• Optical and Opto-Mechanical Design of an F/2.5 Broadband Infrared Objective Lens Using Multiple Cold Stops and Cooled Detectors

      Kim, Daewook; Deacon, C. Elizabeth; Liang, Rongguang; Sasián, José (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This paper discusses the design and production of a f/2.5, 25mm focal length lens that images portions of the SWIR and MWIR spectrums from 1 – 5.5µm. Challenges associated with imaging in such a wide spectrum are discussed, including the need to correct for chromatic errors when a limited number of materials are available. The lens is designed to be used on three different cryogenically cooled detectors, each with differing stop locations relative to the lens. The paper discusses the effect that a varied stop has upon the third-order aberrations and covers specifics of an opto-mechanical design which meets the performance requirements for each detector. Cooled detectors require additional analysis to ensure that narcissus effects will not dominate the image. A method for analyzing the narcissus effects is highlighted. The evolution of the design as the lens is transitioned from theory into prototype is discussed. Images captured with the lens assembly are presented along with performance data to compare theoretical to measured performance.
    • A Framework for Secure Data Management in Medical Devices

      Rozenblit, Jersy W.; Almazyad, Ibrahim; Adegbija, Tosiron; Ditzler, Gregory (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Data is considered as a valuable currency that our modern world thrives upon today. Individuals, groups and even nations work hand in hand to protect private data. When it comes to medical data, its protection is considerably more apparent and significant with guidelines such as HIPAA and FDA regulations in place. Data breaches on medical devices are known to have a significant impact on a patient’s wellbeing. Most of these data breach attacks occur during the transit state. With these attacks in mind, there is still a need for continuous feedback between a patient and a doctor based on data that is collected from such devices. In this thesis, we propose a methodology that develops an autonomous secure communication channel between doctors and patients. Through examining the data life cycle of software built within medical devices, we address various security measures. We propose Adaptive Mode Selection (AMS) to investigate threats amongst system functions. By leveraging this technique, we obtain access to a lifetime assessment for risk mitigation and communication mode selection within medical devices. A Priority-Queue Based (PQB) process is established to improve data management and data isolation within life-critical systems. Further, we propose Adaptive Protocol Selection (APS) to enhance data transmission over the most appropriate communication protocol based on risk values identified by AMS. These protocols include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Radio Frequency or more. The combination of AMS, PQB and APS contributes towards delivering better health services with continuous secured data feeds and reduction in time of medical intervention.
    • Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of eNAMPT Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) in Preclinical Models of Acute Lung Injury and ARDS

      Garcia, Joe G.N.; Sammani, Saad; Gomez, Jorge; Bime, Christian (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating inflammatory lung disease which results in acute respiratory failure. ARDS affects more than 400,000 individuals annually in the USA with high mortality rate (30–40%). Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential part of the current ARDS management. However, MV itself may lead to ARDS. There remains a serious unmet need for effective therapies for ARDS. Our previous lab results demonstrated that excessive mechanical stress induces spatially-localized nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT) expression (1) with robust expression and secretion by lung endothelial cells (ECs) into the circulation with extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT) a novel biomarker in ARDS (1, 2). We have used a polyclonal NAMPT antibody as a potential therapy in many preclinical ARDS animal models such as ventilator-induced Lung Injury (VILI) (3), LPS-induced inflammatory lung injury (4), pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) (5), and radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) (12). Since the polyclonal antibodies cannot be used in humans, we next developed a mouse mAb that can neutralize eNAMPT in humans. From 2 murine eNAMPT mAbs, 2 were selected and 50 humanized mAbs generated. These were screened in vitro for eNAMPT neutralization and 7 humanized mAbs selected for evaluation in C57/BL6 mice (8–12 wks.) utilizing our preclinical LPS and two-hit (LPS+VILI) ALI models. We further designed an integrated ALI severity scoring system to evaluate responses these Abs. This scoring system is composed of four elements: total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts (CC), total BAL protein levels, lung tissue cell infiltration and alveolar wall thickness. Of the seven eNAMPT mAbs, UU, XX and P were the most effective in attenuating lung injury in our preclinical ARDS models. As a conclusion, application of IV delivered eNAMPT mAbs were evaluated in our integrated ALI severity scoring system with evaluation of eNAMPT mAbs UU, XX and P in large animal models of ARDS prior to evaluation as a therapeutic strategy in clinical trials for patients with ARDS.
    • Portfolio of Works

      Asia, Daniel; Bramble, Zachary James; He, Kay; Decker, Pamela (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      A composer can never fully understand the breadth and importance of his weight in modern musical tradition. The inspiration for works listed in the compilation that follows is one questions I have pondered since I began my vocation as a composer. The primary focus of this compilation is to display competency in the written language of my music, and to illustrate a traditional musical focus in which my styles are based. The compositional approach of my work is to establish a modernized use of traditional music practices to further develop the posterity of the musical repertoire, and is also to display my perspective on modernity and how it relates to past traditional music writing practices. The inspiration for this compilation is music, largely for the sake music itself. If one claims they are a composer, they must provide a wide portfolio of written work, notwithstanding stylistic diversity within their catalogue. These works are a cumulative display of my work as a composer, and thus within this selected grouping, there is no shortage of humor, seriousness, schmaltzy phrasing, modernized language, and overall artistic expression based on my view and understanding of the Western classical music culture. One of my primary inspirations in all of music history is Beethoven and his use of motives, which I try to rely on in my musical language. Though I also try to develop my own unique voice as an artist, I believe that there is always room for a broadening of one’s own perspective as it relates to that of another artist’s perspective late, or still living. Though my influences and tastes in listening do surely influence what I write, I try to prepare interesting new styles for the prospective listener. This compilation is indented to demonstrate, my voice, my stylistic perspectives, and my musical opinions. As artists, we make statements with our expressiveness. We challenge normative thought processes, and have an obligation to progressivism with a grounding in what our musical founders Monteverdi, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, and Schoenberg - my favorite composers - have set into motion. This compilation is one of many in the vast sea of my artistic musical expression, and I hope it sparks interest, and inquiry, for any of those curious minds looking for something new in music infused with a hint of historical artistic tradition.
    • Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks: Introducing a Hypothetical Mechanism of Synergy Between Metformin and New Generation mTOR Inhibitors in the Fight Against Cancer

      Warfel, Noel; Braileanu, Anthony Leo; Lybarger, Lonnie; Chen, Qin (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase and the central component of the complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. The protein mTORC1 is most associated with global regulation of protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell division, with two of its most prominent actions involving the activation of the translational promoter S6K1, and inhibition of the translational suppressor, Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E-Binding Protein 1 (4EBP1). The protein mTORC2 is not as well understood as mTORC1, but it has been most directly implicated with regulation of cell proliferation and cytoskeletal function. The most prominent substrates of mTORC2 are Serum- and Glucocorticoid-induced protein Kinase 1 (SGK1) and protein kinase B (Akt), both of which are inhibitors of the Fox0 transcription factor, which promotes apoptosis and inhibits the cell cycle. Cancers attributed to mTOR typically display simultaneous aberrant over activation of both complexes, while down-regulation of the mTOR complexes has been associated with anti-cancer, anti-autoimmune, and even anti-aging effects. First generation mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin and its analogs function by allosterically inhibiting mTORC1 through FRB domain binding, but are ineffective at inhibiting mTORC2. This inherent preference for mTORC1 inhibition promotes drug resistance through compensatory PI3K activation via disruption of a negative feedback loop mitigated by the downstream mTORC1 substrate S6k1. In contrast to rapamycin analogs, second generation mTOR kinase inhibitors directly target the catalytic domain of mTOR, consequently inhibiting both complexes and significantly reducing drug resistance. The latest generation of mTOR inhibitors effectively exploit the close physical proximity between the allosteric and catalytic ATP binding site of mTOR by essentially linking a rapamycin analog to an mTOR kinase inhibitor, and have thus far displayed promising results in pre-clinical trials. Metformin has been prescribed to treat hyperglycemia in type II diabetics since 1995. Numerous retrospective epidemiological studies spanning over two decades show us that patients prescribed metformin have a better prognosis against cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of metformin has also been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo on a vast array of cancers including breast, colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, thyroid, lung, and gastric cancers. Metformin’s mechanism of action involves inhibition of ETC Complex I, resulting in AMPK activation by virtue of increased AMP:ATP ratio. Activated AMPK has the downstream effect of inhibiting mTORC1 while promoting the activation of the tumor suppressing p53 transcription factor. The activation of AMPK has the additional effect of lowering blood glucose by reducing gluconeogenesis in the liver and promoting upregulation of GLUT4 glucose transporters in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The resulting insulin independent glucose uptake circumvents PI3K signaling which in turn inhibits both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although synergy between metformin and new generation mTOR inhibitors has not yet been explored, I predict the two will synergize to an even greater extent than what has previously been seen with first generation rapamycin analogs. Metformin’s action of effectively lowering intracellular ATP by way of ETC inhibition may be instrumental for increasing the efficiency of mTORKI’s competition with ATP for the mTOR catalytic domain. Metformin’s direct and indirect inhibition of PI3K, in addition to its proven clinical safety may warrant further clinical trials for use as a complementary cytostatic agent in supplementing the standard chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer. Upregulation of both insulin and IGF receptors is seen in virtually every subtype of breast cancer, and patient prognosis is negatively correlated with the degree of upregulation. Additionally, breast cancer morbidities have been shown to be directly correlated with high serum insulin levels. BRCA-1 mutant breast cancers have been shown to upregulate IGF-1 receptors in several studies and the BRCA-1 gene is in itself a suppressor of IGF-1R transcription. Metformin’s potential efficacy towards BRCA-1 breast cancers may impact large populations as genetic testing becomes more of a commonplace in preventative medicine. High risk BRCA-1 mutant carriers may one day be prescribed a safe, low dose prophylactic of the drug. Metformin may additionally be indicated even more so against breast cancers that upregulate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, as the HER2 receptor is also a PI3K activator. Drug synergy has important clinical implications because it indicates lower therapeutic dosages, thus potentially reducing or counteracting the side effects attributed with individual drugs.
    • Redefining the Traditional Mashrabiya Improving Daylight Performance, Privacy, and Radiant Heating Utilizing Adaptive Diffused Shading in Hot Arid Climate

      Chalfoun, Nader; Baarimah, Aseel; Youssef, Omar; Moeller, Colby (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      A Buildings' façade is considered to be the skin and the main component covering the structure and the only one having direct interactions between the building’s interior and exterior environment. Not only is the façade known to be the cover element of a building, but it can also be used in today's architecture as a technique to reduce energy consumption in buildings. In recent years, architects and engineers design and install adaptive façades strategically not only for their aesthetic values but also to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. The concept of an adaptive façade can give us the opportunity to interact with the surrounding environment and its variants that include; light, heat, wind, or even with people's culture and privacy. Today Saudi Arabia experiences two major constraints; the culture and the environment. Since the beginning, the indigenous people of the land utilized a device called Mashrabiya that was implemented to achieve privacy for building occupants. At the same time, it was also used to control light and air movement. With the advancement of technology and the need for rapid growth in the country, the identity of these traditional Mashrabiyas has been diminishing. This research will focus on two aspects. First, is an attempt to reinstitute the use of the Mashrabiya and restore its cultural identity. Second, to develop a method of addressing advanced Mashrabiya prototypes that can be utilized in today’s state of the art high-performance design.
    • Creating a High-Fidelity Interactive Simulation of the Timpanogos Cave System from a Terabyte-Scale Terrestrial LiDAR Dataset

      Kemeny, John M.; LaSala, Blase Nichols; Levine, Joshua A.; Momayez, Moe (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis presents an “end to end” workflow that documents the steps taken to create an interactive high-resolution simulation of the Timpanogos Cave System. The majority of the cave system, including areas that are not open to the public such as sensitive crawlways and pits, has been digitally reconstructed at resolutions high enough for users to see sub-centimeter formations that the caves are famous for, such as soda straws and helictites. This application, which renders the cave in real time and is optimized to run on consumer level hardware using a computer game rendering engine, has been designed to be used for public outreach and research, and is compatible with both flat screens and virtual reality head mounted displays. After describing the site and motivations for creating this application, all steps of the project are covered and justified. These steps include budget planning and scope, equipment selection, data collection methodology, pointcloud processing, and implementation. A novel approach to converting clouds exceeding several billion points into a simulation, using high performance computing (HPC) solutions, python scripting, and an open source meshing algorithm is also presented. A final application allowing visitors to explore the caves from the National Monument’s visitor center will be installed in 2020. In addition, a discussion on future features planned, possible improvements to the workflow via automation, and alternative uses for interactive applications beyond a virtual cave tour are covered. User interface developments to make the simulation compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act are also touched on.
    • Beyond Discourse: The Criminalization of Asylum Seekers on the US/Mexico Border

      Martínez, Daniel E.; Dormer, Alyssa; Bacelar da Silva, Antonio J.; Wilder, Margaret O. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Beginning in October of 2018, ICE and CBP began releasing hundreds of asylum seekers into the Tucson community each week. With a strong history of civil initiative and volunteerism, the Tucson community sprang into action to provide aid, support, and advocacy to those seeking refuge. With changing asylum policy and increasingly divisive discourse surrounding asylum, asylum seekers are being subjected to criminalization by US authorities. Using the theoretical lens of legal violence, I argue that asylum seekers find themselves at the intersection of the law, structural violence, and symbolic violence. According to international and domestic law, individuals with a credible fear of remaining in their home country who meet a certain set of criteria may apply for asylum. Despite the protections afforded to asylum seekers, many find themselves discursively labeled as criminals. Through the use of qualitative interview data collected at a local migrant shelter and quantitative intake form data provided by the same shelter, I examine the ways in which asylum seekers understand the experiences of criminalization that they face at the hands of US authorities. In order to make sense of their experiences, I propose the use of four typologies: explicit criminalization, implicit criminalization, normalization of criminalization, and relativity of the criminalization experience. With the utilization of the above typologies and analysis of demographic data, I seek to move beyond discourse to the lived experiences of migrants.
    • Contribution of a Passive Dynamic Façade to Energy Reduction, Daylight, and View Quality in a Hot, Arid Climate

      Chalfoun, Nader V.; Alhazzaa, Kifah Mohammed; Ida, Aletheia; Moeller, Colby B. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      There has been growing awareness in recent years of the energy consumption and interior environmental comfort of buildings. Substantial evaluation of the building envelope and indoor human experience is required to develop sustainable solutions, create a responsive system that enhances building performance and human comfort in terms of energy consumption and daylight quality. High-tech, dynamic façades have significant impacts on building performance and occupant comfort, but there are negative aspects to the concept of environmental and sustainable design, such as the initial cost, maintenance requirements, and high energy usage. In this paper, a new advanced integrated façade called a passive dynamic shading device (PDSD) is revealed. The system is designed to contribute to energy reduction, daylight availability, and view quality through its ability to change position and placement to respond and adapt to new climate conditions. The thermal expansion phenomenon was used in the actuation process, with heat-activated actuators that correspond to specific dry-bulb temperatures. This paper concisely demonstrates the functional mechanism of the PDSD concept. The focus is on the assessment of energy performance, daylight, and view quality when using PDSD. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate and analyze the potential energy savings and daylight control, and to improve the system in terms of material properties. The Energy Plus and Radiance platforms were used during the study to facilitate simulation of a dynamic system. The system is validated by comparing three cases with the same geometry, function, and fenestration. The first case has no shading device, the second has a fixed shading device, and the third has a PDSD. This work presents an example of application of the system in a region with a hot, arid climate that receives an enormous amount of direct solar radiation. The result shows the PDSD can efficiently reduce overall energy consumption by up to 50%, increase the amount and quality of daylight by up to 60% compared to fixed shading devices, and obstruct the view from the interior 22% of the year.
    • Advancing Asteroid Surface Exploration Using Sublimate-Based Regenerative Micropropulsion And 3D Path Planning

      Thangavelauthum, Jekan; Wilburn, Greg; Asphaug, Erik; Enikov, Eniko (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The advancement of asteroidal surface science necessitates in-situ science collection by robotic landers. The Asteroid Mobile Imager and Geologic Observer (AMIGO) is a conceptualized surface hopping robot relying on miniaturization of avionics, structures, and science equipment to accompany a larger “mothership” type orbiter for surface measurements. The scientific rationale for asteroid surface characterization is explored. Ideally, mobility facilitates more robust data collection from a range of areas on the asteroid surface with fewer robots for maximum coverage. As evidenced by images from asteroid visiting spacecraft, recently Hayabusa II and OSIRIS-Rex, “rock gardens” on asteroid surfaces provide uneven and obstructed terrain from boulders and piles of dust. Two enabling technologies are developed for the CubeSat class AMIGO hopping robot. Hopping is enabled by a high-level path planning algorithm is developed by using a stereo camera that outputs both color images and a depth map for obstruction detection. The depth map allows for objects and adverse terrain to be detected and avoided for safer mobility. The surface boulders present difficulties in both line of site to other areas of the asteroid and in landing safely. These large obstructions and dramatic topology of asteroids reduces the robot’s visibility range and navigating around them provides new scenes to examine. The boulders should also be avoided when hopping such that they do not damage the robot or cause it to tip over to a state where data cannot be collected. Imaging from these new locations and headings can be used to construct surface level maps of the terrain and gather information on boulder distribution. The avoidance algorithm is evaluated on a test model of AMIGO with representative avionics and structure by hopping multiple times to avoid obstacles. The other technology is a micropropulsion system based on cold-gas and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to provide both lift-off hopping actuation and 2-axis attitude control during a quasi-ballistic, open loop trajectory to a target destination. Hopping from the propulsion system allows the robot to traverse the rough terrain to an area deemed interesting or safe from the hop selection algorithm. The design methodology for the micronozzles and two control valves are shown. Micronozzles are optimized in a quasi-isentropic analysis and compared to computational fluid dynamics simulations.
    • Conservation Biological Control of Bemisia Argentifolii in Cotton: Selectivity of Novel Insecticides Towards Arthropod Predators in Field Studies

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Carlos Bordini, Isadora; Carriere, Yves; Naranjo, Steven E.; Fournier, Alfred J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Arizona has a successful integrated pest management plan for arthropod pests of cotton including two key pests, Bemisia argentifolii and Lygus hesperus. Central to this plan is conservation of natural enemies through threshold-based, effective use of selective insecticides. Field studies in 2017 and 2018 were designed to test the selectivity of the insecticides cyantraniliprole, flupyradifurone, pyrifluquinazon and sulfoxaflor on the cotton arthropod community (27 taxa measured), which includes the key generalist predator species: Collops spp., Orius tristicolor, Geocoris punctipes, Misumenops celer, Drapetis nr. divergens and Chrysoperla carnea. Compared with an untreated control and in contrast to acephate-treated positive controls, predator densities were rarely impacted and the overall arthropod community was conserved by all insecticides. Occasional significant reductions in predator abundances were likely associated with lower prey availability after insecticide sprays rather than direct toxic effects. The percentage of time that predator to prey ratios were above levels favoring functioning biological control were either numerically or significantly higher or not significantly different from the untreated check for these insecticides. The cotton food web populated by generalist predators is resilient and flexible enough to accommodate temporary reductions in abundance of some species, periods of low prey densities, or other constraints on individual predator species function. Our study demonstrates that the insecticides tested are selective and compatible with sustainable pest management in the Arizona cotton system, representing new options for insect pest control that conserve natural enemies and support biological control through generally favorable changes to predator to prey ratios.
    • Art for All: A Study on the Art Educator’s Role in Inclusive Art Programs for People with Disabilities within Museums and Community Art Institutions

      DiCindio, Carissa; Whittemore, Marica; Shin, Ryan; Shirai, Yumi; Schoch, Christina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Traditionally, museums and community art institutions can be uncomfortable, restrictive places for people with disabilities. With increased legislation and scholarship looking toward art education as a site for inclusive educational practices for people with disabilities, art institutions are tasked with creating accessible programs. However, often a lack of staff, institutional support, or knowledge can make these programs lacking and leave participants disappointed. This case study presents three art programs I have created or participated in: an after-school art program at a school for hearing and visually impaired youth, a museum internship program and accessible programming for adults, and a day-program art studio serving adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The three sites and programs are described in detail using autoethnography, then evaluated for instructive themes and suggestions based on personal experience. This research study aims to promote inclusive art programs while offering a guide for other art educators. Site description and supplemental theory is complemented by arts-based research incorporating theory, practice, and artistic inquiry into the research process. In this study, I reflect on two years of teaching experiences within museum and community art programs with a focus on working with people with disabilities. Using these experiences, existing scholarship, and arts-based research, I illustrate how art educators can be more inclusive of people with disabilities within their museums and community art programs.
    • Eolian Contribution to Soil Weathering and Pedogenesis in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ

      Rasmussen, Craig; Folk, Cody Duane; Blankinship, Joseph; Schaap, Marcel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Colorado Plateau offers a unique window to document pedogenic processes in a semiarid environment. We analyzed soil samples collected from a three million-year chronosequence of basalt flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field near Flagstaff, Arizona. We hypothesized that eolian inputs provide a significant amount of material to the soil and largely control chemical weathering and soil formation processes. We quantified chemical, elemental, mineralogical, and physical characteristics of the soils. Results demonstrated distinct time trends in soil properties, with observed decreases in pH of 8.1 to 7.8, of total elemental Ti:Zr from 53:1 to 25:1, of total elemental Fe from 7.6% to 2.7%, and in the relative fraction of poorly crystalline to crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides (FeO:FeD) from 0.44% to 0.31%. In contrast, the data indicated an increase in average clay content from 14% to 56% and an increase in the amount of pedogenic Fe-oxyhydroxides relative to total elemental Fe (FeD:FeT) from 0.36% to 1.18% with time. The mineral assemblage and geochemical signature of soils indicated increasing contribution of dust to the mineral fraction with increasing age, with the oldest site estimated to be nearly 100% eolian derived in the upper 50 cm. The combined data document a clear role for dust control on pedogenesis across this semiarid chronosequence.
    • Double-Skin Façade for Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort in Hot/Humid Climate Highrise Office Buildings

      Chalfoun, Nader; Alkindi, Aisha Saeed; Youssef, Omar; Moeller, Colby (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Dubai is one of the hot-humid regions characteristic with lots of high-rises buildings that consume lots of energy. In 2010 Dubai was mentioned as one of the cities with the biggest ecological footprint in the world and since that Dubai started to introduce green building evaluation systems and building codes to reach sustainability and reduce energy consumption. The commercial sector in Dubai consumes around 47.52% of the energy and 30% of this energy in the commercial building is used for a conventional cooling system. The question is can we generate a building-integrated system that will generate energy and achieve human thermal comfort without relying on conventional systems to cool the building? According to research building performance save half of the energy from natural ventilation applications. Natural ventilation is considered one important strategy that uses the unlimited resource of wind. The unlimited source in Dubai city is 8.5mph throughout the year. This research will introduce a new system called breathing in the wind system that stop the dependency on the conventional cooling system and let the building be more breathable by developing a double-skin façade that uses the wind power, solar power, maintain views, use natural ventilation to reach the human thermal comfort in the space and shading. Natural ventilation will be used all year round by applying two modes that depend on the availability of wind in Dubai city. In addition, develop methods of using software for natural ventilation analysis in buildings such as eQuest Energy Simulation, and physical modeling.
    • Differential Phase Measuring Deflectometry for High-sag Freeform Optics

      Kim, Dae Wook; Kam, John; Schwiegerling, Jim; Liang, Rongguang; Smith, Greg (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In an effort to produce a more efficient optical system designers have begun to shy away from the traditional `spherical' lens, favoring freeform surfaces which correct for more aberrations, thereby allowing for a more compact system. The challenge now is determining how reliably these components can be manufactured, which requires a tool capable of accurately measuring them. We expand on previous phase measuring deflectometry techniques to enable the measurement of high-sag freeform optics by recording the difference in measured phase values. In this paper we justify the need for these changes by demonstrating where current approximations fall short, and a more generalized solution is derived. A system incorporating these changes was built to measure a high-sag freeform surface, the entire curved portion of a Samsung Galaxy S8 phone in single pass. We demonstrate our method is capable of determining deviations from an expected surface figure which makes it ideal for an industrial setting where quality control and consistency are critical.
    • Mechanism of Extracellular Matrix Induced Tumor Survival and Drug Resistance in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

      Miranti, Cindy K.; Chaudhary, Pooja Vilas; Gordon, Herman; Lybarger, Lonnie; Warfel, Noel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Extra-cellular matrix (ECM) is the three-dimensional environment in which cells thrive by influencing cell growth and survival through various signaling pathways aided by its molecular components in the ECM like water, minerals, proteoglycans, fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Due to its extensive impact on cellular activities, the ECM can play an integral role in imparting resistance to cancer drugs in tumors. Prostate cancer maturation is highly androgen-dependent and thus, the standard effective treatment in the case of prostate cancer is Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT). However, after a few years of androgen deprivation, the cancer progresses to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC), which is the prevalence and growth of prostate cancer in the absence of androgen. Another therapy used for the treatment of prostate cancer is the use of PI3K inhibitor drugs, but CRPC exhibits resistance to the PI3K inhibitors. Also, >80% of CRPC metastasize to bone and the mechanism behind this phenomenon is yet not well understood. Bones are a rich source of collagen and hence, collagen can be one of the key components of the ECM that supports the niche formation and survival of prostate cancer during bone metastasis. The mechanism which imparts drug resistance to PI3K inhibition in CRPC is widely investigated. This study focusses on exploring the less known role of collagen in relaying resistance to PI3K inhibitors in C4-2 cells (CRPC cells), the understanding of which is crucial for the development of an effective treatment for CRPC.
    • High Concentration Thulium Doped Germanate Lasers and Amplifier Systems

      Peyghambarian, Nasser; Keiffer, Patrick; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Blanche, Pierre; Zhu, Xiushan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      A thulium-doped germanate fiber laser and thulium-doped germanate slab amplifier are developed their benefits to relevant applications is discussed. The fiber laser has a single spatial mode and a single transverse cavity mode with a center wavelength of 1978nm. A commercial production-ready prototype was developed during this work. The slab amplifier is designed for high energy amplification applications where all-fiber solutions fall short. The slab laser as presented here was unable to successfully see gain due to thermal limitations, but with further work is still a promising approach for pulse energy scaling in a glass medium. Modeling results of the slab amplifier are presented here.
    • Gaussian Noise (GN) Model Experimental Validation on Short Span Optical Fiber Transmission

      Kilper, Daniel C.; Sari, Farida Purnama; Kieu, Khanh; Djordjevic, Ivan B. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Nonlinear signal impairments are among the most critical phenomena in long-haul optical communication system transmission. Therefore, it is important to include a nonlinear impairment model in the Quality of Transmission (QoT) prediction algorithms. While many models to account for the fiber nonlinearities in optical fiber transmission have been proposed, the practical value of a model is also a consideration for implementation and calculation time is a particularly important factor. The Gaussian noise (GN) model accounts for the nonlinear signal impairment impact using a simple closed-form formula, reducing the complexity of the computation process and computation time. With reasonable accuracy, the GN model has become a powerful tool that has been implemented in many physical environment based QoT predictions [7][10], including a Python implementation that is being developed by an industry group, known as GNPy[10]. GN model performance in predicting long-haul transmission effects has been experimentally validated by many researchers on various types of networks. In many emerging networks, however, it is common to have non-homogeneous links and short span lengths, such as in a metro network, which are not accounted for in the original GN model. Furthermore, many optical networking lab experiments do not allow for recirculating loop methods and therefore long distance, many hop experiments are problematic. Since nonlinear fiber effects are power dependent, long distance transmission can be emulated by artificially increasing the signal power. In such scenarios, the conditions that allow for a Gaussian noise statistics approach might not be satisfied and the accuracy of the GN model may be compromised. Therefore, the performance ofthe GN model is tested on a coherent optical communication system testbed using 1 and 2 spans for high signal powers. In this experiment, it is shown that the calculated 𝑃𝑁𝐿𝐼 using GN model is overestimated results in the deviation of the calculated gOSNR from the measured gOSNR. The 𝑃𝑁𝐿𝐼 is also measured using several other models to increase its accuracy, such as using GN model with correction factor, model for DM transmission, and gnpy. However, these models only show slight improvement to the gOSNR calculation accuracy. The deviation of the calculated gOSNR is possibly due to the lack of signal dispersion in the first few spans results in the failing gaussianization of the nonlinear signal. Also, the strong SPM and XPM noise combined with the interaction of the nonlinear noise with the ASE produced by the last amplifier introducing a strong nonlinear phase noise and contribute to the significant error in GN model prediction
    • Designing a 3D Confocal System

      Sasian, Jose; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Schwiegerling, Jim; Liang, Rongguang (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      There are countless types of off-axis mirror systems. A plane-symmetric system, a classic off-axis system, is relatively low complexity, due to its plane-symmetric property. Although a 3D system is more complicated, it gives us more degrees of freedom to fit in different volumes. In this thesis, we provide a method to design a 3D mirror system. We will start with the introduction of the plane-symmetric wave function and the 3D system as well as their aberration coefficients. Then we will dive into the method of calculating the aberration coefficients to understand the system and the method of designing a 3D system. Because a 3D system aberrations contain both axially and plane-symmetric aberrations, we have our own macro programs written in two different methods to calculate the aberration coefficients of a 3D system. One is adding the aberration coefficients contributed from each surface. The other one is extracting the aberration from the OPD real ray tracing. With those two algorithms and their macros, we are able to pay close attention to the dominant aberrations and release the proper variables for optimization. In this way, we can understand the system and its limitations better and also the trade-off between different aberrations and other system parameters.
    • Cue Generation in Chemistry Learning with the Boost of Testing

      Tullis, Jonathan G.; Qiu, Jiahui; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Smith, Eric D.; Cimetta, Adriana D. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cue generation is a common and useful technique for people memorize a variety of materials. Mnemonic cues generated by oneself make difficult things more interpretable and, therefore, boost long-term memory. In order to create effective cues, learners have to predict and generate cues that will match the environmental and mental states at the time of retrieval. Testing is also a powerful technique that support memory for a longer period. The benefits of cue generation and testing effect in memory have been well-established in the literature. Yet few studies focus on the effects of boosting memory of the cues themselves and how that may support learning chemistry information. The goal of the current study is to assess whether and how mnemonic cues help students learn chemistry information. The results of the experiment indicate that generating mnemonic cues benefits chemistry learning more than reading cues that peers have generated. Further, practice retrieving those mnemonic cues during study can improve the recall of the cues, but did not ultimately help students learn chemistry content. Generating mnemonic cues may be a form of deeply encoding the material that effectively boosts student learning in chemistry.