAS ROMPIENDO CADENAS: CULTURALLY TAILORED TRAUMA SENSITIVITY TRAINING CIRRICULUM

      Rosales, Cecilia; Camps, Kelsey (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Promotoras Rompiendo Cadenas isa program that exists at the Youth Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) which is a nonprofit in the local area of Tucson. This program is a training for becoming and responding as a promoter. A promotora provides health education and assistance in the Hispanic/Latinx community through compassion and a will to help others. It was recognized that there needed be more of a focus on sensitivity to trauma when these women work with individuals or families. To begin, more knowledge of the areas of trauma that are most prevalent in this demographic of Tucson needed to be sought out. The development of a survey was the start to investigating what particular topics of trauma might go unnoticed or are stigmatized. A focus group was conducted which allowed for further evaluation of possible adversities that needed to be addressed as well. Upon review of the survey data of 22 participants and the collective focus group responses, a curriculum was then structured. Curriculum topics for two workshops were presented to four interviewers whose background ranged from a psychologist, a counselor, and two current promotoras. Suggestions were implemented and the drafting process of the deliverables began. Curriculum for five, three hour, culturally tailored trauma sensitivity trainings have been developed. However, I have chosen to only include my three most valued workshops. These workshops focus on emotional evaluation, trauma over the course of a lifetime, and empathy and compassion. The final two workshops focus on suicide prevention and mental health, which was an area of need expressed through surveyed data, along with practical role playing to prepare for outreach in the community. The goal of this curriculumis to provide an extended education about how to support those who have endured trauma in their life through additional workshops incorporated into the original Promotora Rompiendo Cadenas program.
    • Dehumanization in the Holocaust: An Analysis of Dehumanization in the Experiences of French Female Victims during the Holocaust

      Crane, Susan A.; Cabral, Nitza (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      World War II began with the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and was brought to France in 1940 upon the German invasion of France. My thesis will focus on the experience of French, Jewish and non-Jewish women during World War II, who suffered Nazi persecution. I will specifically examine subjects who are both French nationals and immigrants. My work identifies various acts of Nazi dehumanization, from within texts authored by victims, during or after the war. Identifying dehumanization allows me to assess its effects on victims, thus illuminating acts of resistance, which historian Brana Gurewitsch defines as any act which defies the goals of the oppressor. Thus, sheer survival was resistance for a Jewish victim during the Holocaust, given the Nazi goal of eradicating all Jewish persons. My goal is to provide a deeper understanding of the role of dehumanization within genocide, which Holocaust historiography has neglected. Dehumanization, the third of eight stages of genocide, serves a crucial function in the perpetration of mass murder. My thesis will serve a broader interpretation of genocide through the lens of the Holocaust.
    • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF HEALING: INTEGRATION OF CAM THERAPIES IN BREAST CANCER TREATMENTS

      Baliani, Patrick; Cannon, Marisa (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), are therapies that can aid in the symptoms and emotional distress associated with breast cancer. The integrative health of the patient is explored through the following question - “How might CAM therapies, specifically yoga, massage therapy and Chinese medicine, collectively contribute to the psychology of healing in breast cancer patients?”. Breast cancer patients and survivors have constant emotional distress and physical problems with their diagnosis and subsequent treatment (Kacel et al. 2019). Yoga and meditation have been shown to have anti-depressive effects (Rao 2019), decrease IL-6 and salivary cortisol levels (Lengacher et al. 2019), and provide the ability to enhance acceptance of emotions (Henderson et al. 2012). Chinese Medicine has varying effects on breast cancer treatments symptoms such as: alleviating hot flushes and insomnia, reduce the risk of endometrial cancer induced by tamoxifen, and improve bone loss (Wang et al. 2019). Massage therapy techniques are helpful in aiding the physical toll of cancer. Swedish massage therapy (SMT) showed clinically significant relief of cancer related fatigue (CRF) (Kinkead 2017) and Classical massage may decrease the side effects of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy from paclitaxel (Izgu et al. 2019). Through these CAM therapies, by treating the patient as a whole and being dedicated to their health in an all-encompassing approach, patients can achieve their new-found definition of health throughout their cancer journey.
    • OPTIMIZATION OF COFFEE CREMA PRODUCTION VIA THE “CREMA CUP”

      Brush, Adrianna; Caputo, Mikayla (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The convenience of making a cup of coffee at home is much desired, but the experience and taste of the coffee that you get at a local coffee shop is lost due to the lack of crema that one can produce without the proper equipment. Crema is an emulsion of aromatic oils that enhances the flavor profile of the espresso. The goal of this project was to create an attachment to the AeroPress, a French press device,that would give people an elevated experience at home by optimizing the amount of crema that is produced. This attachment will be an injection mold made primarily out of polypropylene and will include housing for two stainless steel filters, a mesh pre-filter and a slot filter, that will filter out coffee grounds without eating up all the crema. Mesh filters from 20 to 100 wires per square inch and slot filters with 0.004”, 0.007” and 0.01” slots were tested to see which ones would filter out the most grounds, while keeping the most crema alive. It was found that the 80-mesh filter and the 0.004” slot filter gave the best results, so the final design involved assembling these filters in series to allow for safe and easy brewing. Only 4.8 percent of grounds remained with 4.5 mL of crema produced. This product was proven to be both environmentally friendly and economically feasible. The Crema Cup will give consumers a better experience with at-home brewing.
    • Developing a Novel Drosophila Model of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) Based on TDP-43 Pathology

      Zarnescu, Daniela; Carrillo, Dominic (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The aim of my investigation is to develop a novel Drosophila melanogasterfly model of FTD by using both short-and long-term memory paradigms. I attempted to cause symptoms of FTD by overexpressing TDP-43 in the mushroom body neurons of the Drosophila flies. To investigate if the flies are showing memory deficits a behavioral oviposition assay was run that measured how many eggs female flies laid after 24 hour exposure to endoparasitic wasps. The control, Oregon-R, flies show a strong reduction in oviposition when compared to the TDP-43 flies. The flies overexpressing TDP-43wt show no reduction in oviposition while those overexpressing TDP-43G298S have a slight reduction in oviposition. The results gathered suggest that flies overexpressing TDP-43G298S in their mushroom body neurons may be showing symptoms of FTD but more trials need to be run in order to make any definite conclusions. Also, due to not seeing the wasp threat response in one control trial and both TDP-43wt trials more optimization needs to be done to ensure the initial results are true.
    • SOCIAL ENGINEERING STUDY: EXAMINING THE INFLUENCE OF CHOICE ARCHITECTURES ON TRUST AND PASSWORD PRIVACY

      Brandimarte, Laura; Bernick, Jeremy (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Social engineering is a popular and dangerous method of attack in computer security and privacy studies. Even with the public rise of privacy education and computer security literature, there still remains a gap in the human elements of security. In this study, researchers from the University of Arizona designed an experiment to detect whether individuals would give away personally sensitive information to a stranger and whether the presentation style of the attack would influence the propensity of an individual would give that information away. More data will have to be collected in order to determine whether the presentation of choice in a social engineering attack influences the victim’s likelihood to trust and give away information.
    • BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCUSSION EDUCATION INTERVENTION TARGETING PARENTS OF CHILDREN IN SPORTS

      Morrison, Helena; Bouanani, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Despite the fact that sports-related concussions in youth has been a hot topic of the media in recent years, TBIs, of which concussions are some of the most common, remain one of the leading causes of death and disability in children. It has been estimated that a total of 1.1-1.9 million recreational or sports-related concussions occur in children 18 years of age and younger every year in the United States. With concussion rates being so high in children and dangers so detrimental, increasing concussion awareness and knowledge is essential. Some of the key figures in the reporting and management of sports-related concussions in youth are parents, who, research has found, know less about concussions than they self-report. In hopes of increasing concussion knowledge and improving concussed youth health outcomes, the purpose of this thesis is to examine the state of parental concussion knowledge, determine the related educational needs of the population, and establish evidence-based recommendations for the development of an educational module geared toward informing parents about the realities of sports-related concussions in children. This thesis will introduce the topic of sports-related concussion in youth, provide a detailed review of literature regarding relevant researchon this subject, and identify best-practice recommendations for the development of an educational module. The thesis will also outline a proposed implementation action plan and evaluation of this module.
    • BIOSPHERE 2 OCEAN WAVE GENERATOR

      Redford, Gary; Mills, Josephine (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Introduction: The Biosphere 2 Ocean is looking to upgrade the vacuum wave generator installed in 1980 when the Biosphere 2 was first built. The wave generator is a key piece of equipment that is part of the Life Support systems that helps circulate water to ensure the system is well mixed and there is no stratification. The Biosphere 2 is trying to breed and manipulate coral to be more resilient as the earth's climate changes. Coral is like “the trees in a forest" and plays an important role in the ocean yet almost half the world's coral has been lost. Our goal is to provide adequate schematics of upgrades to gates, actuators and coding to simulate the actual environment of the ocean to improve the reliability of the system with maintenance. The gate is the only custom made part on this project and all other parts are either purchasable from vendors or supplied by the Biosphere 2. We used Niagara Workbench to develop our GUI and a KMC controller to monitor the system and send feedback to the GUI. In addition, switching the pneumatic actuators the Biosphere currently has to electrical actuators was an essential step to make sure the GUI, controllers, and system integration went smoothly. We designed failsafe protocols as a precautionary measure when the water level reaches a dangerous height in the trough and when an actuator has stalled. The purpose of these failsafes are to prevent damage to the system.
    • LIFESTYLE CHOICES DURING PREGNANCY AND THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN THE NEWBORN

      Weinstein, Randi; Verma, Aashi (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Statement of Purpose: The intent of this literature review is to help shed some light on how a pregnant woman’s lifestyle choices influence birth outcomes. The lack of outreach, education, and resources to the community result in many birth outcomes that may be avoidable if the right care and attention is provided. By demonstrating through art the results of some of these findings, the hope is that people in the community provide more resources. This project resulted in the production of two art pieces. The first piece of artwork was intended to be done using acrylic medium with color on a 16” x 20” canvas detailing some of the most common adverse birth outcomes that result from the consumption of alcohol in utero. The piece depicts a newborn baby with microcephaly and a cleft palate. Due to lack of access to materials following the COVID-19 closure, the artwork was carried out using a #2HB graphite pencil instead and produced as a sketch, while still depicting the adverse outcomes. The second piece of artwork was intended to be a relief panting depicting low birth weight using acrylic medium with color on a 16” x 20” canvas, as well as a medium matte for the relief. The bones of the baby would be physically protruding through the skin off of the canvas surface due to the relief work. It would be a 3D piece of artwork as well since the bones would be something that a viewer would be able to touch and feel. The low birth weight is a common adverse outcome that is present in almost all lifestyle choices analyzed. This piece of artwork was also ultimately carried out using a #2HB graphite pencil instead and produced as a sketch. The companion. artwork was intended to convey the findings present in this thesis. Many times, information is lost and misunderstood because of jargon, but a picture can convey a lot of information at once. This artwork, included at the end of the thesis as figures 1 and 2, was meant to inform the community about the risks present when partaking in certain lifestyle choices during pregnancy.
    • WHY JUSTICES DISAGREE

      Masconale, Saura; Tucker, Dylan (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Introduction: Since the court does not have the power of either the purse or sword, it must carry its own power and legitimacy as the third branch. At a time in history when the Supreme Court is accused of being polarized, or at a minimum reflects the current state of a polarized electorate, can the Supreme Court maintain its institutional legitimacy, and would a change in the way that the court hands down decisions further insure its legitimacy and continued respect from the American people and the world stage? In a 2019 paper, Masconale and Sepe propose a “rule of near-consensus for judicial review cases. Near unanimous decisions would provide ‘the people’ with a strong signal that the justices are fulfilling their epistemic mandate.” This paper examines the epistemic and pragmatic divides within the Modern Era of the Supreme Court, and seeks to discover the nature of the divides. This paper attempts to answer two questions: First, are most disagreements among the Supreme Court of an epistemic or a pragmatic nature? I will examine this issue with a review of Riggs’s 1993 longitudinal Court data, and an examination of data from more recent records, as assembled through the Washington law (Spaeth) database. A second question follows: what indications do we have that the Supreme Court has lost its legitimacy as an institution, what are the metrics for such an assumption, and would the Supreme Court be rejuvenated or re-legitimized by requiring unanimous or near unanimous rulings? The justices are the supreme readers of the Constitution, what is it about specific issues that make them dissent? Perhaps they agree on economic activity because they put the nation’s best interests first, or perhaps the Constitution is very clear about economic, judicial, and civil rights cases. But what about criminal procedure? But these same causes also appear to bring about much dissent. Of course these topics come up the most in Supreme Court so they are heavily skewed. But how do we get the justices to agree, and why do they dissent? The Supreme Court is a unique body, and, of course, holds the power of check on the president and congress, through Judicial Review. Who are they-- the supreme readers of the constitution, protectors of minorities, or just the best judges with the greatest track records? We also have to ask, how should they come to their decisions? From their experience as lawyers and judges, through a methodology, or through basic intuition? These are fundamental questions that must be answered before we can have a conversation on why justices agree and disagree. According to Masconale and Sepe, justices should base their decisions on their chosen methodology, and in the end, agree unanimously.
    • THE EFFECTS OF ANTENATAL DEPRESSION ON ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT & POSSIBLE ANTENATAL INTERVENTIONS

      Weinstein, Randi; Patel, Nikita (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      This literature review displays the possible effects untreated antenatal depression can have on a woman’s adolescent child, as well as possible interventions that can be done during pregnancy to control those effects. This thesis goes into the proposed physiological mechanism behind how maternal depression influences child development, focusing on the role of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis, but also touching on how the maternal autonomic system contributes as well. The literature included highlights the increased risk of both internalizing and externalizing neurobehavioral disorders as well as neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring, including depression and anxiety, ADHD, ODD/CD, aggression, antisocial personality disorder, autism, and intellectual disability. Lastly, on a more positive note, the paper then focuses on possible mechanisms and practices that can be followed during pregnancy to decrease the effects antenatal depression can have. Such mechanisms include medications, bright light therapy, mindfulness, exercise, social support, yoga, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Overall, this thesis indicates a correlation between antenatal depression and adverse adolescent outcomes, but it is important to note that when it comes to this type of analysis, researchers can never be completely certain whether the association between mother’s mental state and childhood outcomes is a direct effect or if it can be brought on by other social or biological processes.
    • THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LEGALIZED SPORTS GAMBLING

      Neumann, Todd; Marchi, Jake (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      On May 14th, 2018, the Supreme Court struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, allowing states the ability to legalize sports gambling. Since then, states have slowly begun to legalize sports betting, with New Jersey leading the charge. This paper will analyze the economic impact of this new legislation on the United States. Projected effects will be examined and compared to early reports from the states that have already legalized sports gambling. New Jersey will serve as a case study to illustrate how extreme the economic impact can be. Other states will also be examined in order to give a wide array of perspectives on both sides of the issue. Mobile betting and its future across the country will be discussed using data from multiple states. Survey results from over 500 respondents will be analyzed to determined what kind of psychological effect legalizing sports betting has had on people, and what kind of economic repercussions this might lead to.
    • SUSTAINABLE VERTICAL FARMING USING ABANDONED MALLS

      Brush, Adrianna; Molloy, Kaitlyn (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The global population is expected to require an estimated 60% greater production in food by 2050 (Banerjee). Due to restricted land available for crop growing, vertical farming provides a viable solution due to its ability to optimize space, and because vertical farms are indoors, the produce is not subject to harsh weather patterns, temperatures, or daylight, so the vertical from can maximize crop production (Ku). Since 2010, more than 60% of shopping malls are at the brink of closing down (Yan). These potential vacant malls provide an ideal space for vertical farming. This design focuses on modeling a vertical farm in Foothills Mall in Tucson, Arizona that could later be expanded to other locations around the country and the world. While not abandoned, Foothills Mall provides an adequate structure to model an aquaponics system, which uses fish waste to provide nutrients for the crops. The design grew head lettuce, tomatoes, and strawberries with the goal of meeting the consumption fo 8% of the Tucson population. The project also hoped to maximize renewable energy and be profitable after 25 years. Ultimately, the design exceeded the goal and met the consumption of 27.72% of the population. Moreover, the design was completely powered by solar energy, which is fully renewable. The design was also determined to be profitable after 23 years, and it resulted in a cumulative present value of $2.6 million after 25 years. All in all, the design proved to be a sustainable and profitable solution for abandoned malls.