Now showing items 1-20 of 4100

    • EFFECTS OF DEVICE-GUIDED BREATHING TRAINING AFTER MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION

      Bailey, Fiona; Soria, Sebastian (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Background: Myocardial revascularization is a common surgical intervention for those with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, for individuals who undergo this procedure, there is considerable risk for developing post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). Results of some studies suggest device-guided breathing training may prevent PPCs in this population. Purpose: To investigate the effects of device-guided (resistive vs. non-resistive) breathing training on key post-operative outcomes; length of stay (LOS), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: Databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCOhost CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and Scopus were searched to identify and retrieve all relevant references. In addition to direct source searching, references in the bibliographies of key articles and review articles also were reviewed to identify relevant studies. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to evaluate each study for quality and risk of bias. Results: Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. Resistive breathing training resulted in no change in MIP [4 studies; n=154; SMD=0.01 (95% CI: -0.66, 0.69)] and a small decrease in LOS [4 studies; n=154; SMD=0.19 (95% CI: -0.42, 0.80)]. PEF and 6MWT were not analyzed due to insufficient number of studies. There was no effect of non-resistive breathing training on any parameter. Conclusions: Short-term resistive breathing training shows no benefit for MIP, and minimal benefit for LOS. Importantly, resistive breathing training performed pre-operatively is more effective in improving LOS and MIP compared to post-operative training. Further, low levels of resistive breathing training (i.e., <40% MIP) have no effect on either MIP or LOS. Additional research to compare pre-operative, post-operative versus pre- and post-operative interventions strategies is warranted.
    • SRC KINASE PLAYS A SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC ROLE IN THE MECHANISM UNDERLYING INTERMITTENT FASTING ENHANCED OPIOID ANTINOCICEPTION

      Streicher, John; Seekins, Caleb Alan (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      With its variety of positive reported effects, intermittent fasting was previously hypothesized to decrease negative outcomes associated with opioids. Ultimately, intermittent fasting combined with opioid therapy was shown to increase the antinociceptive effect of the opioids while decreasing the negative side effects, including abuse liability (1). In this study we thus attempted to elucidate the mechanism behind this enhancement of opioid antinociception by intermittent fasting. Proteomics was first performed in the spinal cord and significant differences in Src inhibitor 1 (Srcin1) was found between fasted and ad libitum mice, suggesting a role for Src kinase in this pathway. Western blotting was conducted, the results of which confirmed that in spinal cords Src kinase phosphorylation was increased by intermittent fasting. Next, Src inhibitor was administered to opioid treated fasted mice, which showed that enhanced opioid antinociception was abolished in male mice but not females. This sexually dimorphic effect was supported by immunohistochemistry, which showed that only in intermittent fasted opioid stimulated male mice, Src phosphorylation was greatly increased in the dorsal horn. Finally, colocalization was performed, though these results are preliminary, and no significant results have currently been found. Ultimately, these results suggest that decreased Srcin1 levels cause an increase in Src phosphorylation, regardless of sex, following intermittent fasting. Following opioid treatment, the dorsal horn of intermittent fasting male mice has increased Src phosphorylation that mediates enhanced antinociception. This has uncovered a role for Src kinase in intermittent fasting and opioid antinociception, as well as sexual dimorphism seen in both.
    • DRIVERS OF ALTITUDINAL MIGRATION IN UNGULATE SPECIES

      Alston, Jesse; Satterfield, Paige Alyse (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Migration is extremely important both at the species and ecosystem level, however most research has focused on long-distance migrations. Without an understanding of short-distance migrations, like altitudinal migration, it can be hard to predict how species will be affected by rapid changes in the environment. Migratory ungulates are of special conservation importance as many are keystone species, having significant effects on ecosystem processes. In this study, I provide an overview of the drivers of altitudinal migration in ungulates and discuss its importance in ecology and conservation. Through a review of case studies of various ungulate species, I found four drivers of altitudinal migration: forage quality and quantity, predator avoidance, weather, and pest avoidance. While a pattern of forage quality and quantity emerged as one of the main mechanisms underlying altitudinal migration, most migrations were driven by a combination of the four factors. This knowledge helps better our understanding of altitudinal migration in ungulates, however more research is needed on how climate change, habitat fragmentation, and other environmental factors influence these species. I conclude by discussing future research directions for the study of altitudinal migration in ungulates and how these can be conducted.
    • STUDENT OUTCOMES BASED ON PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER QUALITY

      Hunter, Martin; Murdoch, Jack (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      In this paper, we examine the effects of student perception of teachers on long term student outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with nearly 9,000 observations, we construct three multiple linear regression models with dependent variables: income, natural log of income, and highest grade completed regressed against student ratings of their teachers along with several relevant demographic variables. We find that students who rated their teachers highly were more likely to have a higher income later in life. Having a teacher perceived as bad had no statistically significant effect on long term income. Students who rate their teachers highly complete more years of education on average and those who rate their teachers poorly complete less years of education on average. These findings lead us to conclude that the quality of a school’s teachers matters in the long run for a student’s success both academically and financially.
    • TEACHING ASSISTANTS ON THE FRONT LINES: A STUDY OF A COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT'S PROGRAM

      Lewis, Russell; Ioane, Kapua (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UGTA’s) Program within The University of Arizona’s Computer Science Department has been wildly successful over the past half decade. With more than 1200 undergraduate students, class sizes, especially at the introductory level, can be quite large. UGTAs are a crucial resource to both students and professors in these larger courses. However, the program faces challenges and has the potential to grow - most notably in its need for training the UGTAs when they are first hired and the need for more flexibility within the job. Improvements aimed at addressing these areas have been developed and launched in the past year. These improvements include a two day training program that newly hired UGTA would be required to participate in as well as a new position for experienced UGTAs to demonstrate growth and experience - both of which were launched in the Spring 2023 semester.
    • INVESTIGATING HOW THE UNEXPECTEDNESS OF A DEATH AFFECTS THE SEVERITY OF GRIEF: A SCOPING REVIEW

      O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Higgins, Cassandra Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      There is a knowledge gap in grief literature regarding unexpectedness (the perception of unpreparedness for the death of a loved one) being predictive of higher grief severity during bereavement. Many studies that researched grief severity during the COVID-19 pandemic included or found the factor of unexpectedness to be significant. The aims of this scoping review are to discover if the findings of the published literature can conclude that unexpectedness is predictive of higher levels of grief, and if it is a significant factor related to greater bereavement distress from the loss of a loved one due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the databases PubMed and PsycInfo, sources were collected and screened for their eligibility to be included in this study. The findings of each study were then extracted based on their relevance, organized, then synthesized. The synthesis of findings can conclude that the unexpectedness of a death is predictive of acute grief and a risk factor for prolonged grief, and that it is a significant factor associated with greater bereavement distress during a pandemic. Experiencing what is perceived to be an unexpected death can predict more severe grief experiences.
    • GUT INSTINCTS: NAVIGATING THE MICROBIAL MAZE IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

      Cholanian, Marina; Goldfine, Matthew Alexander (The University of Arizona., 2023)
    • FROM INCARCERATION TO BEYOND: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON MENTAL HEALTH, TREATMENT, AND REENTRY IN THE INCARCERATED POPULATION

      Langley, Carrie; Fisher, Jamie (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The United States corrections system is one of the largest psychiatric providers in the country, yet many incarcerated people do not receive adequate mental healthcare during their sentences. When ready to re-enter into society, inadequacies in transitional programs continue to challenge former inmates to maintain sobriety and employment. It is important to mention that many people who have served prison sentences have a history of substance abuse related to mental illness. This literature review aims to discuss current practices and the gaps in continued treatment.
    • SIN MIEDO: A COMMUNITY BASED ART EXHIBITION

      DiCindio, Carissa; Campos, Alexis G. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      SIN MIEDO explores the theme of Chicanx beauty, aesthetics, culture, and imagery. It is a dialogue between Chicanx community artists from Tucson, myself as the curator, and viewers as they explore this theme through their own experiences, identity, culture, belief systems, and memory. This exhibition and the space utilize a community-centered approach which the exhibition is built around. The work created by the artists guides the conversation and dialogue concerning the theme. While the theme has been provided, each artist has their subjectivity and positionality that allows them to create work that is complex and important to be publicly shown. Sin Miedo encapsulates museum theories and practices of community art, institutional critique, decolonizing the white cube space, and participatory art. Sin Miedo also has an immense focus on the beauty and imagery aspects of Chicanx arts, filtered through a feminist lens, that incorporates those same museum practices and theories. This exhibition is designed to broadcast the voices of Chicanx community artists of Tucson and allow the audience to engage and immerse themselves in the gallery space and theme. Every artist that participates has their own unique story to tell as the Chicanx culture is as diverse as the experiences it brings.
    • THE STUDENT ASSISTANT DIRECTOR'S GUIDEBOOK

      Makino, Yuri; Bussey, Caitlin (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The goal of this Guidebook is to enable a university film student, with little to no previous experience as an Assistant Director, to fulfill the AD's role on any class project. On any film or TV show, the AD is the event manager of the production, responsible for scheduling, organizing and day-to-day supervision and leadership on the set. The AD is the project's prime communicator and coordinator as they strive to provide their Director, cast, and crew with the maximum resources available within the project’s budget and time limitations. While crucial to any production, the craft of the Assistant Director is rarely taught in university film schools. There is no UA FTV course dedicated to teaching all of the skills needed to be an Assistant Director. Basic budgeting and scheduling are covered in the second semester of the producing course series, but this is an elective that not all students in the program will have the opportunity to take. This Guidebook is a tutorial for those without AD experience, and a reference tool for those looking to improve their performance.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A QUESTIONNAIRE AND SUBSEQUENT INVESTIGATION OF STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE APHASIA

      Kielar, Aneta; Abraham, Emily Judith (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by language and communication deterioration in the initial stages of the disease (1-3 years). Given that PPA progresses over the course of years, patients with PPA require interdisciplinary teams of practitioners to provide effective care, including physicians and speech-language therapists. These practitioners should be well-educated about and hold respectful attitudes towards PPA so that patients receive optimal care. The goal of this study was to investigate university students' perceptions of PPA as characterized by both baseline knowledge and positivity of attitude. New scales-- the PPA Knowledge Scale (abbreviated PPAk; assessing knowledge of PPA) and the PPA Attitudes Scale (abbreviated PPAa; assessing attitudes towards PPA)-- were developed for this purpose and administered alongside previously validated scales related to aging and dementia. Pre-health and communication science disorder students were surveyed initially because these students will become the next set of practitioners for patients with PPA. The results indicated that while knowledge of PPA among surveyed students is lacking, attitudes towards PPA are relatively positive. Suggestions for future research include continued evaluation of the PPAk and PPAa scales. There is a need for educational initiatives to provide students with more instruction regarding PPA in the health related fields at the undergraduate level.
    • HEALTH DISPARITIES AND DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION LEARNING IN THE PHYSIOLOGY MAJOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

      Cohen, Zoe; Nangia, Ellen (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The importance of health disparity and diversity education has increased exponentially in the recent years as attention escalates towards marginalized populations and social change. Health disparities encompass inequalities in care usually found in specific diverse communities. The education of diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) with a focus on gaining cultural awareness is discussed within the university setting, specifically the Physiology and Medical Sciences Major at The University of Arizona. Many students lack the knowledge on marginalized communities such as Black, women, LGBTQ+, and lower socioeconomic individuals during their undergraduate career. These populations have seen a direct impact on their quality of healthcare deep-rooted in systematic discrimination and oppression. An understanding of health disparities as a future healthcare provider is crucial and should be implemented before graduate education. The University of Arizona requires one diversity emphasis course as part of their General Education requirements, however many courses chosen to satisfy this do not encourage cultural competency as it relates to social change. Proposed solutions include offering more classes related to health disparities within the Physiology Major curriculum, a requirement to take DEI courses, and an encouraged general education course list.
    • AUTOMATED POLITICAL BIAS CLASSIFICATION IN NEWS AGENCIES: A SPARSITY-INDUCING FEATURE SELECTION APPROACH

      Surdeanu, Mihai; Mohseni, Sayyed Faraz (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      This study offers a new solution to political bias classification in news agencies. Our method uses search engine score functions to develop a measure of the relevance of each word in text scrapped from news websites. With these scores, we train models using existing feature selection methods and a custom feature selec-tion algorithm that we developed. The result-ing models are contrasted with each other and BERT-based counterparts. Models trained using our proposed method and custom algorithm outperformed others by achieving macro F1 scores of 0.81 and 0.78 on right-wing and left-wing bias detection respectively, which outper-form transformer-based classifiers by over 0.30.
    • THEORIES OF CHANGE AND THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION

      Smit, Houston; Miller, Alexandre (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Aristotle’s account of perception in book three of De Anima sets out by describing a relationship that holds between our power of perception and sensible objects. In order for us to discern the qualities of bodies that can undergo changes, the mind’s power to think about objects must involve a unity of acting and being acted upon. René Descartes continues with this notion of the knowing subject and the object of knowledge, but introduces simple ideas that the intellect can know through intuition. These are used to build out our certain knowledge of composites by uniting simple natures that clearly and distinctly belong together. John Locke proposes that all of our knowledge comes from sensation and reflection, and lacking any innate ideas, we are warranted to use objects of sensation as fundamental material for all of our ideas, because God has instilled these faculties in us. David Hume challenges all appeals to God as grounds of our sense’s reliability, and Kant responds to this skepticism by showing that it leads to pure a priori concepts of the understanding. We will proceed chronologically through these philosopher’s theories to see if we have entitlement to the concept of cause and effect.
    • MODELING SELECTION BIAS ON RECOMBINATION RATES INFERRED THROUGH LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM

      Gutenkunst, Ryan; Fan, Amy (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Recombination is a key part of evolutionary theory, and understanding the ways selection can bias inferred rates in a population can help us investigate better models for inference. This experiment models the bias in recombination rate inferences on a simulated genome with selection. Using SLiM forward genetic simulation, this experiment creates two basic genomic structures, one with and one without a hotspot. Then, using Pyrho a fine-scaled linkage disequilibrium-based inference model, the experiments reveal how selection biases the linkage disequilibrium model. Notably, with increasing nonsynonymous distribution of fitness effects (DFE), the inferences worsen and show a decreasing trend. This is most notable in the hotspot region of the second genomic structure (with a hotspot). The results show that the assumption of neutral selection in popular population-based inference methods is extremely important and should be addressed. In particular, among organisms with less compact genomes, the issue of selection would become more extreme and disruptive. In future models, this could be taken into consideration to improve inference ability among a diverse set of organisms with different levels of selection in their genome. Understanding how recombination rates differ across the tree of life can also reveal interesting molecular structures which further motivates accuracy in these inference methods.
    • SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND EATING HABITS: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE IMPACTS LATE NIGHT SNACKING HABITS ON HEALTH

      Grandner, Michael; Arevalo, Sabrina (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Many adults in the United States have dysregulated sleep schedules, often staying awake late into the night and not getting quality sleep. Sleep deprivation and nocturnal wakefulness have been shown to cause negative effects on the mind and body, leading to an increased risk of dysregulated behaviors and impulsivity. This, in turn, can have an impact on a person’s eating habits, specifically what and when they eat. Late-night snacking can be a result of nocturnal wakefulness, which can ultimately lead to excess weight gain due to a positive energy balance. With the obesity epidemic that also plagues the United States, it is important to determine the link between sleep deprivation and obesity to lead people toward living a healthy lifestyle. Both obesity and sleep deprivation have been linked to a plethora of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, hypertension, mental health issues, and diabetes. This review aims to determine how the effects of nocturnal wakefulness and sleep deprivation can affect one’s eating habits and risk of weight gain.
    • MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF POLARITY

      Wilson, Jean; Blum, Isabella Rosario (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Differential membrane trafficking and modulation of lipid domains establishes and maintains cellular polarity in epithelial cells – these events are controlled largely by small GTPases. We have shown previously that Rab14 acts upstream of Arf6 in the establishment of the apical membrane, but how it interacts with other trafficking machinery is unknown. Rab22 has a polarized distribution in activated T-cells, but its role in epithelial polarity is not known. Here we report the colocalization of Rab14 with Rab22a in endosomes of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Interestingly, Rab22 localizes to the cell:cell interface of polarizing cell pairs, and Rab14 and Rab22 colocalize in adjacent endosomes. Knockdown of Rab22 results in a multi-lumen phenotype in 3D culture, and overexpression of Rab22 in Rab14 knock down cells, results in the production of Rab22-positive extensions. Because of the relationship between Rab14, Rab22, and Arf6, we investigated the interaction of Rab22 with Arf6 GEFs and found that Rab22 co-immunoprecipitates with the Arf6 GEF EFA6. Furthermore, EFA6 is retained in intracellular puncta in Rab22 KD cells. These results suggest that Rab22 acts downstream of Rab14 to regulate Arf6 activity in the establishment of polarity.
    • How Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy May Serve as an Alternate Treatment to Improve Mental Health in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

      Moreno, Francisco; NGUYEN, ALICIA LILY (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Major depressive disorder (MDD), is a prevalent mental illness and mood disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite various treatment options available such as antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, there are a significant proportion of patients diagnosed with MDD who do not respond adequately to these forms of treatment, highlighting the need for an alternative form of treatment for patients with MDD. In recent years, there has been a renewal in scientific inquiry and research in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic substances, including psilocybin, which is a naturally occurring compound found in specific species of mushrooms. Furthermore, numerous clinical studies have revealed that psilocybin-assisted therapy can produce rapid and sustained antidepressant effects among patients with MDD. Psilocybin sessions often involve strict protocol administering an adequate dosage in a tightly controlled setting with a professional psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, or therapist, to carefully monitor and guide the patient throughout the experience. The therapy session aims to enhance the patient's emotional awareness, promote introspection, disrupt depressive rumination, and facilitate a shift in perspective that will lead to lasting changes in mood and behavior.
    • PSYCHOLOGY OF COVID-19 PREVENTION BEHAVIOR IN THE UNITED STATES

      Gonzalez, Frank; Zuniga, Samantha (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The COVID-19 pandemic had a detrimental impact on society, the economy, education, and mental and physical well-being of Americans across the United States. To date, over (insert appropriate number here) cases of COVID-19 and blank deaths have been repeatedly reported in the United States. The U.S government ordered/enacted specific legal policies and mandates to slow the transmission and spreading of the pandemic. The important roles of economic, physical, mental, and racial disparities and disadvantages altered compliance within areas of the United States. Society quickly divided into multiple groups either in support or opposition of these policies. The question is whether this divide was influenced by individual political leanings and beliefs? The “Psychology of COVID Prevention Behaviors in the United States” is focused on analyzing the role of people’s belief systems and the manner in which various psychological traits influence their individual attitudes toward COVID-19 mitigation policies. This study expands on the diverse belief system regarding COVID-19 and its influence on COVID-related policy and behavior. Additionally, incorporating the social theories and ideologies of partisanship, collectivism, individualism, and prejudice to supplement our findings. Our study interacted with populations within the University of Arizona and established with aid from society concentrated areas and prior data publications. According to our hypothesis, participants with a stronger means of individualistic beliefs demonstrate little to no compliance implemented by the government and abiding schools.
    • NURSING BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EDUCATION ABOUT ALCOHOL USE: INCREASING AWARENESS OF A SOCIAL CARCINOGENIC

      Goldsmith, Melissa; Zimmermann, Reagan (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The purpose of this thesis is to derive appropriate alcohol intake recommendations for individuals at risk of alcohol abuse, based on evidence-based studies. This will provide individuals with evidence-based education on the safe consumption of alcohol. Alcohol consumption is a prevalent practice, particularly in social settings once individuals reach the legal drinking age. However, there are some contraindications to alcohol use when it becomes excessive. The stigma of adverse effects from alcohol is not as well-known as other drugs. This highlights the need for clear guidelines on safe alcohol consumption. The current evidence suggests that there is no safe level of alcohol use. This evidence-based best practice thesis is centered around a literature review of eight articles from PubMed and a review of alcohol guidelines established by the CDC. Using scholarly sources from the last ten years and keywords alcohol and cancer, the review provides a factual basis for the best practice recommendations, drawing on nursing practices. The outcome of these best practice recommendations was to develop a proposed educational intervention for the public about abstaining from alcohol use to avoid the detrimental effects of cancer in the future. These nursing interventions would be most suitable for individuals at risk or who are alcohol abusers. The evidence linking alcohol consumption to cancer is a proven side effect of its carcinogenic characteristics. However, the definition of excessive alcohol use is unclear to many. By providing clear guidelines and education in the nursing clinical setting, the potential for detrimental outcomes can be significantly reduced.