• Changes Over Night: An Analysis of the Aftermath of Mons Graupius in Tacitus' Agricola

      Waddell, Philip; Moat, Collin James; Groves, Robert; Christenson, David (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Despite its impressionistic quality and engaging imagery, Tacitus’ description of the aftermath of the battle of Mons Graupius has largely been ignored in scholarship. When treated, it is regarded as a problematic passage that either regards the biographee with ambivalence or comments negatively upon Roman imperial conquest and by extension Agricola himself. In order to interpret this passage, this thesis engages with Agricola as a work of literature and analyzes the passage in light of Tacitus’ rhetorical goals of bestowing praise on his deceased father-in-law and showing contempt for the deposed emperor Domitian. The first chapter considers how Tacitus puns on Agricola’s cognomen to portray Agricola as a farmer who has travelled to the edges of the world to drive off wild beasts and clear the landscape for cultivation in service to Rome. The second explores the thematic and symbolic unity created by Tacitus’ focus on Britain’s unique nights and its influence on the structure and content of the description of the aftermath. This thesis concludes that Tacitus’ description of the aftermath is not ambivalent about Agricola’s character, but a testament both to his accomplishment and Domitian’s desire to thwart good men from achieving glory for themselves and Rome.
    • A Comparison of the Works of Latin Literature That Influenced British and American Political Figures Between 1700 and 1825

      White, Cynthia; Merrill, Ian; Waddell, Philip; Groves, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Modern Americans look to the Founding Fathers for advice and inspiration in a number of areas, including politics, law, and religion. In a time when there is an intense focus on the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and the study of the classical languages stands in a perilous situation, we can look back once more to the Founding Fathers to provide a foundation for the importance of the classical languages. The respect and importance that the Founding Fathers placed on the great works of Latin and Ancient Greek can help to support the relevance of Classics not only in the modern world, but also in American education, in particular. Furthermore, this paper, by demonstrating that the canon is not fixed, but changes with each new generation in each particular societal environment, should help all educators better understand and respond to the changes that have occurred and will occur in the American canon of Latin literature.
    • The Grammar-Translation Method And the Communicative Approach: Combining Second Language Acquisition Approaches to Teach Lucan and Statius in High School

      White, Cynthia; Nielson, Meaghan Justine; Christenson, David; Combs, Mary Carol; Waddell, Philip (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This thesis examines the history of second language pedagogical approaches in order to apply techniques and activities of the Communicative Approach to the method commonly used in Latin classrooms – the Grammar-Translation Approach. Evidence has shown that Comprehensible Input and Output are vital to the communicative competence of students learning second languages, but is lacking in classrooms which employ a strict Grammar-Translation Approach. This thesis combines both of these second language learning systems to create a multi-modal curriculum for use in a high school classroom. In particular, this study culminates in a set of lesson plans to be used with specific passages from Lucan’s Bellum Civile and Statius’ Thebaid that have a clear Vergilian precedent and would therefore be useful and interesting to students who have studied Vergil’s Aeneid in preparation for the Advanced Placement Examination.
    • Serving the Gods Together: Gender in Roman Cults

      Futrell, Alison; Schenck, Catherine Alexandria; Futrell, Alison; Waddell, Philip; Friesen, Courtney (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Maintaining the pax deorum through worshipping the gods was essential for the survival and continuation of the Roman state. While many aspects of public, political, and social life were performed by elite men, religion offered the opportunity for all men and women, regardless of class and status to interact and contribute the welfare of their community. This thesis explores gender dynamics in three cults: the cult of Bacchus, the cult of the Magna Mater, and Paul's concept of Christianity in Corinth. While each cult is vastly different, they provide insight into the ways in which men and women could worship the gods together and the tensions and anxieties that arise in mix-gendered groups. In the case of the cult of Bacchus, gender was at the fulcrum of its suppression in 186 BCE, during which the Senate attempted to curb male participation in cultic worship but reaffirmed the authority of female participants. Moreover, the reaction to the presence of the galli, the eunuch priests of the Magna Mater, highlights Roman hostility towards non-gendered individuals, for whom there was not place in the binary gendered world of Rome. Finally, in Paul's in first letter to the Corinthians, the signifiers of gender, sexuality, and morality are at the forefront of his treatment of marriage, virginity, and veiling. In each case study, the issue of gender is the utmost importance and can even highlight the distribution of authority in cultic worship.
    • The Walls of Megalopolis: An Analysis of the Circuit Course Proposed by the British Excavation of 1890-1893

      Romano, David G.; Savage, Stephanie Lynn; Waddell, Philip; Groves, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In the late 19th century, the British excavation of Megalopolis produced a site plan and map of the ancient city. This plan included a theorized projection of the course of the city walls with a perimeter almost 9 kilometers long. The projected course of the circuit was based on twelve segments of wall found and excavated. Even though a minute portion of the entire circuit of the walls (less than 3%) have been identified and studied by the British, a wealth of information has been derived from them. What cannot be determined from the archaeological remains of the walls of Megalopolis might be surmised from the characteristics of the walls of other poleis either founded or refounded around the same time: Messene and Mantineia. For this reason, the wall circuits of these two cities will also be discussed in detail. My thesis re-examines this projected track of the city walls at Megalopolis and evaluates whether or not they make sense. With the help of the program AutoCAD, I recreated the plan of Megalopolis drawn by Loring in 1892 as well as the plan of the twelve individual wall segments. My data indicated areas of the projection where there is little evidence to support the theorized path of the circuit wall. One such area is the northwest section of the site plan of Megalopolis. The place between walls A and M accounts for almost 30% of the total purposed perimeter. The British excavators support their argument by calling attention to the natural topography of the Megalopolis basin. I explain also why this evidence is not enough to support the British excavators’ theorized plan. As well as the track of the city wall, my thesis explores other questions surrounding the walls of Megalopolis, such as why they are not as well preserved as those from other contemporary poleis. The goal of my thesis is to discuss this evidence in depth and to call attention to why the Loring plan of Megalopolis and the path of the circuit wall should not be accepted so readily.