The UA Master's Theses Collection provides open access to masters theses and reports produced at the University of Arizona, including theses submitted online from 2005-present and theses from 1895-2005 that were digitized from microfilm and print holdings, in addition to master's reports from the College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture from 1966 onwards. The collection includes hundreds of titles not available in ProQuest.

We have digitized the entire backfile of master's theses and doctoral dissertations that have been submitted to the University of Arizona Libraries - since 1895! If you can't find the item you want in the repository and would like to check its digitization status, please contact us.

The UA Master's Theses collection is not comprehensive; master's theses from 1993-2015 were only received and archived by the UA Library and ProQuest if the student chose to pay the optional archiving fee. The Library does not have copies of many master's theses submitted during this time period. Some academic departments may keep copies of theses submitted to their programs. Colleges and departments wishing to archive master's theses not available in the University Libraries are encouraged to contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.


Please refer to the Dissertations and Theses in the UA Libraries guide for more details about UA Theses and Dissertations, and to find materials that are not available online. Email repository@u.library.arizona.edu with your questions about UA Theses and Dissertations.

Recent Submissions


    Beudert, Lynn; McClure, Marissa; Sorto, Pedro (The University of Arizona., 2012)
    This thesis presents a project within the area of Art and Visual Culture Education created for Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Transsexual, Questioning, and Queer (LGBTQ) participants situated in the city of Tucson, Arizona. The main objective of the research was to design and implement an art and visual culture educational curriculum in a local community center in order to explore and compare the different approaches to, and uses of LGBTQ-related language by the participants as they engaged in opportunities for self expression that the critical analysis and creation of art and visual culture might provide. This research reflects a combination of the ideas of critical pedagogy (based on the work of Paulo Freire) and queer theory (based on the work of Judith Buller), and their theoretical and practical interconnections within the area of public pedagogy. The curriculum design will take as its foundation, examples of Judy Chicago's content-based art pedagogy, Karen Hutzel's Asset-based Community Art Curriculum, and Lisa Frohmann 's Photo-Narrative Art Project. Through this combination of theories, ideas, and references, the research study is expected to generate spaces for voice for LGBTQ communities wherein they can explore their use, misuse, and disuse of LGBTQ related language and eventually, express through art and the examination of visual culture, their feelings, secrets, or stories by modifying existing discourses, creating personal codes, or even generating new forms of language. When searching for a place to implement an art education project for LGBTQ participants, I encountered BICAS, a non-profit collectively-run community education and recycling center for bicycles. BICAS includes in its programming an awareness of LGBTQ issues, specifically through its Women and Transgender workshops. With BICAS' support, and through a series of workshops directed at LGBTQ and allied people, I was able to apply the curriculum design developed in this thesis and to study possible interconnections between art making in education and the importance of language in the process of self-identification of LGBTQ participants. In particular, I was able to study the participants' perceptions and use of labels, and provide them with opportunities for claiming freedom of self-definition by creating new meanings or words through artistic expression.
  • Test Eye Model for Corneal Topographers and Ocular Aberrometers

    Schwiegerling, James T.; Armstrong, Katherine Jeanne; Kim, Daewook; Liang, Rongguang (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    The eye model developed will be used as a common model to test both corneal topographers and ocular aberrometers. There are different types of ophthalmic diagnostic devices to measure different parts of the eye. Corneal topographers measure the front surface and ocular aberrometers measure the aberration of the entire eye in one measurement. The most common means for measuring corneal topography is using Placido ring, which is a form of deflectometry. Shack-Hartmann techniques are widely used for ocular aberrometry. Here, an eye model is developed that enables the performance of both types of devices to be assessed with clinical levels of corneal shape and aberration. The eye model consists of two components, one piece contains a freeform surface to represent the cornea, while the second piece has a compensating freeform which regulates the overall aberration of the eye model. Such a model is useful for calibration of the different diagnostic devices.
  • Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems (OASIS) Space Telescope

    Kim, Daewook; Takashima, Yuzuru; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Walker, Christopher K. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems (OASIS) is a proposed space based observatory with a 14 m inflatable primary reflector that will perform high spectral resolution observations at terahertz frequencies. An inflatable metallized polymer membrane with a large photon collecting area serves as the primary antenna (A1), followed by aberration correction mirror pair, and a FOV scanner that enables a large field of regards of 0.1 degrees while achieving diffraction limited performance over a wide terahertz wavelength ranging from 63 μm to 660 μm.The shape of the primary antenna is a function of pressure, this offers a unique challenge with respect to optical design. The aberration correction mirror pair is designed to simultaneously tackle the deviation of the primary antenna from the desired ideal parabola and the off-axis aberrations like coma. A tip-tilt mirror system with a HRFZ Si field lens is designed to scan the FOV. To determine the best suitable design that meets all the science goals and system requirements, an analytical model is developed to perform a parametric design study and the results are represented as solution space contour plots. The large diameter and irregular shape contribute to the challenges of accurately measuring the surface profile of the primary antenna. A 1m prototype of primary antenna (A1) is built to investigate whether the Nikon APDIS laser radar can be used to overcome these metrological challenges. The measured data is compared with Fichter solution of Hencky curve, and Finite Element Analyzer for Membranes (FAIM) developed by L’Garde Inc.
  • Development of the Ability to Bind Relations

    Edgin, Jamie; Peng, Maomiao; Nadel, Lynn; Chou, Ying-Hui (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    In contrast to traditional approaches measuring the development of spatial memory based on the reduction of distance between the target and the reconstructed item, this study explored the reduction of three kinds of errors (identity error, global error, and local error) that contribute to the distance between the target and the reconstructed item in children from three to eighteen years old, as well as comparing these errors between typically developing children (TD) and children with Down syndrome (DS). Consistent with previous studies, older children outperformed younger children in terms of overall memory accuracy, and the TD children showed better performance than the DS children. More importantly, we found uneven maturational trajectories of memory abilities related to reducing the various errors. In the TD group, global error, which captures the errors resulting from the participants moving all the items in one direction, reduces about four years of age. Local error, measuring memory precision, reduces from the age of three to the teenage years. Identity error, related to remembering the identity of each item to avoid putting one item into another item’s location, showed no significant reduction before the age of eight. In addition, TD males showed less global error and local error than DS males, while no such effect was found in females. Overall, our study contributed to a fine-grained understanding of developing spatial memory ability in TD and DS.
  • Effects of Stream Drying, Season, and Distance to Refuges on Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in an Arid Intermittent Stream Basin

    Bogan, Michael T.; Hollien, Kelsey; Bonar, Scott A.; Hu, Jia (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Intermittent streams are globally ubiquitous and comprise a large percentage of stream networks. As climate changes in arid regions and increases the frequency and intensity of drying disturbances, it is important to understand how aquatic biota respond to such stressors and how it would impact biodiversity. To address these topics, we sampled 10 stream reaches in the Sycamore Creek drainage, an arid-land stream in central Arizona, with reach-scale flow regimes ranging from perennial to highly intermittent. We sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates across 10 reaches during 4 seasons to explore seasonal variability in community structure as habitat transitions through flowing and drying phases. We also collected continuous flow regime data at each reach with remote data loggers to explore the impacts of intermittency and distance to perennial refuges on species richness, taxonomic composition, and trait composition. Overall, richness was lower at intermittent reaches than perennial reaches, and richness values increased linearly as flow duration increased. We found no relationship between richness and distance to the nearest perennial refuge. Community assemblages differed significantly by season but were not distinct between perennial and intermittent reaches. Trait composition however was distinct between seasons as well as flow classification, with traits such as a lack of diapause, longer life span, and predatory feeding behaviors as indicators for perennial reaches. As climate change alters natural flow regimes, understanding the response of macroinvertebrate community structure to drying disturbances in an arid-land stream can help to provide insight on aquatic community responses to a drying climate at a larger scale.
  • Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Mediates Cardiac Fibrosis in the Setting of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Wilson, Jean M.; Crawford, Monique; Streicher, John; Runyan, Raymond (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Background: CKD (chronic kidney disease) is a progressive disease with a global prevalence of 11-13% (Hill et al., 2016). CKD disrupts homeostasis resulting in large majority of patients with CKD also suffering from CVD (cardiovascular disease), with over 90% of CKD patients having cardiac fibrosis (Graham-Brown et al., 2017). FGF23, a phosphaturic hormone derived from bone, has been found to be elevated in patients with CKD and is associated with increased mortality in this patient population. Elevated serum FGF23 levels lead to LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and cardiac fibrosis, however, the mechanism by which fibrosis develops is unknown. We hypothesize that FGF23 mediates cardiac fibrosis by activation of the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system), TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), and wnt/β-catenin pathways in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. Methods:A literature review was conducted to identify the current literature on FGF23, CKD, cardiac fibrosis, RAAS, TGF-β, wnt/β-catenin and the molecular mechanisms leading to pathology. Search engines used were PubMed, Elsevier, NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), University of Arizona Library, Google, and Wikipedia. Keywords included: CKD prevalence and mortality, bone and mineral metabolism, FGF23 mortality, angiotensin II (ANGII) and cardiac fibrosis, and phosphate homeostasis. Conclusion: In a series of steps, systemic FGF23 mediates cardiac fibrosis via non-conical signaling pathways by first activating the RAAS in cardiac myocytes. RAAS activation in cardiac myocytes increases ANGII expression. ANGII crosstalk with cardiac fibroblasts leads to activation of fibroblasts and TGF-β pathways. TGF-β and 5wnt3a/β-catenin in cardiac fibroblasts activate pro-fibrotic gene expression. TGFβ and wnt3a/β-catenin from cardiac fibroblasts crosstalk with cardiac myocytes to induce pro-fibrotic gene expression and augment RAAS signaling pathway, respectively.
  • Monitoring and Assessment of Heat Stress and Heat Strain in Hot Arizona Mines

    Momayez, Moe M.; Cordova Rubina, Veronica Amanda; Lutz, Eric E.; Waqas, Muhammad M.; Lee, Jaeheon J.; Reed, Rustin R. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Occupational heat stress is one of the main causes of health-related risks in the mining industry. Heat stress can cause heat strokes, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia and sometimes even death. Therefore, the importance of monitoring heat stress and using cooling technologies in a mine is critical to mitigating these occupational health risks. Heat stress is conventionally monitored using stress indices. The estimation of stress indices requires measuring dynamically changing parameters, which imposes a challenge to monitoring stress. Core body temperature (CBT) has proven to be a relevant proxy for heat stress. However, measuring CBT is an invasive technique that may not always be feasible. In the first part of this study, we identify two easily and non-invasively measurable physiological parameters: heart rate (BPM) and urine-specific gravity (USG). Further, we relate these parameters to CBT. We also investigate the dependence of these parameters on miners' physiological parameters, such as use of energy drinks and the body mass indices (BMI). Our findings show a strong correlation between CBT and heart rate (Pearson Correlation >0.4), rendering the latter as a useful tool to monitor heat stress. The intake of energy drinks shows causation to increase dehydration (p value=0.049). Furthermore, in the second part of this study, we investigate how to reduce the risk of heat stress in mine operators. In order to evaluate limiting factors, we examine the amount of heat absorbed by hardhats of different colors, where our findings are that white hardhats are best at absorbing minimal energy (15F less than black hardhats). Additionally, we study the performance of three commercial cooling vests and a combination set (i.e., evaporative cooling cap and sleeves) in reducing perceptual heat strain (23% of improvement in Physical Strain Alleviation wearing evaporative vest). We find that the overall perceived heat stress index of mine operators is considerably less with cooling devices.
  • Molecular Phylogeny and Revision of Species Groups of Nearctic Bombardier Beetles (Carabidae: Brachininae: Brachinus)

    Moore, Wendy; Ikagawa, Raine; McMahon, Michelle; Bogan, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Bombardier beetles of the genus Brachinus Weber are notorious for their explosive defensive chemistry; when threatened, they aim a 100°C cloud of benzoquinones directly at an enemy. Despite ongoing research on their defensive chemistry and ecology, the group lacks a robust molecular phylogeny. In this study, three loci from both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome (COI, CAD, 28S) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Nearctic Brachinus and to test hypothesized relationships based on a previous study based upon morphological characters (Erwin, 1970). All molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered all species groups proposed by Erwin as monophyletic except for the fumans species group. We find that Erwin’s fumans species group is polyphyletic. In its place, we erect the following five species groups: cinctipennis, fumans (revised), galactoderus, phaeocerus, and quadripennis. External morphological characters were traced on the molecular phylogeny to identify potential diagnostic characters. Apomorphic characters were identified for two new species groups, the fumans (revised) and phaeocerus groups. We also expand the cordicollis group to include B. medius and the americanus group.
  • Enhanced Delivery of Antibody Therapy Using Focused Ultrasound in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Trouard, Theodore P.; Murphy, Devin Patrick; Chen, Nan-kuei; Hutchinson, Elizabeth B. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s Disease and affects 680,000 US adults over the age of 45 as of 2010 [Marras et al. 2018]. This disease results in a loss of dopaminergic neurons, specifically in the substantia nigra. PD has also been associated with the accumulation of toxic oligomeric variants of alpha-synuclein (-syn). Although there are several medications that can help manage symptoms for PD, there is no cure. We have successfully created antibody reagents that selectively target toxic -syn variants without binding to non-oligomeric forms of normal alpha-synuclein. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery and treatment of PD due to its low permeability to foreign objects. Due to the size of the monoclonal antibody, it is unable to cross the BBB without transporter proteins or temporary disruption of the BBB. This antibody therapy is delivered using novel magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment, which transiently disrupts tight junctions between epithelial cells in the BBB, resulting in gaps large enough for the antibody therapy to cross the BBB. Results indicate that the BBB was successfully opened over multiple timepoints, and the procedure does not cause extensive tissue damage. The results also show that the targeted antibody selectively binds to toxic -syn in regions of the brain where the BBB has been temporarily disrupted. Future work includes longitudinal studies to determine if this treatment combination can delay disease progression or improve quality of life in murine models of Parkinson’s Disease.
  • Characterization of U(-V) Deposits in the La Sal District, UT and CO and their Relationship to Paradox Basin Fluid Flow

    Barton, Mark D.; Bos Orent, Eytan; Barton, Isabel F.; Hughes, Amanda N.; Hall, Susan M. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    The tabular sandstone-hosted uranium (U) and vanadium (V) deposits of the La Sal district form a 1-3 km wide, 30-km long belt spanning the Utah-Colorado border. They exemplify one of the principal types of U(-V) mineralization of the Paradox Basin and encompassing Colorado Plateau. Building on previous work, new field, petrographic and geochemical data provide the framework for an updated district synthesis of La Sal and its place in the broader geological context. Ore is hosted in the uppermost fluvial sandstones of the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation and forms elongate orebodies up to 180 m long, 90 m wide, and 1 m thick. Sparse organic material, mainly in the form of coalified plant fragments, is present in the sandstones which are interbedded with finer-grained silty, muddy and calcareous units. Principal changes in the rocks include bleaching by removal or reaction of early diagenetic hematite, a feature that is coextensive with quartz overgrowths . Later formed were compositionally distinct carbonate cements, and reaction of feldspars to kaolinitic clays. Bleaching was prior to or contemporaneous with (or both) mineralization, which is restricted to bleached rocks. Petrography shows that ore minerals (uraninite, coffinite, and montroseite) at least in part predate growth of authigenic quartz cements, and were in turn followed by the formation of V-rich sheet silicates (which may reflect reaction of montroseite with quartz and other minerals), carbonates, and clay cements. Depositional features control where mineral growth occurred and include sedimentary structures (e.g., crossbedding), primary porosity, and the distribution of lithofacies in trends like the La Sal channel system. The thin section to district-scale observations suggest that mineralization reflects mixing of two fluids, as has been suggested in other Plateau deposits, or, alternatively as a reaction of oxidized fluids with a preceding exogenous reduced component caused by bleaching. Increasing evidence in this area and elsewhere in the Paradox Basin suggests a complex fluid history including a major role for hydrocarbon-bearing fluids in bleaching and localization of metals beginning at least as early as the Late Triassic.
  • Modeling and Emulation of Optical Networks for SDN Control

    Kilper, Daniel; Quraishy, Aamir Nasir; Pau, Stanley; Norwood, Robert; Fan, Linran (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Today's telecommunications networks are facing increasing internet traffic demands for a variety of high data-rate applications including virtual reality (VR), video-conferencing, and high-definition (HD) video streaming. Optical networks are more efficient than wired and copper networks over long distances and high speeds, and thus have been a large contributor for increasing data capacities over the past several decades. Developments in optical fiber technologies have allowed optical networks to be manufactured at steadily lower cost per bit. However networks do not just need to handle larger traffic volumes, they also need to work with existing network architectures and accommodate traffic requests with different requirements. One method for addressing this challenge is Software Defined Networking (SDN). SDN separates the control and data-plane so the data management and control decisions are made by a central controller that direct information as need be. However, developing SDN systems for optical networks at scale is difficult because optical networks need to consider signal quality and nonlinear fiber impairment. Mininet-Optical is an optical network emulator designed to emulate a multi-layer optical network so network designers can develop SDN control algorithms. Mininet is an open-source tool for studying SDN but does not support optical networks. We developed an optical layer simulator that is integrated into Mininet Optical. We evaluated this approach using the open-source planning tool GNPy and showed strong agreement. We also developed an SDN control algorithm for provisioning optical networks with bandwidth variable transceivers (BVTs) and examined how the SDN controller responds to diurnal traffic. BVT technology has received attention from the SDN community because of its ability to change modulation formats to optimize network capacity and their performance depends on the quality of transmission. This adds an extra element of control that SDN controllers can use to respond to varying traffic conditions such as diurnal traffic patterns and respond to different traffic needs. In this thesis we discuss SDN control, BVTs, Diurnal traffic modeling, optical fiber transmission physics, and the mininet optical system. From this, we will examine SDN control for a network with BVTs handling requests from metro networks in residential and office areas with diurnal traffic. This work shows how BVTs operate in an SDN controlled network while responding to time-varying traffic, and show non-linear impairment induced switching for heavily-loaded traffic.
  • Postoperative Urinary Retention after Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery

    Hammer, Ronald P.; Kruer, Michael C.; Belthur, Mohan V.; Stull, Terrence L. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Background: Postoperative urinary retention is defined as an inability to void after surgery or the presence of a major residual volume after voiding that requires catheterization. Postoperative urinary retention prolongs hospital stay and often leads to bladder catheterization, which exposes patients to the risk of urinary tract infection. This study aims to describe the incidence of postoperative urinary retention among pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and to identify risk factors for this complication. Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was used to identify children aged 1-18 years who underwent orthopedic surgery during 2012-2015. Collected from each patient’s record were demographic information, principal procedure during hospitalization, diagnosis codes for the hospitalization, the presence of neurologic/neuromuscular conditions and other complex chronic medical conditions, the total post-operative length of stay, and the presence of post-operative urinary retention. Results: There were 232,551 pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery from 2012-2015 that met our inclusion criteria. There were 892 cases of postoperative urinary retention, for an overall incidence of 0.38%. The average length of stay for patients with postoperative urinary retention was 7.8 days compared to 1.7 days in those without. After adjusting for gender, race, and age, children with complex chronic neuromuscular conditions (OR 11.54 (95% CI 9.6-13.88), p = <0.001) and complex chronic non-neuromuscular medical conditions (OR 5.07 (95% CI 4.11 – 6.25 -), p = <0.001) had a substantially increased incidence of urinary retention. Surgeries on the spine (OR 3.98 (95% CI 3.28 - 4.82, p = <0.001) and femur/hip (OR 3.63 (95% CI 3.03 - 4.36), p = <0.001) were also associated with a substantially increased incidence of urinary retention. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of postoperative urinary retention in children undergoing orthopedic surgery is low, children with complex chronic neuromuscular conditions have substantially increased risk of experiencing this complication. In addition, complex chronic non-neuromuscular medical conditions and surgeries to the spine, hip, and femur also carry a notably increased risk for postoperative urinary retention. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors and recognize that occurrence of postoperative urinary retention is likely to increase patient’s length of stay. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III KEY WORDS: Postoperative, urinary retention, pediatric orthopedics, surgery, risk factors.
  • Single High Dose Oral Vitamin D3 (Stoss Therapy) in Pediatric Patients Undergoing HSCT: A Proposed Solution to Vitamin D Deficiency During Transplant

    Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Ngwube, Alexander; Sharma, Shalini; Adams, Roberta; Shub, Mitchell (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Vitamin D deficiency remains common among pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) despite both aggressive and standard of care strategies. This study examined the safety and efficacy of single high-dose oral vitamin D therapy (Stoss therapy) for treatment of vitamin D deficiency in HSCT recipients. Patients ages 1 to 21 years presenting for HSCT were randomized to receive either Stoss regimen plus weekly/daily supplementation or standard of care, per US Endocrine Society guidelines. Among the total 48 subjects, 22 (46%) were randomized to Stoss and 26 (54%) to control arms. Baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were insufficient/deficient in total of 34 (71%) patients, without difference between treatment groups. The Stoss regimen was well tolerated, and no toxicity was observed. At Day +30, mean 25-OHD levels were significantly higher (p=0.04) with Stoss (42.3 ± 12 μg/l) compared to controls (35.6 ± 14.3 μg/l), and a higher proportion of Stoss patients had adequate vitamin D levels than controls (85% vs 65%). Stoss therapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for vitamin D deficiency in children undergoing HSCT and may achieve sufficient levels more rapidly than standard of care. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03176849.
  • Implication of IL-6 Neuroinflammation in the Context of Insomnia as a Risk Factor for Neurodegeneration

    Zarnescu, Daniela; McMullen, Haley; Fernandez, Fabian; Romanoski, Casey (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Sleep is a complex and required physiological process that is important for the health and function of a person. Disturbances in sleep have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, yet it is unknown through what mechanism insomnia may be playing a role in this pathology. Recently, there has been emphasis in the field implicating disrupted metabolite clearance during slow wave sleep (SWS) in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the context of inflammation, specifically the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, a known mediator of sleepiness, may provide important insight into sleep’s role in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Net Slip and Linkage Patterns of the Sevier-Toroweap Fault System

    Hughes, Amanda; Delisser, Terrance; Johnson, Roy; Sbar, Marc (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    The Sevier-Toroweap fault system is a 250+ km high-angle normal fault located in southern Utah and northern Arizona in the High Plateaus subprovince. It is one of three main normal faults that accommodate the strain concentrated on the boundary between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau in the Utah Transition Zone. As with all faults in the Transition Zone, the Sevier-Toroweap fault system trends N-S but has distinct bends in the fault trace that trend northwest or northeast. These characteristic changes in strike reflect the segmentation and growth history of the fault. Since fault linkage is reflected in a fault system’s net slip distribution, this study characterizes the net slip distribution along the Sevier-Toroweap fault system reveals fault linkage patterns which can improve our understanding of how this fault formed, its extent, and geometric segmentation that could impact the potential seismic hazards associated with it.Compiled surface geology and subsurface constraints were used to construct cross-sections using kinematic forward modeling techniques in order to evaluate the subsurface geometry of the fault and calculate displacement along the main trace of the fault system. Displacement constraints collected from these cross section, published USGS cross sections and maps, and other literature were compiled to produce distance vs. displacement plots. These plots demonstrate the segmentation of the Sevier-Toroweap fault system and help reduce uncertainty as to where the northern terminus of the fault system lies. The linkage history implied by variations in fault strike, locations of fault splays, and displacement gradients along strike suggest that there are three main segments of the fault, which are different than the fault sections commonly used to describe the fault in the existing literature. Additionally, the high displacements and lack of observed decrease in displacement at the northern extent of the mapped fault suggests that the northern terminus may extend over 100 km north of the northernmost continuously mapped trace of the fault system and into the Marysvale volcanic field where it is thought to continue but be obscured due to outcrop conditions and geologic complexity within the volcanic system. In light of these new observations and constraints on displacement, fault linkage, and subsurface geometry, potential earthquake hazards associated with this fault are then evaluated.
  • The Use of Co-Constructions in Russian TV and Radio Political Interviews (On the Example of Vladimir Pozner and Alexey Venediktov)

    Klimanova, Liudmila; Fomchenko, Anna; Leafgren, John; Ecke, Peter (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    The present study investigates the use of co-constructions (or sentences-in-progress) in Russian TV and radio political interviews. The author analyzed ten political interviews conducted by Russian journalists Vladimir Pozner (TV interviews) and Alexey Venediktov (radio interviews). The analysis demonstrated the following results. Co-constructions in political interviews serve several distinct purposes. They are used (1) to obtain necessary information, (2) to correct facts provided by interviewees, (3) to ask questions, (4) to establish contact with interviewees and maintain it during the interview, (5) to express agreement and affiliation, (6) to express disagreement and negative assessment, (7) to supply a forgotten word or string of words. The use of co-constructions is influenced by personalities of conversational participants. The results of the analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of co-constructions on TV and radio interviews is the same. The study follows the analytical framework based on conversation analysis. Keywords: conversation analysis, co-construction, joint construction, sentence-in-progress, compound turn-constructional unit, radio interview, TV interview.
  • Progress Toward a Vacuum-Ultraviolet Raman Spectrometer to Detect Pathogens

    Milster, Tom D.; Dmitrovic, Sanja; Shelley, Jacob T.; McLeod, Euan (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Rapid detection and identification of novel viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, are critical to treat, isolate, or hospitalize those infected; and ultimately, to curb the spread of the virus. Diagnostic assays, such as quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), are considered the gold standard for testing. However, these methods are labor-intensive and/or involve creating probe molecules specific to the virus. We propose Raman spectroscopy as an alternative method of detection, because samples can be efficiently used with a simple spectrometer configuration with measurements collected on the order of seconds, eliminating the drawbacks of RT-qPCR. Specifically, we are developing a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) Raman spectrometer using an incoherent excitation source that emits hydrogen Lyman-α (HLA) at 121.57 nm. Since HLA Raman spectroscopy has not been demonstrated in literature to date, this paper serves to justify the use of an HLA Raman excitation source. The main question posed throughout this work is, “Is achieving detectable Raman signal possible by using a 121.57 nm light source?” Through a literature review of other Raman spectroscopy work and our own experiments relating to source and camera optimization, it is concluded that achieving detectable Raman signal at 121.57 nm is indeed possible. In the future, we expect to produce consistent Raman spectra in samples. To achieve that goal, further efforts are needed in terms of maximizing source power and minimizing camera noise. Overall, we expect that HLA Raman spectroscopy will transform diagnostic medicine and several other industries through its powerful capabilities of detecting real-time infections and important health markers.
  • Experience Affects Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Activity and Diet Preferences in a Controlled Environment

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Bronstein, Judith; Welchert, Ashley; Papaj, Daniel; Kacira, Murat (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    Research on the use of greenhouse pollinators other than bumblebees is of increasing importance as global climate change poses greater risk to field crops, and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) ensures some access to food out of season and during times of crop failures. Unlike many native or solitary pollinators, there are well established management systems for honey bees as outdoor crop pollinators and they are widely and often locally available. Despite this, little has been done to investigate the use of honey bees as greenhouse pollinators, in part due to anecdotal evidence that honey bee foragers are disoriented in the artificial environment and never return to their colonies. This apparent disorientation could be due to the greenhouse disrupting cues that honey bee foragers learn to use in navigating natural environments, such as the position of the sun, floral odors, and visual and tactile cues. There is evidence that individual experience can affect honey bee behavior, but how does experience in different environments affect honey bee activity, diet choice and learning in the greenhouse? The aim of the current study was to bring insights gained from lab studies into a larger context to move towards understanding patterns of honey bee behavior in greenhouse agricultural environments. To answer this question of how experience affects honey bee behavior, naïve colonies were maintained outdoors or in the greenhouse until bees were several days past foraging age. Colonies from each group were then moved to separate greenhouse or screened enclosures to observe foraging on artificially provided diets in each environment type. We observed bee activity at feeder arrays containing high- to low-value pollen and sucrose resources. The results generally suggest that the greenhouse environment encourages higher sucrose foraging activity, but for pollen foraging, activity depends on prior experience. Prior experience also affects preference for diets of different quality in the greenhouse but not in the screenhouse. Learning acquisition was not affected by the environment of prior experience. The environment of prior experience may be part of the reason honey bees appear disoriented in a greenhouse. Using naive honey bee colonies rather than outdoor experienced colonies could be a management strategy for achieving better pollination with honey bees in a greenhouse.
  • The Impact of Pitch Level Tracking Data and Catcher Receiving Skills on Strike Calls

    Watkins, Joe; LeBlanc, Cameron; Bedrick, Edward; Tang, Xueying (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    From the full season debut of PITCHf/x in 2007, advanced radar and optical tracking systems have significantly changed the way that Major League Baseball players have been evaluated. With that information, managers and front offices have ample amounts of information to make decisions in all aspects of the game. While baseball largely is focused on the batter and pitcher matchup, there is one aspect of a pitch where neither the batter nor pitcher have control, the decision of the umpire to call a ball or strike. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of the catcher on a pitch call. Our input variables are a variety of pitch information including pitch velocity, spin rate, and movement. To start, a baseline strike called probability is calculated using a logistic general additive model using the pitch location, batter hand, and pitcher hand. Using this information, we isolate the edge of the strike zone where the umpire decision is most uncertain. Using a generalized mixed effects binary model, we analyze the impact of the baseline strike called probability using pitch data as fixed effects and catcher and umpire as random effects. Originally, our pitch level data included a categorical pitch type variable, which classified the data set’s fourteen pitch types into fastballs, sliders, curveballs, and changeups. Collinearity issues of pitch type against pitch velocity, spin rate, horizontal movement, and vertical movement led us to remove these categorical variables to create a simpler but still effective model. From this model, each pitch level variable has a statistically significant impact on the probability of a strike call, including a negative relationship with pitch velocity. Catchers and umpires have similar impacts on the probability of a called strike. Lastly, this model was assessed on pitches that land at each of the four edges to investigate differences in model estimates. Horizontal break changes with each side and the top of the zone leads to higher variability in umpire performance while the bottom has the opposite effect. The limitations of the methods re- strict how well we can understand the scale of the individual performances of each catcher and umpire. For future research, I would consider alternative and additional methodologies and explore other situational factors like score and count.
  • A Qualitative Study of Culture, Identity, and Belonging Among Second Generation Brazilian Immigrants Living in Paraguay

    Vasquez-Leon, Marcela; Thalenberg, Achishai; Carvalho, Ana M.; Retis, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2021)
    The ethnic demographic characterizing much of Paraguay’s Eastern Border Region (EBR) is heavily comprised of Brazilian immigrants and their now Paraguayan-born descendants. Often referred to as “Brasiguayos” - these Brazilian immigrants reside in both inclusive migrant communities dominated by Brazilian culture and in culturally mixed cities where they attend school, do business, prosper, and co-exist alongside Paraguayans. Exploring the notion of a uniquely “Brasiguayo” identity, this qualitative study seeks to understand the different cultural settings that help construct the identity of second-generation Brasiguayos living in mixed communities. Employing a framework based on transnationalism, hybridism, and cultural citizenship, this project examines the attitudes second-generation Brasiguayos hold towards their citizenship, belonging, and civic engagement in Paraguay. It seeks to answer questions related to the different cultural spaces comprising the national identity of second-generation Brasiguayos; their understanding of the term Brasiguayo and of what it means to have a bicultural identity; their perception of the challenges of cultural integration into Paraguayan mainstream society; and their views regarding the future of the Brasiguayos in Paraguay.

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