Zarnescu, Daniela; GIDSEG, MOIRA SINCLAIR (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      mth1, a longevity mutation found in fruit flies, has been previously found to improve stress resistance. Stress granules are complexes of misfolded mRNA and protein which form when an organism is stressed, and then dissolve afterward. While connections between stress granule dynamics and longevity mutations have been found in other organisms, the possible connection between mth1 and stress granules has not yet been explored. In this study, I generated a recombinant line of mth1-rin-GFP flies which could be used to visualize stress granules, conducted lifespan studies on these flies to determine whether the recombinant was long-lived, and conducted heat shock experiments on youngmth1-rin-GFP flies to determine if the recombinant formed more or less stress granules when stressed. The lifespan study found that the mth1 flies lived significantly longer than w1118 control flies, with a large increase in maximum lifespan and a small increase in average lifespan. However, the mth1-rin-GFP flies did not live longer compared to the same control. All heat shocked flies formed stress granules, and the mth1-rin-GFP flies formed larger stress granules than did the rin-GFP/rin-GFP control. These findings support the hypothesis that the mth1mutation affects stress granule dynamics in early life.
    • The Affect of Vertical Nursing on Cognitive Test Scores in 8-Week-Old Puppies

      MacLean, Evan; From, Chandler LeeAnn (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The Maternal Styles project is following the nursing patterns of 60 damsand their puppies, through the first three weeks of life.Thus far, 10 dams have been analyzed and are included in this thesis.In each litter, four puppies were chosen at random to observe the differences in vertical nursing. Vertical nursing, which encompasses standing, sitting, and back nursing, is less common than horizontal nursing, and appears to have far-reaching consequences on puppycognitive taskslater in life. For each litter, one 24-hour period was analyzed from week one, two, and three to determine the amount of time dams and pups spent vertically nursing. Additionally, the four study puppies from each litter were tested at 8 weeks old ona battery of cognitive tasks that are deemed useful for assessing their success as assistance dogs for Canine Companions for Independence (CCI).First, I analyzed the factors that could potentially affect vertical nursing –time post-whelp, breed, parity, raise location, and litter size. Of these variables, only time post-whelp was related to levels of vertical nursing. Second, I analyzed if the time spent vertical nursing predicted puppy performance at 8weeksold on cognitive and temperament tasks. I did not find evidence supporting a relationship between vertical nursing and performance on the majority of cognitive tasks. However, the data did suggest a positive association between vertical nursing andseveral measures of human preference, suggesting a possible relationship between nursing style and independence at 8 weeks old. Specifically, puppies who spent more time vertical nursing were subsequently less interested in the human experimenter. This trait might be useful in predicting the success ofassistance dogs within CCI. Further research, with the complete sample of 60, should offer more insight into the strength of these claims.

      Farley, Jacqueline (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Communal sound and melody are of unique significance within the poetic works of the Chilean-American poet Daniel Borzutzky, as can be seen throughevident examples within his full-length poetry collections In the Murmurs of the Rotten Carcass Economyandthe National Book Award-winningThe Performance of Becoming Human. These works demonstrate a canonical relationship through Borzutzky’s ongoing dedication to describing the experiences of marginalized bodies in the ever-present construction of the “rotten carcass economy,” a system within which physical and economic violence is enacted by “authoritative bodies” onto other bodies, thus producing a trauma which serves as capital and further perpetuates an ongoing circulationand staging of violence. Thisviolence is further described through the witness of communal melody by Borzutzky’s speaker within In the Murmurs of the Rotten Carcass Economy, as can be seen most prominently within the poem “Writing.” This poem establishes the speaker’s purpose within the collection through the melodic engagement of the speaker by a chorus of “murmuring ghosts” and bodies. This engagement evolves as one continues through The Performance of Becoming Human, as Borzutzky demonstrates a consciousness and incorporation of his readerswithin the action of such poems as “Dream Song #17,” “The Broken Testimony,” and “In the Blazing Cities of Your Rotten Carcass Mouth.”It can befurther concluded from these examplesthat Borzutzky seeks not only to engage readers in an empathetic experience with the trauma felt by bodies, but also encourage an audience to confront systems of violence through writing, continued civic discourse,and grassroots-level activism.Keywords: communal melody, murmuring, bodies, authoritative bodies, rotten carcass economy, physical violence, economic violence, trauma,translation,empathetic engagement, immersion, testimony, wound culture, border culture, civic discourse, sociopolitical activism.

      Haynes, Patricia; ECKMAN, NICHOLE LYNN (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Young adults suffer from high rates of depression and alcohol consumption. From 2005 to 2019,the rate of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) almost doubled among adults ages 18 to 25. Inaddition, young adults had the highest rates of binge drinking at 34.3% with 8.4% reportingheavy alcohol use within the past month. As a result, this paper reviews key studies ondepression and alcohol misuse in college students in order to outline the extent of therelationship as well as any current gaps in the current literature. Overall results suggest thatalcohol misuse and depression is mixed. Some studies observed an association between heavyalcohol consumption and depression, but other studies did not observe this association. Somestudies identified an association between depression and other alcohol-related variables, such asalcohol-related problems. Though many studies researched gender differences, there is onlyextremely modest evidence for modification of the relationship between alcohol and depressionby gender. Overall, longitudinal studies are necessary to further understand the relationshipbetween alcohol and depression.

      Djordjevic, Ivan B.; DUNN, KARA LEANNA (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Neuroinflammatory disease is becoming increasingly common in our society--affecting individuals of all ages,causing cognitive deficits, motor decline, and even propagating anxiety and depression. As the field of neuroimmunology continues to develop, there is increasing evidence of the implication of T cells in inflammation of the central nervous system. At the same time, in the field of photobiology, advances are being made to detail the absorption of photons by chromophores in the human body--a process rooted in quantum physics--and the downstream effects that this has on homeostasis. Humans have evolved with a strong dependence on sunlight as it regulates our physiology through both the eye and skin, not only dictating circadian rhythms but also driving immune cell differentiation. Upon intertwining discoveries in each of these fields, I propose that moderate doses of cutaneous sunlight exposure may help ameliorate T cell-mediated neuroinflammation through mechanisms involving upregulated tolerogenic dendritic cells and a shift in the balance of regulatory and effector T cells, which are capableof crossing the blood brain barrier and dictating inflammatory responses.
    • Autonomous Mining Truck Remote Stop Transmitter

      Redford, Gary; Diaz Sanchez, Rosie Esmeralda (The University of Arizona., 2020)

      Andrews-Hanna, Jessica; DE STEFANO, NADIA ANAIS (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Thinking is a ubiquitously human process which occurs even when we have no task to engage in. A large proportion of the content of task-unrelated and “task-absent” thoughts are thought to be composed of unfulfilled goals or current concerns(Nikles, 1998; Smallwood, 2010). These thoughts may be accompanied by efforts to tackle these current concerns.Mental contrasting is a cluster of 3 categories of mental processing underlying different degrees of attempt to solve a problem. These degrees consist of 1) envisioning a goal, 2) recognizing the obstacles present in accomplishing the goal, and 3) creating steps to overcome the necessary obstacles to achieving the goal. Each subsequent step entails the previous step. Our study poses the question: does goal oriented thought increase levels of creativity? Here we ran participants through two tasks. First participants voiced aloud all of their stimulus dependent and stimulus independent thoughts for 10 minutes. This task was used to analyze participant’s levels of goal-oriented thought. Next participants voiced aloud answers to an open-ended question. This task was used to measure creativity in the form of fluency. A negative relationship was found between envisioning a goal and creativity scores. No relationship was found between recognizing obstacles present in goal achievement. The relationship between creating steps to achieve a goal and creativity scores was suggestive of a positive relationshipbut results were not significant. However, this trend is promising for preliminary data with a low sample size.

      Goldsmith, Melissa; DANNER, RACHEL A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Purpose:The purpose of this thesis is to develop best-practice recommendations for nurses and providers to use when caring for patients who are identified as being at risk for having orwhodo have the BRCA gene mutations.Background: The BRCA gene mutations greatly increase a woman’s risk of developing cancer in her lifetime and particularly increase her cancer risk at a young age. Preventative measures for these women differ from the standard recommendations. Therefore, early identification of these women is important to improve patient outcomes. Method: A literature review was conducted through a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar using keywords such as “BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes”, “breast neoplasms”, “breast genomes”, and “directive counseling.” Parameters for the search included “past 5 years” or “since 2014”, “free full text online”, and “peer-reviewed”. A total of elevenarticles were selected to be included in this thesis.Outcome: Women undergoing genetic testing for BRCAgene mutations experience high levels of anxiety and emotional distress. Embedding information within the EMRcan help ensure that nurses and providers care for these patients in an optimal and compassionate way. Conclusion: Implementing these best-practice recommendations can help improve patient outcomes. As further research regarding patients with BRCA genes is conducted, these recommendations can be adapted to meet additional needsof patients and the emotional stressors they experience.

      Goldsmith, Melissa; D’ANGELO, BRIANNA KRISTINE (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Purpose: This thesis aims to develop a set of best practice recommendations for nursing in the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) setting. The objective is to increase access and adherence to CR programs while improving outcomesin patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Background: AMIis one of the leading causes of death and physical disability in developed nations (Zhang, Cao, Jiang, & Tang, 2018).Unfortunately, only about 20 percent of eligible patients will participate in a CR program after experiencing a qualifying cardiac event (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2019). It is estimated that increasing CR participation from 20 percent to 70 percent could save nearly 25,000 lives and prevent about 180,000 hospitalizations a year (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2019).Approach to practice: A review of literature was conducted in the CINHAL Plus database. The search parameters included peer reviewed articles that were published within the last10 years. Key words used in the search of literature search included “cardiac rehab or cardiac rehabilitation” in addition to “exercises,” “resistance training,” “home-based,” “telehealth,” and “COVID-19.”Outcomes: The proposed best practices can be used to identify components that should be included in a quality CRprogram as well as evidence-based suggestions to increaseCRaccess and adherence.Conclusions: Home-based CR programs may offer a way to increase access and adherence to CR programs while improving patient outcomes. More research is needed to determine specific practices that may improve patient outcomes in CR.
    • Putting the Fate of the “Sport of Kings”in the Hands of the Federal Government

      Williams, Robert A., Jr.; Sullivan, E. Thomas; Carter, Elisabeth (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The sport of horseracing is rich in history, dating back to the Greek Olympic games in 666 B.C. Horseracing in America and equine law both developed from horseracing in England. From the colonial times to post-Civil War, horse racing was reserved for the wealthy elite. After World War II, horse racing became a business and the horse became a great monetary investment. These new economic factors and the development of synthetic steroids prompted many trainers to administer steroids and other drugs to give their horse a competitive edge. While steroids are banned today, there is one drug that is threatening the horseracing industry: Lasix. Lasix is used as a prophylaxis for Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, but the controversies regarding Lasix are dividing the industry. Horseracing is regulated on a state-by-state basis,resulting in different rules and standards in each racing state. Recently, there has been a call for uniformity and Congress has stepped in to achieve this uniformity through a bill called The Horse Racing Integrity and Safety Act of 2020. This bill prohibits the use of medications 48-hours prior to a race. This includes the widely used race-day Lasix, unless a study completed within the first three years reports that Lasix is beneficial for the horse and does not act as a performance enhancer. Given the nature of the industry, the results of completed Lasix studies and the opposing viewpoints, if this bill were to become law, I predict that Lasix will likely be prohibited. Furthermore, the bill has some potential issues that will likely create problems for all racing states. While I conclusively agree that uniformity is needed, I do not believe the Horse Racing Integrity and Safety Act of 2020 will achieve the needed uniformity as written. I end this thesis by providing an alternate proposal to address these potential issues.

      Nair, Uma; CALTAGIRONE, CATRINA SCULLY (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This essay examines association between alcohol use, cannabis, and e-cig use among individuals before and after theCOVID-19 social distancing orders.Data was collected through a national sample of individuals using online data collection strategies (e.g., Facebook, Instagram). In order to be eligible for this study, participants needed to be above the age of 18. This sample included 497individuals, with an average age of participants being 27years. The majority of the sample included males, with60% of the participants reportedly males, 38%reportedly female, 0.41%intersex, and 0.8%who preferred not to answer. The participants vary greatly with education status, with 18% ofparticipants not completing high school, 34%graduating high school or completing a GED, 18%finishing some college or tech school, 14%graduating from college, and 11%who attended masters or graduate schools. Through analyzing this dataset, the patterns of usage for alcohol, cannabis, and e-cigarette use could be noticed amongst different levels of frequency. Amongst all the frequencies, an average of 44% consumed alcohol before COVID-19 and 45% after social distancing orders, while 13% reportedly never usedalcohol prior to COVID-19 and 11% never used alcohol after the social distancing orders. As for e-cigarette usage, amongst all the frequencies, an average of 29% consumed e-cigarettes before COVID-19 and 25% after social distancing orders, while 14% reportedly never used e-cigarettes prior to COVID-19 and 14% never used e-cigarettes after the social distancing orders. For cannabis usage, amongst all the frequencies, an average of 30% consumed cannabis before COVID-19 and slightly over 30% after social distancing orders, while 11% reportedly never used cannabis prior to COVID-19 and 9% never used cannabis after the social distancing orders. The influence alcohol has on smoking habits was also interpreted through determining the association between participants usage of both alcohol and cannabis as well as alcohol and e-cigarettes. Although an association was assessed, it is difficult to determine the actual affect alcohol consumption had on cannabis and e-cigarette usage due to a lack of data on the exact influence. Across the board, COVID-19 seemed to generally increaseusage of alcohol, and cannabis, with an overall increase in alcohol usage by 5% and an increase of 8% by cannabis users.An association between alcohol consumption and smoking habits wasalso observed, with 50% of people consuming both alcohol and e-cigarettes and 58% of people consuming both alcohol and cannabis.

      Duncan, Burris; Pottinger, Heidi; Chavez, Alexis Ariana (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This research is a sub-study of the original ‘Intense Physiotherapies to Improve Function in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy’ study conducted by my advisors Dr. Burris Duncan and Dr. Heidi Pottinger. The sub-study was created to obtain qualitative data from the parents of children who participated in their study at Tucson Medical Center (TMC). The processes for this work included obtaining human subjects-related training to be able to interview the families, recruitment of subjects by Dr. Pottinger, preparation for interviewing parents, conducting live interviews, and analyzing qualitative data with key findings/themes identified. These findings will help to identify areas for improvement for future clinical trials/research with TMC families.

      Fidel, Rivka; Moore, Mackenzie Ann (The University of Arizona., 2020-12)
      Meeting drinking water quality standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) is essential for protecting public health. This paper describes analyses performed for detection of trace metals, perfluoroalkyl substances, and coliform bacteria in the tap water of the 10 oldest buildings on the University of Arizona’s main campus. All analyzed water met State of Arizona water quality standards, suggesting that current maintenance and monitoring of both campus tap water and Tucson Water’s wells should continue, in order to ensure that the water that is delivered to consumers remains safe to drink. Further sampling and research are necessary to determine if all of the buildings on the campus have the same high quality of tap water.

      Hruby, Victor J.; Miesfeld, Roger; Rios-Monterrosa, Jose (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The melanocortin receptors are a family of five G-protein coupled receptors, MC1R-MC5R. Recently, it was discovered that inhibition of MC4R impairs cognitive function in Alzheimer’s mice models. Furthermore, activation of MC4R in these mice rescues cognitive function. As a result, MC4R may be a potential drug target to treat Alzheimer’s disease. One of the main obstacles that presents itself is that MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R are activated by one of three melanocortin stimulating hormones (MSH); α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH. Because of this, designing selective, potent agonists has been difficult. To better understand the structural characteristics that lead to MC4R selectivity, nine novel peptides were created, AIM 1-AIM 9. These peptides were made by modifying the sequence of MT-II, a synthetic agonist of all receptors except MC2R. The modifications made were chosen because of their ability to increase MC4R selectivity or decrease selectivity at other receptors. To test their selectivity, cAMP activity assays was performed on each receptor, and the EC50 values were compared to MT-II. Careful pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the compound AIM 9 has high selectivity for the MC4R with an EC50 of 4nM.
    • Role of Eosinophil Derived TGF-β1 in the Asthmatic Lung

      Lee, James J.; Cohen, Zoe; Neely, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Allergies and associated asthma represent a subset of diseases that have steadily increased in prevalence and severity in the western world. Allergic asthma is an immunological disorder that results in the physiological presentation of wheezing and shortness of breath caused by constriction of lung smooth muscle and narrowing of the airways. These symptoms occur when the lungs are exposed to an allergen. Current studies have found that 8.3% of the United States population has asthma, with figures showing a steady increase each year. While clinical treatment of asthma has been estimated to be $56 billion dollars, there is currently no cure for asthma. As of now, only the symptoms can be treated due to a poorly understood molecular mechanism for the disease. As this disease continues to grow in prevalence, it is critical to understand the underlying causes of the disease in order to develop new treatment options to target these causes rather than symptoms of asthma. Following this point, there have been an increasing amount of publications indicating that eosinophils are a potential effector cell mediating the marked physiological and anatomical changes that this disease brings. Investigation into the role of eosinophils in asthma pathology is needed to understand how this cell type contributes to the classical physiological dysfunction that is seen in allergic asthma cases.
    • Antigen Specific Eosinophil Mediated Nitration

      Lee, James J.; Elfring, Lisa; Neely, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      The immune system has two specific branches (i.e., innate immune response and acquired or adaptive immunity) that work together to protect an individual from illness. The innate immune system is the evolutionarily older of the two branches that responds to a wide-array of pathogens with limited target specificity. That is, the innate immune system is capable of destroying pathogens by recognizing common pathogenic moieties or patterns. These immune responses mediate the killing of target pathogens by using an array of methods from engulfing and digesting bacteria to generating reactive molecules to damage larger multi-cellular parasites. The innate immune system is often the first responder to a site of injury or infection and is usually able to successfully target most infections before they become an issue. [excerpt from Introduction]

      Pine, Gerald; Husband, Nathaniel Alexander (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Nasogastric tubes are hollow thermoplastic tubes used to deliver nutrition to the stomachs of patients who cannot ingest food orally. A common medical malpractice event is the introduction of liquid via these tubes into the respiratory tract instead of the stomach, which can result in fluid aspiration that can lead to patient harm or death. Current standard of practice verifies tube placement in a hospital via a chest X-ray or stomach acid pH test. While these procedures are effective, they are not conducive to repeat verification and require the skills of medical professionals. The goal of the project is to develop a cost-efficient and easy-to-use device that informs the user when the tube has been placed in the stomach, not in the airway. The device is small enough for use within existing tubes and can withstand the corrosive gastric environment for up to 30 days. This design uses an open circuit that is closed by ions present in the acidic fluid of the stomach. The closure of the circuit results in a differential voltage signal that provides the user with a “safe to feed” message.

      Duncan, Burris; Pottinger, Heidi; Chavez, Alexis Ariana (The University of Arizona., 2020-08)
      This research is a sub-study of the original ‘Intense Physiotherapies to Improve Function in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy’ study conducted by my advisors Dr. Burris Duncan and Dr. Heidi Pottinger. The sub-study was created to obtain qualitative data from the parents of children who participated in their study at Tucson Medical Center (TMC). The processes for this work included obtaining human subjects-related training to be able to interview the families, recruitment of subjects by Dr. Pottinger, preparation for interviewing parents, conducting live interviews, and analyzing qualitative data with key findings/themes identified. These findings will help to identify areas for improvement for future clinical trials/research with TMC families.
    • The Association Between Perceived Resiliency and Change in Income from Childhood to Early Adulthood

      Killgore, William D.; Gutierrez, Giovanna (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Background: It is well known that majority of children growing up in low income families will experience some type of adversity and as a result of their environment many will not adapt well when entering adulthood. Yet, there is a small percentage of children that overcome their childhood hardships, adapt well, and develop into successful adults. That small percentage of children are assumed to have some form of childhood resilience which might account for their subsequent success as adults. Specifically, perceived resilience may account for growth and success in adapting to the challenges and expectations of adulthood. Objective: To determine if changing from low income as a child to high income as an adult correlates with a higher perceived resilience. Methods: A correlation study using between subject design was conducted. The Socioeconomic Status (SES) Questionnaire and Dispositional Resiliency Scale-15 (DRS-15) Questionnaire were distributed to 48 healthy participants. The resulting data were analyzed using Pearson r correlation in SPSS 24. Results: As a whole, the sample did not show significant association between the total DRS-15 scores and change in income from childhood to early adulthood (r = .123, p = .404). A subgroup having shown an increase in income (n=7) had a mean total DRS-15 score of 22.86 (SD = 3.36) and four individuals of this subgroup that only came from low-income families had a mean total DRS-15 score of 25.5 (SD = 1.29). According to the total DRS-15 scoring scale, both group's mean total DRS-15 scores can be found in the “low” range of the total Hardiness score. However, the subgroup with increased income (n=7) had a significant correlation with total DRS-15 scores and change in income from childhood to early adulthood, suggesting that as these individual’s total DRS-15 scores increased they were more likely to make more money (r= .727, p = .032). For individuals with declining income from childhood to early adulthood (n=26) there was no significant correlation (r = .089, p = .666). After controlling for childhood income as a possible confounding variable, we still found no significant correlation between individuals with decreased income after leaving home and total DRS-15 scores indicating childhood income had no effect on this association (r = .013, p = .949). On the other hand, after removing childhood income from the correlational study between individuals with increased income after leaving home and total DRS-15 scores there was no longer a significance, suggesting that childhood household income significantly influenced the correlation between income change and total DRS 15 scores (r = -.278, p = .594). Conclusion: These results suggest that coming from low-income families and obtaining higher income as early adults doesn’t correlate with perceived resilience. Yet, for a subset of low-income individuals show a positive correlation between changed income and their total DRS-15 scores. Further studies are recommended to see if the results found in this study are replicable but should take into account the limitations as mentioned in the study or take into account other measurements.

      Weinstein, Randi; Verma, Aashi (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Statement of Purpose: The intent of this literature review is to help shed some light on how a pregnant woman’s lifestyle choices influence birth outcomes. The lack of outreach, education, and resources to the community result in many birth outcomes that may be avoidable if the right care and attention is provided. By demonstrating through art the results of some of these findings, the hope is that people in the community provide more resources. This project resulted in the production of two art pieces. The first piece of artwork was intended to be done using acrylic medium with color on a 16” x 20” canvas detailing some of the most common adverse birth outcomes that result from the consumption of alcohol in utero. The piece depicts a newborn baby with microcephaly and a cleft palate. Due to lack of access to materials following the COVID-19 closure, the artwork was carried out using a #2HB graphite pencil instead and produced as a sketch, while still depicting the adverse outcomes. The second piece of artwork was intended to be a relief panting depicting low birth weight using acrylic medium with color on a 16” x 20” canvas, as well as a medium matte for the relief. The bones of the baby would be physically protruding through the skin off of the canvas surface due to the relief work. It would be a 3D piece of artwork as well since the bones would be something that a viewer would be able to touch and feel. The low birth weight is a common adverse outcome that is present in almost all lifestyle choices analyzed. This piece of artwork was also ultimately carried out using a #2HB graphite pencil instead and produced as a sketch. The companion. artwork was intended to convey the findings present in this thesis. Many times, information is lost and misunderstood because of jargon, but a picture can convey a lot of information at once. This artwork, included at the end of the thesis as figures 1 and 2, was meant to inform the community about the risks present when partaking in certain lifestyle choices during pregnancy.