• Managing Flash Floods: Risk Perception from a Cultural Perspective

      Coles, Ashley R. (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Flood risk managers educate the public on the dangers of driving through flooded roadways, yet losses to life and property continue to occur. This study integrates cultural psychology and risk perception theory to explore how culture, psychological processes, and behavior influence one another. Flood risk managers in Tucson, Arizona collaborated in the development of a questionnaire mailed to local residents. Questions regarding levels of trust, self-efficacy, social autonomy, social incorporation, time perspective, and situational factors were analyzed with respect to whether respondents stated that they have or have not driven through a flooded roadway. Respondents’ decisions are influenced by the presence of signs and barricades, passengers, risk of personal injury or damage to the vehicle, and the availability of flood-related information. The most influential factor is the prior successful crossing of other vehicles. The results illuminate complex interrelations among the cultural factors and provide considerations for future risk perception research.
    • Irrigation in Southeast Morocco: Effects on Rural Livelihoods

      Elder, Alison D. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Irrigated agriculture and the liberalization of land markets are promoted as engines for rural development and economic growth. However, in practice they often reinforce existing social and economic disparities, create conflict over land and water resources, and degrade the natural environment. In southeastern Morocco, irrigated agriculture has expanded rapidly in a desert area formerly characterized by traditional small-scale oasis agriculture and livestock grazing. The country’s 2008 Green Morocco Plan (GMP) to modernize and expand agriculture is fueling this expansion with incentives and subsidies encouraging agricultural growth and foreign investment. This paper investigates development processes around irrigated agriculture in southeastern Morocco in an area immediately surrounding the town of Boudnib and its eight satellite villages, an area undergoing significant change and illustrative of larger economic challenges underway in Morocco. It follows a mixed methods approach including document analysis, semi-structured interviews, a roundtable discussion and surveys, to examine the effects of irrigation on labor and income opportunities and water supply. This research aims to highlight the voices and experiences of local people affected by irrigation alongside those of government, NGO leaders, and foreign investors. The findings suggest that despite the GMP’s “green” label and claim to fight poverty through the provision of economic opportunities for rural people, job opportunities are low-paying and unreliable and water supply is decreasing. This means that outsider investors and farmers benefit in the short-term from free groundwater and cheap local labor, leaving local people to deal with the long-term consequences of ecological damage. These findings have implications for other water-stressed parts of the world, especially for developing countries implementing irrigation-based agricultural development.
    • Regulation of Metal Transporters, ZIP14 and ZnT10, by Manganese Intake in Mice

      Felber, Danielle Maya (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace mineral vital for many biological processes. ZIP14, ZnT10, and ZIP8 are proteins first identified as transporters for iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Current research now indicates a key role for these three metal transporters in regulating Mn homeostasis. However, there is still limited evidence to explain the regulatory mechanisms or how Mn status influences levels of Fe and Zn, which are believed to share several transport pathways with Mn. Here, we examined the effect of Mn intake on the regulation of these metal transporters by feeding mice a low-Mn diet, control diet, or high-Mn diet for 6 weeks. Levels of Mn, Fe, and Zn were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and protein levels of ZIP14, ZnT10, and ZIP8 were analyzed by Western Blot. While mice on the high-Mn diet exhibited significantly higher levels of Mn in the blood, liver, spleen, brain, and lungs, mice on the low-Mn diet did not display matching reductions, indicating Mn homeostasis is more challenging to maintain with high intake of Mn compared to low. Zn levels were not considerably altered and only minor reductions in Fe levels were observed in mice on the high-Mn diet, suggesting the regulation of these metals may not be as intertwined as previously believed. Interestingly, there was no difference in hepatic ZIP8 levels among the three diet groups. In response to the high-Mn diet, ZIP14 and ZnT10 were both upregulated in the liver, as well as in the small intestine, indicating a coordinated role for these two transporters in Mn excretion. Unexpectedly, this upregulation was only evident in male mice, with the exception of hepatic ZIP14, providing new insight into the mechanisms behind widely observed sex differences in Mn homeostasis.
    • Accurate Trace Evidence Using Regression Approaches in Forensic Studies

      Luo, Qianwen (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Human microbiome data has become popular in forensic study due to its use in estimating the time since death, examination of trace evidence and human identification. The human microbiome is commonly presented independent of seasonal and environmental changes and is highly individual. With the growth of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, there are more human microbiome data available to use. 16S rRNA sequencing helps to detect and identify bacteria in human microbial communities. The wide use of human microbiome data in the forensic studies calls for powerful statistical and computational methods for analysis. Due to the human microbiome being highly individual, even varying in different body sites, it can serve as an alternative method for human identification and trace evidence in a criminal investigation, particularly, when human DNA samples are absent from the scene of the crime. In this research, we proposed a new analytic method FourStage to link the human microbiome (e.g., on palm) to the microbial evidence sample. The FourStage method has four procedures: 1) select the contributors from a pool of suspects and exclude the innocents at same time, 2) construct a “unknown” profile for possible missing suspect, 3) determine the status of a “missing” suspect, and 4) estimate proportions for each contributor. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated that our new method surpasses the currently available approach, even for a situation in which a suspect was a contributor but is excluded from data analysis. This new method will be helpful for researchers/investigators in forensic area to analyze their own data and also provide them a new research angle/direction in trace evidence.
    • Studies on the Growth of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria and the Start-Up of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors

      Ding, Hezhou (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The slow growth of anaerobic ammonium oxidization (anammox) bacteria remains a challenge for the implementation of anammox. The goal of this study is to optimize anammox growth parameters in order to achieve a good sludge retention in the anammox process. A growth assay was developed, calculated from the rate of nitrogen gas production according to the microbial growth equation. The optimal levels of trace elements, ammonium and bicarbonate were investigated. The results showed that trace elements with EDTA were necessary for the growth of anammox, while EDTA itself was harmful for anammox bacteria. Ammonium concentrations of 400 mg N•L-1 decreased the growth of anammox by 40%. Higher ammonium concentrations completely terminated the growth of the biomass. Bicarbonate concentration of 100 mg•L-1 was essential in order for anammox bacteria to grow well, and 500 mg•L-1 was optimal. However, higher concentration of bicarbonate had negative impacts, likely due to high salinity. The growth of anammox bacteria rather than anammox activity tended to be more sensitive to the stress of their environments, but further evidence is needed. Overall, growth parameter optimization is a promising approach for better implementation of anammox process.
    • Attendance Barriers and Facilitators to the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension-led National Diabetes Prevention Program

      Rahim-Sepulveda, Martina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The National Diabetes Program (NDPP) is a group, lifestyle-change intervention offered over 12 months, which has been shown to prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 Diabetes by 58%. The program promotes healthy eating, physical activity, and modest weight loss. In the NDPP, for every session attended and every 20 minutes of physical activity completed, participants lost 0.3% of their initial body weight. However, a major challenge to program success is attendance given its 12-month duration, with less than 50% of participants making it to the half-way point in the NDPP. Non-attendance and reduced retention rates have been associated with poorer health outcomes in the NDPP, underscoring the importance of maximizing attendance and retention in this long-duration program. This study examined barriers and facilitators to participant attendance in the first 6 months of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension-led NDPP. Data from qualitative semi-structured interviews with NDPP participants (n=28) and educators shows that the emerging themes influencing program attendance include 1) program implementation; 2) participant-specific factors; 3) external environment; and 4) coach-specific factors. Common barriers and facilitators were interest, program curriculum, flexibility, and clarity; commitments, Cooperative Extension network, motivators, timing, support system, readiness, and cost. The Cooperative Extension infrastructure is well positioned to address the barriers to program attendance in the UA CE-NDPP. While there are some areas it has limited control, such as interest, motivators, and readiness of participants; the Cooperative Extension system has the capacity to address several of the engagement issues reported in this study.
    • Market Analysis on the Viability of a Local Food Center: Experimental Evidence from Arizona

      Chin, Chia Yi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This study analyzes the willingness to pay for different product-oriented and store-oriented attributes of food shopping outlets. It also evaluates the viability of a Local Food Center (LFC) in the remote areas in the United States, such as Yavapai County in Arizona State. For the purpose, a survey experiment has been designed by use with the randomization on discrete choice sets and prize drawing selection and was distributed by Yavapai County Cooperative Extension under College of Agricultural and Life Science in University of Arizona and Prescott Farmers Market group. The same survey was collected with the paper version from on-site farmers markets, other locations, and online platform through social media and local community email lists. Marginal propensity to consume model, probit prize drawing model and bivariate panel discrete choice model are employed in this paper. The result suggested that consumers rely on grocery type of stores and supermarkets as the primary food-at-home source and farmers market frequent shoppers are less price sensitive with a relatively fixed budget on food-at-home expenditure. The prize drawing model has proposed a 16.67% discount rate between prize for farmers markets and prize for grocery stores or supermarkets. The last but not the least, the willingness to pay are highest for a mix basket of local and non-local U.S. only products and purchasing from the outlets with producers’ description and photos. Our findings indicate that LFC is only viable if they can reach to consumers at-large, increase the variety of the products, and be price competitive to grocery type of stores.
    • A Qualitative Study of Adult Recipients of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (Daca) Program: A Community Cultural Wealth and Life Course Perspective

      Rascon, Michelle (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This study focuses on the experiences of adults who are beneficiaries of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals ("DACA") Program. The rescission of the DACA Program announced in 2017, and subsequent legal battle to reinstate DACA (Duke, 2017; IEIYC & Arreola v. Duke, 2017), once again poses new untenable terrains for the many who received temporary reprieve by DACA but may return to being undocumented. Informed by the Life Course Theory (Elder & Rockwell, 1979) and Community Cultural Wealth Theory (Yosso, 2005), semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in a sample of adult college students (age: M = 23) who are DACA recipients (n = 15) enrolled in colleges. The interviews revealed how DACA recipients have come to understand their undocumented status, their transition to the DACA reprieve, and how they are navigating the uncertainty of the program. This study identified forms of Community Cultural Wealth Theory (Yosso, 2005) accessed by DACA recipients through retrospective interviews. Community Cultural Wealth Theory (CCW), from educational research, is an array of knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources utilized by Communities of Color to survive and resist exclusionary practices in institutions not created with them in mind (Yosso, 2005). The findings of this study will contribute to the literature on immigration policy and to new empirical research exploring how DACA recipients have come to understand their undocumented status, DACA reprieve, and how they access community wealth in academic settings.
    • GAPs in Plant Reproduction: Uncovering the Role of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchoring of Proteins in Arabidopsis Gametophyte Function

      Desnoyer, Nicholas James (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Glycosylphoshpatidylinositol (GPI) is a complex glycolipid molecule biosynthesized in eukaryotic cells that can be post-translationally attached to a broad range of proteins by the transamidase complex (GPI-T) to serve as a membrane anchor. Apart from tethering GPI-anchored proteins (GAPs) to the extracellular leaflet of plasma membranes, GPI confers many molecular attributes to the proteins it attaches to. While the synthesis and structure of GPI is well conserved within eukaryotes, the utility of GPI-anchoring as a mode of protein membrane attachment shows striking variation among the eukaryotic kingdoms. For example, in protozoan parasites, GAPs are the major form of cell surface proteins and can shield the cell from host defenses during infection. Fungi such as yeast produce GPI anchors that can covalently link to polysaccharides in the cell wall to regulate its architecture. Animal GAPs are essential for coordinated growth during embryonic development and can act as signaling molecules to mediate cell-cell communication. In land plants, GAPs play roles in the directional growth and expansion of sporophytic tissues and are critical for the fertility of the gametophyte generation. Despite GAPs constituting about 1% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, it is poorly understood how this family of proteins function in plant development. Therefore, in this thesis, I investigated the role of GPI in plant reproduction by reviewing all 19 A. thaliana GAPs described to date with mutant fertility defects and annotated the expression of all 250 predicted GAPs in the A. thaliana gametophytes. Additionally, I analyzed mutations in two components of the GPI-T complex to investigate the importance of GPI-anchoring in male and female gametophyte functions. I showed that GPI-anchoring in the female gametophyte is apparently dispensable but is essential in the male gametophyte for pollen tube germination and growth. Based on my work, I propose that key differences in the structure and development of the male and female gametophytes may account for the difference in necessity of GPI-anchoring within their compartments. Thus, any conclusion regarding the importance of GPI-anchoring of proteins in the female gametophyte must consider these unique attributes. Lastly, because at least two GAPs involved in the female gametophyte function associate with receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to initiate signal transduction, we established several tools that can be used to elucidate the binding site of a well-studied GAP-RLK pair, the LORELEI-FERONIA co-receptor complex. The conclusions and tools generated in this study will help close the gaps in our understanding of the role of GAPs in plant reproduction.
    • Power Difference in a χ2 Test vs Generalized Linear Mixed Model in the Presence of Missing Data – A Simulation Study

      Miller, Mary Lavin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Longitudinal randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often aim to test and measure the effect of treatment between arms at a single time point. A two-sample χ2 test is a common statistical approach when outcome data are binary. However, only complete outcomes are used in the analysis. Missing responses are common in longitudinal RCTs and by only analyzing complete data, power may be reduced and estimates could be biased. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with a random intercept can be used to test and estimate the treatment effect, which may increase power and reduce bias. Methods: We simulated longitudinal binary data from a RCT to compare the performance of a complete case χ2 test to a GLMM in terms of power, relative bias, and coverage under different missing data mechanisms. We considered how the baseline probability of the event, within subject correlation, and dropout rates under various missing mechanisms impacted each performance measure. Results: When data were missing completely at random, both χ2 and GLMM produced unbiased estimates; however, the GLMM returned an absolute power gain up to from 12.0% as compared to the χ2 test. When outcome data were missing at random, the GLMM yielded an absolute power gain up to 42.7% and estimates were unbiased or less biased compared to the χ2 test. Conclusions: Investigators wishing to test for a treatment effect between treatment arms in longitudinal RCTs with binary outcome data in the presence of missing data should use a GLMM to gain power and produce minimally unbiased estimates instead of a complete case χ2 test.
    • L'Usage de Ressources Technologiques dans l'apprentissage du Français au Ghana

      Fianoo-Vidza, Etornam (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Given technological advancements, studies (Knisely 2018 ; Pun, 2013 ; Mitchell, 2012 ; Clark & Gruba, 2010, Cetto, 2008 ; Furstenberg et al., 2001) show the great potential of technological resources in the optimization of the language-learning experience. This said, this project attempts to find out whether technological resources are exploited and optimized in tertiary institutions for the learning of French in Ghana. In the Ghanaian context, French is an important foreign language due to its membership in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS, a community dominated by francophone countries) and the fact that its neighboring countries are all francophone. Owing to this, French is a subject taught at almost all the levels of education in the country, although it is compulsory only at certain levels. However, some factors hinder the teaching and learning of French in Ghana. Considering the status of French and the factors that militates against its teaching and learning, our first aim is to find out whether French learners are aware of the technological resources that are available for enhancing their language learning. Secondly, we would like to find out what kind of technological resources they use, how they use them and finally, whether courses are structured to integrate technology. In order to get answers to these crucial questions, French students from all levels in the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Ghana Institute of Languages were asked to take an online survey. The thirty-two questions asked on the survey are related to materials used for French instruction in their institution, the kind of technological devices they own, their awareness and use of technological resources for French learning as well as the type of resources they would want their lecturers to include in the teaching of French. The result of our study shows that Ghanaian students who are aware of technological resources constitute the majority (N = 146, 73.36%) of students. The results also show that students use their Smartphones (N = 186, 77.17%) and the internet (N = 193, 93.24%) in their learning of French. Furthermore, the results show that they use these resources in fun ways such as listening to French music, listening to French audios, watching French films. Finally, the results indicate that lecturers integrate technological resources with audiovisuals (N = 190, 65.51%) being the most used and the internet (N = 103, 35.51%). being relatively less used. Based on the results of this survey and acknowledging that the restructuring of French programs could be a gradual process, we suggest that lecturers should integrate different technological resources in a coherent way in their teaching in order to make French teaching interesting, fun, attractive, varied and efficient for Ghanaian learners.
    • Condensed Chaos

      Dahlke, Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The relationship we have with objects is one that is often quite complex. Things that we own can bring us feelings of joy, nostalgia, comfort, melancholy, and can become burdensome. Objects that we choose to surround ourselves with gives insight into who we are and can become portals to our past experiences and memories. Condensed Chaos looks at objects found in thrift stores and resale shops and how their proximity to other objects creates a range of narratives about who the previous owners were and what the life of the object once was.
    • Boom: Latinos, the Modern Pioneers

      Lanuza, April (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Latino dispersion is changing communities around the United States. Latinos are moving to and living in ‘non-traditional’ places around the country. The demographics of predominantly white, rural cities and states are changing. According to a PEW Research Study, Williams County, North Dakota, led the nation in Latino population growth from 2007 to 2014. For my thesis I visit Williston, the largest city in Williams County, to produce a documentary about the city’s growing Latino population in a post oil boom society. Williston suddenly had a surge in Latinos from 2007 to 2014 because of an oil boom and the increase in jobs that ensued afterwards. According to the US census of North Dakota (Cicha, 2015), as of 2015, every county in the state has a Latino population. Twenty-three percent indicated they were born in-state, sixty-one percent born out of state and sixteen-percent born outside of the country. However, even with the stabilization of the oil boom, a Latino community remains. The objective of my thesis is to investigate this shift in Latino migration and examine the networks that have been built as a result. Through the eyes of several Latinos in Williston, I have produced a documentary detailing their experiences in this city. Other people in the community give their perspectives about what the community is like and what is or isn’t supporting this new Latino population. As Latinos move away from ‘traditional’ places such as Miami and Los Angeles, rural, smaller, Anglo-American dominated communities are seeing an increase in native Spanish speakers that they had not seen before, thus influencing community dynamics. Using ethnographic research and the conceptual framework of moral geography, I will examine how the community perceives this new population. Keywords: Immigrant, Networks, North Dakota, Williams County, Hispanic, Latino/a, community, oil boom, Williston, moral geography
    • ¡La Puebla Lucha! LGBTI Activism and Organizing against Violence in El Salvador

      Gardella, Annalise (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) people in El Salvador face some of the highest rates of violence in the world. The modalities of violence impacting the LGBTI population span across many levels, including physical, economic, structural, and symbolic, and intersections of identity like gender, race, sexuality, and class within the population determine people’s proximity to and risk for violence. In response, local organizations, some with international ties and others working independently on a small-scale are attempting to organize the LGBTI population into a community that can work to redress this violence through community-building and support structures as well as make visible the oppression the community faces at a public and legislative level. This thesis outlines the historical formation of the Salvadoran LGBTI movement beginning in the 1980s through the present day, focusing on coalition-building and historical moments of unity that have led to the creation of a national Federación Salvadoreña LGBTI, or a federation of LGBTI organizations, to combat the most important issues facing the Salvadoran LGTBI population currently. Through an analysis of interviews and participant observation, this thesis examines the numerous and interconnected iterations of oppression and violence facing the Salvadoran LGBTI community and consequently explores the ways in which organizations and activists are strategically responding to the violence that devastates their community.
    • Computational Exploration of the Cislunar Region and Implications for Debris Mitigation

      Namazyfard, Hossein (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      For the investigation of the Earth's magnetosphere and the interplanetary space outside of it, satellites with orbits of large semi-major axis and large eccentricity are often used. While end-of-life (EOL) disposal options are well established for missions in low-Earth orbits (atmospheric decay) and the geosynchronous belt (near circular graveyard orbits), existing mitigation guidelines do not fully regulate the whole, useable circumterrestrial orbital space, such as these highly eccentric orbits (HEO) science missions; e.g., NASA's Eccentric Geophysical Observatory (EGO) and ESA's INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). The collision risks posed by these LEO-GEO transiting spacecrafts has motivated both theoretical study and practical implementation of disposal options. The solution to the space debris problem, from LEO to GEO, can only be found by coupling a deep understanding of the circumterrestrial phase space with satellite mission analysis and design. For future missions, the EOL options have to be clearly identified in the early stages of mission design, taking into account orbital interactions and environmental evolution. This more holistic approach parallels that of ESA's Clean Space initiative, fostering innovative techniques and tools in orbital dynamics to novel spacecraft design to reduce both the space industry's environmental impact and mission costs. We emphasize here the new paradigm of the self-removal of satellites through dynamical instabilities caused by natural perturbation resonances (passive disposal) in the Earth-Moon-Sun system and discuss how lifetime estimates can be incorporated into launch window constraints to ensure the timely demise of satellites. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the satellite during the mission design phase will ensure that the missions develop predictably over both nominal and possibly extended timespans (without the need to make future significant orbital adjustments). Such dynamical assessments could have a profound and tangible influence on mission design, perhaps attacking the debris problem at its source. For the analysis of already orbiting satellites in this region, accurate orbit predictions are crucial to understanding the long-term dynamics of the satellite. Considering the chronic and significant lack of publicly available ``actionable'' observation data, researchers are generally forced to work with Two-Line-Elements (TLEs) as ``pseudo'' observations for orbit modeling and prediction. There have been many interesting approaches to the TLE-based-prediction problem over the past decade. Propagation based on these TLE-orbit-estimation methods have been carried out over month timespans at best; however, reasonably accurate orbit predictions based on TLEs over decadal timespans is unprecedented, especially for objects that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. To this end, we apply a new dynamically-inclined route to orbit prediction based on TLEs to obtain a statistically accurate initial conditions for orbit propagation of resonant orbits on decadal timespans.
    • Late Helladic Emulation: An Analysis of Palatial and Domestic Architecture and Construction Techniques in Mycenaean Greece

      Fricker, Laurel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In this thesis, I investigate to what extent the architecture and constructions at the Mycenaean palaces are emulated at non-palatial sites, using methods and theories involving emulation, the power of architecture, and peer-polity interaction. I first compare the Palace at Mycenae with the Panagia Houses at Mycenae, houses at Korakou, and houses at Asine, to examine how distance from the palace and the time period affects the construction of houses in the Argolid and the Corinthia. Then I compare the Palace of Nestor at Pylos with Nichoria to see how distance, geographical boundaries, and site status affect the construction of houses in Messenia. A building is a statement, having the ability to form and communicate personal identities and communities, indicate social associations, highlight political organizations, and provide details for understanding aspects of life. Further, architecture can influence how people view their society and their community; the central unit (including the megaron hall with its hearth and columns) of the Mycenaean palaces, constructed on the monumental palatial scale, became a statement of power. The status of these constructions would have made them perfect candidates for locals at periphery sites attempting to emulate the authority of the palaces in LH III Greece. However, the dates of construction of the palaces and the residential structures, locally available materials, previous traditions of construction, and geographical boundaries all could have affected how much emulation was possible in LH IIIA-B Greece.
    • Among The Arboreal: Herman Van Swanevelt, Trees, and the Early Modern Landscape

      Marquis, Jonathan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The lifeworlds of humans and trees entangle in an ecology of relations to give shape to early seventeenth-century developments in landscape painting. Yet, trees are given little academic consideration, in favor of broad, ahistorical frameworks like the pastoral and sublime, even though the gnarled forms of trees dominate the earliest instances of the landscape genre. This thesis considers an arboreal-turn toward art history and examines early modern trees from a post-human, new materialism, and somatic perspective to shed light as to why trees are so profuse at a formative moment in the development of autonomous landscape pictures. Trees are dynamic sites of encounter and exchange in the landscape, whose meaning takes form through a range of disciplines and bodily activities that include labor, leisure, walking, contemplation and drawing. According to Tim Ingold, it is only after this mutually generative exchange does one get to thinking about the landscape. The landscape, it must be remembered, is inhabited before it is painted, and inhabitation, at its root, is a sensorial and somatic process unfolding within a landscape. Nicknamed the “Hermit” for his predilection to solitary wanderings near Rome, Herman van Swanevelt (1604-1655) is remembered for being one of the first to render specific atmospheric conditions of light, free of the religious subject matter that long defined the genre. However, trees dominate Swanevelt’s entire oeuvre. A close examination of Swanevelt’s etching View of the Palatine in Rome reveals the therapeutic efficacy of early modern arboreal landscapes, enacted through the activities of the print’s figures.
    • Tribes, Water, and Economic Characteristics of the Western United States

      Young, Ryan Michael Coatsworth (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Native American tribes in the Western United States experience persistent socio-economic challenges that impede economic development and improved standards of living within their communities. In this study, U.S. Census Bureau data on tribes is linked with additional data sources to perform econometric analyses to better understand how “tribal presence” explains economic well-being. This study finds, as expected, that “Tribal Presence” (created from percent of tribal land and percent of Native American population ) has a significant negative relationship with Per Capita Income at census tract and county spatial scales. Consistent with the findings on income, the Tribal Presence variable has a significant negative relationship with Percent Families Above Poverty. Variables for education, internet access, urban population, and climate were also significant determinants for income and family poverty. The climate variable results were interesting as they infer that the more unusually dry or wet it is, the more income and more poverty there is. Further analysis of counties with “tribal presence” was conducted to better understand how counties with tribes who have quantified water rights compare to counties with tribes who have yet to quantify water rights.
    • L’autonomie dans l’apprentissage de la Culture

      Morris, Austin James (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Dans les cours de langues étrangères, les pédagogies focalisent souvent sur les faits d’une culture comme les fêtes, les repas, et la musique. Les professeurs enseignent les marges de leurs manuels pour approfondir les connaissances de la culture chez leurs étudiants bien que la culture ne soit jamais définie. Pourtant, les recherches de Kramsch parmi d’autres ont montré d’abord une définition de la culture et aussi une approche à la culture qui focalisent sur les compétences symboliques au lieu des faits sur les repas et les fêtes. Cette étude veut souligner la recherche de Kramsch en ajoutant quelques éléments de l’autonomie. Plus précisément, l'étude focalise sur les connexions interculturelles entre les étudiants et la culture qu’ils étudient dans les cours de langues. En appuyant sur les recherches de Michelson et Dupuy (2015), les étudiants étudient certains personnages du monde francophone et nous cherchons les diverses façons dont ils font ces connexions, s’ils en font une. Les étudiants travaillent dans la peau de leurs personnages pendant une semaine et essaye de faire une connexion avec ce personnage en parlant, écrivant, et pensant comme il/elle. Un groupe avait l’autonomie complète et l’autre avait de l’autonomie restreinte. Deux professeurs ont participé dans l'étude et plus de 65 étudiants. Les données sont venues des réflexions des étudiants, les artefacts qu’ils ont créés, et leurs choix de personnages. Les étudiants ont trouvé un lien avec la culture qu’ils ont étudiée, et il y a eu plusieurs types de liens que les étudiants ont faits. Quelques liens ont montré les diverses façons dont les professeurs ont besoin d’intervenir dans l'enseignement de la culture pour aider l’acquisition des compétences symboliques.
    • Rainwater Harvesting: Prevalence of Metal(loid)s in Arizona Communities Adjacent to Toxic Release Sites

      Solis-Leon, Jesus (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      As global warming exacerbates concerns of water scarcity, specifically in arid regions, rooftop rainwater harvesting has gained attention as a viable method by which dependence on existing water supplies may be offset. Project Harvest (PH), a co-created citizen science project organized at the University of Arizona in partnership with the Sonora Environmental Research Institute (SERI) completed analysis of citizen-collected samples to investigate the quality (with respect to inorganic, organic, or microbiological contaminants) of harvested rainwater as well as the quality of the soil and plants irrigated with harvested rainwater. Citizen scientists were recruited from rural and urban communities in Arizona, neighboring hazardous waste and toxic release sites. Communities include: Dewey-Humboldt, Globe/Miami, Hayden/Winkelman, and Tucson, each of which submitted water samples four times per year at the beginning and end of the winter rains (December 2017 – February 2018) and the North American monsoon season (July 2018 – September 2018), Monitoring of selected metal(loid)s of concern; aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), selected based on nearby sources of pollution, system type, and a literature review of the six elements. All but Zn had higher pervasiveness in harvested rainwater samples for the monsoon collection periods relative to winter rain samples. Peak concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were: 3,946 μg L-1, 32.5 μg L-1, 9.15 μg L-1, 296 μg L-1, 350 μg L-1, and 951,271 μg L-1, respectively. PH informs participants on their water quality based on intended uses for the roof-harvested rainwater; relying on various non-potable federal and state water quality standards and recommendations. The United States Department of Agriculture’s recommended maximum trace element concentration for irrigation and livestock drinking waters as well as the full- and partial-body contact water standards set by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality were used to determine usability of harvested rainwater. Median metal(loid) concentrations in harvested rainwater samples decreased in the order of Zn > Al > Cu > Pb > As > Cd for Dewey-Humboldt and Tucson, while concentrations for Globe/Miami and Hayden-Winkelman decreased in the order of Zn > Al > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. Globe-Miami had the highest median concentrations for Al, Hayden-Winkelman had the highest median concentrations for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, and Tucson had the highest median concentrations of Zn. Findings from this study will inform rainwater harvesting practitioners and regulatory authorities.