• Gravity bubbler irrigation systems on steep slopes converted to bench terraces

      Nordby, Gene M.; Abdulhussain, Mohamed Fidahussain, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      Gravity bubbler irrigation is a new mode of irrigation activated by the existing pressure in conventional irrigation supply channels. In gravity flow systems on steep slopes, pressure increases in the downstream sections of the pipe and must be dissipated for uniform application. A design procedure for gravity bubbler irrigation systems on inclined steep slopes or converted to bench terrace systems is described in detail. The design is based on the use of orifices as energy dissipating devices. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine graphical relationships and coefficients for estimating the head loss for an orifice made from PVC. The head loss coefficient is a function of the orifice to pipe diameter ratio and can be expressed by an equation of the form Ko = abetab where a and b are constants determined from test data and beta is the ratio of diameters. A prototype gravity bubbler irrigation system was designed and installed.