• A Qualitative Review Of Relationship Maintenance Strategies Used In Couple’s Counseling

      Knapp, Darin; Fawley, Maya Louise (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      There is minimal research to be found on relationship maintenance strategies as a method of treatment for romantic relationships in couples’ therapy. This phenomenological qualitative study analyzes the use of researched relationship maintenance strategies by licensed professional counselors in order to better understand the implications of these strategies in therapy treatment. A sample small size of four participants were identified as licensed professional counselors, 3 of which were currently practicing. Each participant was interviewed about their experiences counseling couples in romantic relationships and interviews were analyzed to discover the prevalence of relationship maintenance strategies being used by professional counselors in treatment of romantic relationships. Overarching themes that emerged from the data include: clinician’s perceived gap between relationship maintenance and repair, overlap of repair and maintenance, influence of relationship patterns on integration of relationship maintenance, and willingness to apply and broad applicability of relationship maintenance. One of the main findings found that there was a significant overlap of what clinician’s identified as conflict resolution and what researchers identified as relationship maintenance strategies. Implications for further research are discussed below.

      Hill, Terrence; Compton, Layne Frances (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Objectives: Physical therapy interventions have been proven to reduce pain and injury recurrence. In this study, I examine the experiences of Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadets within a physical therapy intervention program. Study Design: Cross-sectional design. Methods: I used a survey to determine the experiences and attitudes towards physical therapy/athletic training treatments in a population of 16 college-age full-time Army ROTC cadets at the University of Arizona. Respondents evaluated their overall physical therapy experiences regarding their perceived treatment efficacy in pain reduction, overall quality of physical therapy treatment, and likelihood to participate in the program again. The survey data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: All of the respondents rated the interventions as very effective or extremely effective in reducing their pain. Of the cadets surveyed, 75% reported they were very satisfied or extremely satisfied with their overall treatment experience. Eighty-three percent responded that they were likely or extremely likely to attend the program again. Conclusion: This research suggests that a physical therapy/athletic training intervention program may be successful in reducing injury-related pain of Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadets. In order to confirm the results of this thesis, additional studies with more rigorous research designs focused on the efficacy of therapeutic interventions are needed.

      Weinstein, Randi; Aksamit, Grace (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      Arizona has over 5,000 teen pregnancies a year, ranking it 18th on a national level for highest teenage birth rate. According to the Arizona Department of Health Services, over half of all Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) cases in Arizona are diagnosed in young adults. Arizona has no state-mandated sexual education programs in public schools; in fact, the Arizona state law regarding sexual education has not been updated in over 30 years. This project contains information regarding the sexual education programs collected from the two largest school districts in each Arizona county, and correlates the program type with county-wide teen pregnancy and STD statistics. It was found that school districts that provided sexual education programs – Abstinence Only and Abstinence Plus – were correlated with lower teen pregnancy rates; the correlation between teen STD rate and district sexual education program is unclear. This thesis also contains the recommendation of a number of health organizations that endorse state-wide comprehensive sex education, citing reduced rates of sexual activity and sexual risk behaviors. A social media account was created to provide information about sexual health to students, and has had over 400 online interactions on Instagram.

      Keen, Douglas; Gomez Ambriz, Marcos (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The introduction of the modern marathon happened during the 1908 London Olympics, when only men were allowed to compete for a distance of 26.195 km (Wilcock, 2008). The marathon has grown in popularity over the years with roughly 25,000 participants in the 1970s to now over 507,600 in the United States alone (Vitti, Nikolaidis, Villiger, Onywera, & Knechtle, 2020). Today, marathons are held throughout the world and are a unique chance for both recreational and elite runners to compete in the same sporting event. Elite runners make up only a fraction of marathon finishers and do so in under 3 hours- 4% and 1% respectively for male and female participants (Michael J. Joyner & Coyle, 2008). Recently, elite runners are pushing closer to breaking the 2-hour marathon with Kenyan male runner Eliud Kipchoge (2:01:39 hr:min:sec) and Kenyan female runner Brigid Kosgei (2:15:04 hr:min:sec) (AIMS, 2020). Reaching that milestone will require a better understanding of human physiology and its limits. Thus, this review seeks to focus on the major physiological adaptations to endurance and distance training. The goal of this review is to introduce and define the most pertinent measurements in endurance research and explain how they have contributed to our understanding of the elite marathoner.
    • A Review Of Video-Based And Machine Learning Approaches To Human Eye Blink Detection In Video

      Barnard, Kobus; Muller, Dyana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Automation of detection of human eye blink in video has a broad array of applications, including detection of disease, anti-spoofing software, and helping individuals with physical disabilities interact with computers. The present work provides a review of several papers within the past two decades which propose methods for automated blink detection, highlighting the evolution of the field alongside developments in machine learning techniques. Then, the strengths and shortcomings of several popular approaches are evaluated in the context of eye blink detection. Namely, I focus on appearance-based and motion-based computation, support vector machines, convolutional neural networks, and long short-term memory networks. Finally, I report the beginnings of a reproduction of the methods outlined in one of the papers reviewed.

      Chou, Ying-Hui; Rodriguez, Graciela Abigail (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that causes a series of symptoms that affect how a person perceives the world around them. There have been many studies researching the way that connectivity between specific brain regions are altered due to the onset of schizophrenia, and many have concluded that the thalamus is one of the most important brain regions associated with altered functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this review is to evaluate this altered functional connectivity and to determine how different connectivity patterns determine different symptoms that are typically associated with schizophrenia. Through conducting a literature search in PubMed on articles relating to schizophrenia, the thalamus, and independent component analysis, we found that hyper-connectivity between the thalamus and areas of the brain such as the auditory, motor, and visual networks is associated with the ‘positive’ symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions. We also found that hypo-connectivity between the thalamus and areas like prefrontal regions of the brain is correlated with the ‘negative’ symptoms such as deficits in working memory and decision-making. This information could lead to further studies looking into how thalamo-cortical connections influence the perception of different stimuli.

      Hu, Jia; Kerman, Sydney (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      As global climate change continues to accelerate, the development of effective models that allow scientists and policymakers to understandand respond to the effects of long-term drought on rainforest health has become increasingly important. In the past, extensive data on ecosystem metrics such as water and carbon cycling through all stages of a drought have been difficult to obtain due to the general unpredictability of these events. The WALD project conducted at Biosphere 2 in Arizona presented a unique opportunity to collect ecosystem-wide data on a deliberate drought, allowing for the study of carbon and water cycling in these conditions with seldom-seen resolution. Within the framework of thecontrolled ecosystem manipulation experiment,the goalof this project was to examine the effect of prolonged water stress on different plant species within the rainforest and to find a correlation between plant water stress and relative leaf water content. This was accomplished by weeklypredawn and middayplant water potential measurements (WP) before, during, and after the drought, leaf sampling for relative leaf water content (RWC),and xylem sampling for water isotope measurements.The results varied significantly between examined species, with some experiencing no decrease in WP before and during the drought and others experiencing a dramatic decrease in WP.

      Bronstein, Judith; Spindler, Emily Ruth (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      While many scientists are studying climate change’s impact on abiotic factors, my interest is in studying climate change’s impacts on biotic factors, specifically, to determine if ecosystem networks will be preserved or altered with abiotic change. To examine this topic, I centered my thesis around carpenter bees on Mount Lemmon and their pollination interactions with local flowers. The carpenter bees (Xylocopa californica) are prime candidates for study because they create pollen balls that can be easily accessed, stored, and used in pollen analyses as a proxy for pollination. Kathryn Busby, a graduate student studying the carpenter bees, preserved several provisions from 2016. This gave me the opportunity to determine the composition and diversity of the pollen, create a snapshot of the interaction between the carpenter bees and flowers in 2016, and establish a replicable procedure so that data can be collected in future years. Later studies compared with my data may determine if the families of flowers visited by the carpenter bees or the frequency with which the bees are visiting are changing over time. Monitoring over several decades could tell us if climate change has an effect on local mutualistic networks.
    • A Virtual Reality System For Realistic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training

      Redford, Gary; Bergeron, Hannah Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Introduction: In the United States, more than 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur annually. CPR, while lifesaving, needs to be performed accurately to be effective. This study aims to implement virtual reality (VR) with wearable sensors to measure compression acceleration, frequency, and depth while providing real-time feedback to the user for immersive and effective CPR training. Materials and Methods: VR scenarios were customized in Unity video game engine to serve as the user interface and feedback environment. An HTC Vive VR system immersed the user into a real-world CPR scenario while an HTC Vive tracker tracked the position of a CPR mannequin in VR. An MPU6050 accelerometer was programmed with an Arduino Micro to process compression acceleration data. Leap motion hand tracking technology was utilized to track the user’s hand position. Speech recognition was implemented to recognize key phrases, such as “call 911,” spoken by the user to a non-playable character in the VR scenario. Quantitative and qualitative performance feedback was provided to the user in the form of visual and auditory cues to correct CPR compressions. Conclusions: This system is an innovative proof of concept for a VR-based CPR training system that can provide compression feedback for high quality CPR.
    • Abba! The Daddy Relationship God Wants with You

      Medine, Peter E.; Maakestad, Susan (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      This project is part of a longer book manuscript presenting an in-depth exploration of God’s expressed desire for a Daddy relationship with man. His desire for intimacy in his role as man’s heavenly father is presented in layman’s terms, illuminated with biblical texts and the writings of classical and contemporary authors. These texts reflect God’s desire to call him Abba, and this is a highly specialized term: "Abba is not Hebrew, the language of liturgy, but Aramaic, the language of home and everyday life … Abba is the intimate word of a family circle." - Thomas A. Smail, The Forgotten Father. A contextual base in the introductory chapter explores God’s covenant relationship with mankind while analyzing institutional obstacles that may impede the intimate parent-child relationship. The more informal tone in the remaining chapters draws parallels between earthly parents’ interaction with, training of and devotion to their own children, as the foundational claim that man is created in the image of God is applied to this setting and the argument for a similar interaction, training and devotion in a relationship between God the Father and his children is advanced and supported.
    • Above Below

      Cokinos, Chris; Canez, Katelyn Alane (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Alix should have died years ago, her body ravaged by cancer. At fifteen, she's an anomaly among the Scavengers, who prowl the surface of war-ravaged Earth for scraps of the old world. When Above scientists capture Alix for medical testing, no one is sure that she will ever come back. A year later, she escapes, desperate to regain her old life-but friends have changed, loyalties have changed, and she has changed. Alix must find a way to blend old and new experiences together while outrunning the clutches of the scientists. No longer a child of Below, a fugitive of Above, she belongs to two worlds, both of which clamor to claim her as their own. A dystopian novel that asks what it means to grow up in a world full of flaws - this is Above Below.

      Bianchi, JeanMarie; Tirsoreanu, Ionut (The University of Arizona., 2020-05)
      The goal of this study is to investigate university students’ Academic Achievement Motivation and Self-Efficacy to better understand its relationship to long-term Academic and Career Success. In addition to a literature review, this project consists of a research study proposal entailing a methodology section, data analysis plan, expected/hypothetical results (no data was collected, mock data was used), and a discussion. The literature review will summarize recent research on Academic Achievement Motivation and Self-Efficacy’s role in academic achievement, graduation rates, and post-graduate employment rates to better explore the relationship between Self-Efficacy and long-term academic/career goals. The implication of this research is to shed light on the importance of a student’s perceived Self-Efficacy and its importance in college so that universities can implement methods to allow students to be more self-efficacious and thereby make students more successful. Lastly, limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Acanthosis Nigricans: A Risk Factor for Type II Diabetes

      Hingle, Melanie; Eidson, Andrea Christine (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This paper serves as a review of Type II diabetes and pre-diabetes and their associated risk factors: obesity, race, age, and family history of the disease. A new risk factor, Acanthosis Nigricans, is examined in ordinance with common diabetes risk factors, and correlations are drawn between its occurrence and Type II diabetes. Acanthosis Nigricans is a skin condition that can be non-invasively identified. With the current rise of diabetes and obesity in children and adults, finding an easily identifiable risk factor is pertinent for catching the disease in the pre-diabetic state before Type II diabetes is developed. The role of Community Health Workers in disease prevention and intervention was also examined. In our findings, Acanthosis Nigricans is indicative specifically of development of insulin resistance and is most often seen in Hispanic and Black populations. Decreases in physical activity and increases in food-insecure households puts children at higher risk of diabetes development than ever before. Community Health Workers serve as a critical link between families in low-income communities and adequate health education. With proper training, community health workers have the potential to help low-income families stop the development of Type II diabetes in their children before it begins.

      Hudson, Leila; McGee, Anthony (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The intended goal of this research project is to elaborate on the methods and conditions which contributed to the dramatic entrance of IS Khurasan into the fray of the Afghan insurgency. Though the insurgent group has witnessed short lived success, they have openly challenged the Taliban in direct action in a bold attempt to supplant the dominant insurgent element. It is necessary to evaluate the current literature on the Afghan conflict with a focus on the years following the Taliban’s formation in 1994 to the recent power struggle between the rival organizations. This provides an understanding of the strategic decision making processes apparent in the advances of IS Khurasan in the provinces of Nangarhar, Helmand, and Farah. A bulk of the material related specifically to IS Khurasan is derived from journalistic sources due to the extremely current nature of this insurgency within an insurgency. The sensitive nature of information related to key battles and current military operations, limits the research of the IS phenomenon in Afghanistan. Unfortunately, a more complete evaluation of these events will not be available for a number of years.
    • Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: A Video Tour of the Carbon-14 Dating Process

      Soren, H. David; Genovese, Taylor Robert (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The purpose of this project is to create a video that engages and informs an undergraduate audience about the Carbon-14 dating process. The video takes you through the history of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Lab at the University of Arizona as well as discussion of what exactly carbon-dating is. The audience is then given a walking tour of the actual accelerator while the steps of Carbon-14 dating are explained.
    • Acceptance of Mobile Teledermoscopy of Primary Care Nurse Practitioners in the State of Arizona

      Loescher, Lois; Stratton, Delaney Baker (The University of Arizona., 2014)
    • Access And Quality In Early Childhood Education: Options For Pima County, Arizona

      Cutshaw, Christina; Jepson, Regan Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      High quality early childhood education (ECE) is fundamental to eliminating health disparities improving life expectancy. To inform the efforts of leaders building their own initiatives to launch programs improving access to high quality education to preschool aged children, a review of the existing literature revealed that little is known about what happens to the child care market when new funding is made available. This research project evaluates different case studies of cities and counties which have assembled their own funding and programs to meet the need for preschool education in their region. Case studies include Denver County, Colorado; San Antonio, Texas; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Shelby County, Tennessee. The research was pulled from annual reports and evaluations, website reports, agreements, contracts, budget documents, and news articles. From these case studies, and from existing research and similar reports on learning lessons of other programs, broad conclusions and recommendations can be made to inform the efforts of ECE leaders in Pima County around the ramp up time of program’s to build capacity and quality, challenges to building capacity and quality, and challenges experienced by programs.
    • Access to Repatriation: The Value of Refugee's Previous Education and Livelihoods

      Williams, Brackette F.; Evans, Pamela Mae (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and even the host countries, foster policies and conditions in refugee camps that restrict refugee use of previous education or livelihoods with which they could provide for their needs in exile. Would policies, which provide access to and use of previous education and livelihoods enhance refugee camp services? Would such policies improve options for and reduce time to repatriation? Typically the majority of refugees currently spend five or more years in exile, without an option to repatriate to their previous home country and location within it. If policies improved access to use of their education and livelihoods, would this alter refugee services' expectations that refugees will adapt and acculturate to host countries, rather than eventually return to their countries of origin? This thesis will argue that by anticipating repatriation, UNHCR and host countries policies would improve refugee services by fostering programs that assist refugees in using previous education and livelihoods, and thereby, reduce time between initial exile and repatriation. The same improved programs would also aid refugees in taking care of themselves outside of camps during exile in host countries. Another benefit, I argue, is that the ability to use previous education and livelihood would allow refugees to make better decisions about where to settle in their home country when repatriating. The assumption to this is a limit of the thesis to refugees who are adults when the exile began.
    • The Accuracy of Technology in Its Assessment of Physical Activity and Its Effect on an Individual's Behavior: A Case Study

      Rankin, Lucinda; Ruiz, Philip (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Given the obesity epidemic, it is essential to find effective ways to modify behavior and reduce associated long-term health issues. Mobile technology is being used to provide feedback to individuals about both activity and consumption, but accuracy and effectiveness are still unclear. In this study, accuracy of the popular Fit Bit device was assessed along with correlations to behavioral changes. Initial calibration of steps taken, distance traveled on a track and on a treadmill, calories burned and floors climbed revealed errors of 0.5%, 12%, 26%, 21.3% and 0% respectively, indicating the Fit Bit is a reasonable tool for assessing activity in relative terms and providing feedback to users. Three subjects then utilized Fit Bits for 28 days to gain insight into whether technology-based feedback can affect behavior. Over the study, there was an average decrease in calories consumed, body weight, and percent body fat. The correlation between calories burned, activity score, and rating of perceived exertion suggested accuracy in subjects’ self-assessment of physical activity. No correlation was found between rating of perceived consumption and calories consumed suggesting inaccuracy in self-assessing consumption and/or that external factors were involved. In sum, this technology appears promising for providing individualized feedback to optimize health.