• Environmental Contamination from Glove Disposal Practices

      Munoz, Kimberley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Purpose: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provides a barrier between health professionals and pathogens. Misconceptions related to PPE and its role in environmental contamination, may lead to risky behaviors and/or perceptions in healthcare professionals due to broken barriers of protection. Evidence suggests that doffing and disposal of used PPE can lead to environmental contamination. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the potential for environmental contamination when medical gloves are flung, tossed, or thrown; while using a harmless PR772 bacteriophage and fluorescent dye tracers. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure the overall spread of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye from glove disposal to the surrounding environment; 2) determine the contamination along the glove flight path and the distance from the health professional; and 3) compare the occurrence of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye in the vicinity of glove disposal. Methods: Fifteen Health Professionals flung, tossed, or threw PR772 and fluorescent dye contaminated gloves into a wastebasket, located 1.22 m away. Twenty designated sample areas were set up along the glove flight path, along a wall behind the wastebasket and outside the flight path that represented equipment within a patient room. Following each glove disposal trial, designated Sample Areas were: 1) visually inspected with a blacklight to quantify the fluorescent dye stains and 2) swabbed with a 3M Letheen Broth sponge to quantify PR772. Results: The mean of PR772 contamination from all sample areas was 4.22 log10 PFU/mL. The area closest to the participant (<0.30 m) had the highest PR772 concentrations (mean = 2.61 log10 PFU/mL; range -0.3 to 6.32 log10 PFU/mL). The sample areas within the first 0.61 m of the health professional were statistically higher (p< 0.05) than ≥0.61 m for PR772 and all sample areas, < 0.61 m, were positive for both tracers. Based on the fluorescent dye’s ability to predict the presence absence of viral tracers, it was found to be an appropriate surrogate when used as a teaching tool for PPE disposal scenarios. Conclusion: Among medical personnel, gloves are used every workday and have the potential to contaminate the surrounding surfaces during improper disposal practices. Therefore, proper disposal techniques are required to minimize pathogen transmission. Due to limited education/training, and non-compliance with glove disposal recommendations, health professionals flinging gloves into the wastebasket can contribute significant pathogen contamination within 0.61 m around themselves, with a possibility of contaminating up to 1.52 m. Establishing industry-wide policies, adequate training and education to health professionals on appropriate glove disposal can reduce the spread of microbial contaminants and reduce exposure risks to patients and personnel.
    • Solar Power Utilization as an Alternative Energy Resource for Disaster Relief

      Manqerios, Wael (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The world is facing a significant energy crisis, and it differs from one country to another. Many industries strive to achieve a better greener solution for energy production by using non-depleting sources like the Sun, the wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal power plants. We find that the most common resource around the world is the sun. And the most common way to collect solar radiation is PV panels, as they are available around the world, relatively easy to install, and many people are already familiar with them. Global warming, ozone layer depletion, ocean acidification, droughts and heat waves are often associated with climate changing and temperature rising. All of which is playing a significant factor in the new danger we are facing, the natural disasters frequency occurrence hitting several areas simultaneously. The primary challenge happens after a disaster strike is losing electricity because of power lines cut. Loss of electricity leads to many needs going unmet. Can solar power, along with other environmental strategies, be utilized to replace the use of traditional generators in long-term disaster relief? This research looks at environmental strategies (passive & active) which can make a big difference in the long-term recovery process for people who lost their homes. The strategies that are discussed can be applied to many long-term structures to help reduce the energy needs in a green environmental way. Energy needs, conservation, and use are the primary focus here as we compare traditional approaches to available innovative environmental approaches in the disaster relief process, mainly in long-term housing. The ultimate goal is to meet people’s energy needs after a disaster without harming the environment.
    • A Baroque Denouement: The Direct Influence of Theatre on Bernini's Artistic Work

      Francesco, Amelia Rose (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Gian Lorenzo Bernini is the most prominent architect of the High and Late Baroque periods and there is a vast amount of scholarship addressing his architectural, sculptural, and pictorial works. However, studies on the other aspects of his life and work are underdeveloped, especially that of his long and dedicated involvement with the theatre. As scholars Robert Fahrner and William Kleb note in a 1973 essay published in the Educational Theatre Journal, “Art historians seem interested in it [Bernini’s theatrical activity] only in general, as an ‘influence’ on Bernini’s more important (and tangible) sculptural and architectural achievements. Theatre historians seem to have ignored it almost entirely.” This vast oversight, caused by the arbitrary separation of the visual and performing arts, has greatly hindered any scholarly attempts at a fully realized understanding of the Baroque master. In this thesis, I discuss the traditions and styles in 17th century theatre of Italy and France as well as Bernini’s involvement in and use of theatrical conventions in his sculpture and architecture. By tracing both his theatrical activity and artistic career, the connections become extremely evident, shedding new light on Bernini’s life and legacy.
    • Alternative Illumination Beam Geometries in Fluorescence Microscopy for Clinical Prostate Pathology

      Chia, Jeffrey Tzu (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Light sheet microscopy, with the technique developed nearly a century ago and the first application toward fluorescence microscopy of biological specimens occurring in the late twentieth century, has seen a resurgence for applications requiring rapid or 3D imaging of biological samples. Conventional light sheet microscopy uses Gaussian beams that are the standard output of laser systems, and can be turned into a light sheet utilizing a cylindrical lens. However, highly focused Gaussian beams used in microscopy spread out quickly, leaving only a small section that can be imaged, and are also vulnerable to beam propagation distortion and steering in a scattering medium. In order to overcome the depth-of-focus versus resolution tradeoff inherent to Gaussian beams, non-diffracting beams have been proposed as solutions in applications where cellular resolution is required over a larger field-of-view (FOV). These non-diffracting beams, such as Bessel or Airy beams, offer significant improvements in depth-of-focus, but come with disadvantages, such as out-of-focus excitations that degrade contrast and image quality in fluorescent microscopy. However, due the interest in achieving higher FOVs without sacrificing resolution, there is a great deal of ongoing research looking at side lobe suppression techniques with non-diffracting beams. In this thesis work we look at various methods of suppressing the side lobes of the Bessel beams and assess the contrast differences in comparison to a conventional Gaussian beam. Using a spatial light modulator and dual-axis microscope architecture, we create a test bed for beam shaping and comparing traits between the beam profiles. Differences in image contrast and signal-to-background ratio (SBR) are assessed when looking at fluorescent solutions, beads, and phantoms. In the final section, we look at preliminary experiments on using the sectioned Bessel beam with electronic confocal slit detection (eCSD) image processing and analyze the benefits, along with challenges faced when applying this technology to imaging cleared tissue specimens. Overall, the sectioned Bessel beam coupled with eCSD image processing allows us to achieve similar signal-to-background ratios (SBR) compared to a conventional Gaussian beam illumination scheme, while giving large improvements in depth-of-focus for a given resolution. Although we are unable to prove this in the current iteration of the microscope test bed, these properties are expected to be particularly useful in imaging cleared tissue samples.
    • Freeform Metrology Using 2D Contact Profilometry and Specialized Fixturing

      Scordato, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Advancements in the design and fabrication of optics are pushing the limits of metrology. Freeform surfaces are becoming more common through the provision of non-symmetric corrections to a system’s wavefront. This may result in improved performance with less optical elements in a system’s design. Fabrication tools have been developed, yet the measurement techniques and drawing specifications of these surfaces are not well defined. There are several approaches to characterize a freeform lens. Profilometry is a common method to measure the profile of an optical surface by using a calibrated stylus. 2D profilometer instruments are popular due to their affordability and versatility. An investment is required to increase a contact profilometer’s capability for 3D aspheric surfaces. This paper will focus on expanding a 2D contact profilometer’s capability by using a specialized fixture with references to map multiple tracings in software. In addition, the fixture will also characterize the centration of the optic. This paper compares the results found with various metrology instruments. The specialized fixture was measured with a 2D contact profilometer to provide full surface characterization of the freeform optic. An advanced 3D profilometer was used to provide measurements for evaluation. Included will be a discussion comparing the freeform data gathered from the different instruments to expected performance using a spherical lens.
    • 2017 Portfolio of Compositions

      Rice, Willie Aaron (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The following collection represents the sum of works created by composer W. Aaron Rice during his Master's studies at The University of Arizona. This document provides programmatic introductions to each piece performed at the composer's Master's Recital, and the program from said recital is included at the end for archiving. The many separate pieces are introduced with details on compositional intent and brief analyses. In the pages following the introductions, full scores of each piece are included for detailed analysis.
    • Quantifying Biomass from Point Clouds by Connecting Representations of Ecosystem Structure

      Hendryx, Sean Michael (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem biomass is an essential part of monitoring carbon stocks and fluxes within the global carbon cycle and optimizing natural resource management. Point cloud data such as from lidar and structure from motion can be effective for quantifying biomass over large areas, but significant challenges remain in developing effective models that allow for such predictions. Inference models that estimate biomass from point clouds are established in many environments, yet, are often scale-dependent, needing to be fitted and applied at the same spatial scale and grid size at which they were developed. Furthermore, training such models typically requires large in situ datasets that are often prohibitively costly or time-consuming to obtain. Here, we present a novel scale- and sensor-invariant framework for efficiently estimating biomass from point clouds. Central to this framework, we present a new algorithm, which we term Assign Points To Existing Clusters (APTEC), developed for finding matches between in situ data and clusters in remotely-sensed point clouds. This algorithm can be used for assessing canopy segmentation accuracy and for training and validating machine learning models for predicting biophysical variables. We demonstrate the algorithm's efficacy by using it to train a random forest model of aboveground biomass in a shrubland environment in Southern Arizona. We show that by learning a nonlinear function to estimate biomass from segmented canopy features, we can reduce error, especially in the presence of inaccurate clusterings, when compared to a traditional, deterministic technique to estimate biomass from remotely measured canopies. Importantly, our random forest on cluster features model extends established methods of training random forest regressions to predict biomass of subplots but requires significantly less training data and is scale invariant. This model reduced mean absolute error, when evaluated on all test data in leave-one-out cross-validation by 41% from deterministic mesquite allometry and 36.2% from the inferred ecosystem-state allometric function on terrestrial lidar data. Our best performing model reduced mean absolute error across all data sources by 22.5%. Our framework should allow for the inference of biomass more efficiently than common subplot methods and more accurately than individual tree segmentation methods in vegetated environments in which accurate segmentation of individual plants is difficult.
    • Application of Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Watersheds in Arid Region

      Potucek, Michael Paul (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This study applied the AGWA ArcGIS tool to the 3.7 hectare Lucky Hills watershed, and three large watersheds (Yuma Desert, Coyote Wash, and Mohawk Wash) in the Barry Marsh Goldwater Range (BMGR) in Arizona. The Kineros model was applied to Lucky Hills watershed to calibrate modeling parameters. Events were grouped by similar precipitation patterns, runoff hydrographs, and precipitation volumes to optimize four key parameters for infiltration and surface runoff. These parameters include the soil suction parameter (G), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and Manning’s roughness for both the channels and planes. Model calibration was carried on event by event, with 10,000 simulations for each event. The set of parameters that yielded the minimum Root Mean Square Error was chosen as the best-fit parameters. Then, the SWAT and Kineros models were applied to three large watersheds in BMGR to determine possible causes of erosion in the range. Model calibration was attempted based on the observed bed elevation changes using the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) over a period of 13 years. Results for the Lucky Hills showed that grouping events based on precipitation volume yielded varying ranges of best-fit parameters. The six smallest volume precipitation events yielded parameter ranges for G, Ks, cn, and pn as 143.09-147.34 mm, 5.98-7.79 mm/hr, .03-.06, and .03-.04, for each parameter respectively. The six medium sized events yielded parameter ranges for G, Ks, cn, and pn as 145.61-147.34 mm, 5.98-11.32 mm/hr, .03, and .03-.06, for each parameter respectively. The six largest volume precipitation events yielded parameter ranges for G, Ks, cn, and pn as 143.09-236.77 mm, 5.98-14.65 mm/hr, .01-.03, and .03-.07 for each parameter set respectively. For SWAT error is significant in each watershed. For the Yuma Desert basin the minimum error found over 44 sub basins is 24.11%, with only this watershed having an error lower than 30 percent. Of 44 sub basins modelled, 34 under-predicted erosion. Based on the DEM subtraction 6 of the sub basins deposited sediment. For Mohawk Wash, the minimum error found over 33 sub basins was 79.72%. Nine of the sub basins deposited sediment, and 22 underpredicted erosion. For watershed Coyote Wash, of the 35 sub basins modelled the minimum error found was 26.84%. Thirteen sub basins deposited sediment, and 18 underpredicted erosion. Three of the sub basins had errors under 30%. In general, it is apparent that the BMGR range is an erosional environment. SWAT could not accurately predict results for any watershed. The lowest errors were slightly under 30 percent, and most sub basins significantly underpredicted erosion. Kineros results also were poor. To compare Kineros with SWAT results, the results of Kineros planes are added together to form the same grid code as SWAT. Results are shown in figure 5.4.4. Erosion is significantly underpredicted for the Kineros model. For the Yuma Desert basin, the minimum error found for all sub basins was 84.06%. For the Mohawk Wash basin, the minimum error was 90.68%. The minimum error found for Coyote Wash was 25.48%. This indicated that the observed erosion rate was poorly correlated with these selected characteristics of sub-basins. Excluding these parameters, other properties or unobserved hydrologic data, such as precipitation distributions, may contribute to the observed erosion rates.
    • Development of a Groundwater Flow Model for the Colorado River Delta, Mexico

      Feirstein, Eden Jael (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      The Colorado River Delta (CRD) is a large sedimentary complex located in a structurally controlled basin in an active tectonic region. The CRD lies across the U.S. Mexico international boundary and is traversed by the Colorado River on it's way to the Gulf of California. Multidisciplinary research addressing the impact of the hydrologic change in the CRD has been increasing since the 1980' s. To help expand the base of this know ledge, a groundwater model for the CRD within Mexico was developed. A conceptual model was constructed and transformed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling Software (GMS) into a numerical model using the MODFLOW code made available by the U.S. Geological Survey. Model results indicates that large scale flood events on the Colorado River act as a recharge to the aquifer and show that the relationship between groundwater withdrawals and capture are evident on an seasonal scale.
    • WATER RESOURCE ADMINISTRATION OF LOWER CIENEGA CREEK NEAR TUCSON

      Matt, Clayton Edward (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      The goal of this thesis is to propose water resource management recommenda tions which can contribute to the long-term existence of the lower Cienega Creek riparian area. The objectives are to develop an understanding of the physical, legal, and institutional settings, and to show how those factors have contributed to its current condition. Recommendations are based on a long-term management goal to maintain the riparian area. Potential threats and impacts which would cause severe damage to the area are described. The research includes a combination of a literature search, a water resource and water rights data and records review and analysis, and personal interviews and historical research. The thesis concludes that the Cienega Creek watershed is relatively undeveloped with regard to water consumption. The current condition of the riparian area can be attributed principally to entrenchment and climate change and variation. However, groundwater use looms as a threat to the riparian area. Water management decisions that allow unregulated groundwater development and a high zoning density standard could combine to deplete water resources of the lower Cienega Creek riparian area.
    • IMAGININGS AT THE .JUDAS TREE: THE PARDON TALES OF "MISS MEXICO"

      Mericle, Michele Jeanine (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Imaginings at the Judas Tree: The Pardon Tales of "Miss A1exico " details the life story of Maria Teresa de Landa, winner of the "Miss Mexico" pageant in 1928. Landa was to achieve yet greater notoriety when she was acquitted for the crime of killing her bigamous husband in a sensational jury trial held November, 1929. Using Natalie Zemon Davis's concept of the "pardon tale" as a window onto prevailing social mores, this study examines contestations regarding the feminine ideal; specifically, debates regarding the honor of "modem" women in 1920's Mexico City. The transitional nature of the legal system is also investigated. Throughout these investigations are woven themes of gender, modernity, tradition, law, and honor before the colorful and contentious backdrop of revolutionary Mexico City.
    • THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, AND PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE OFFICE OF THE WHITE HOUSE PHYSICIAN

      Deppisch, Ludwig Michael (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      The medical care of incumbent presidents has evolved greatly during the two hundred years that have elapsed between the presidencies of George Washington and George W. Bush. The development into its present day organizational structure has not always been in a straight line, but its general direction has been from episodic to continuous, therapeutic to preventative, civilian to military, solo to bureaucratic, and disorganized to structured. The responsibilities of the White House Physicians have increased over time, most notably in recent years with the ratification of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution on presidential disability. Two troubling tendencies have disturbed the physician - presidential patient relationship from time to time: the intrusion of political considerations into medical decision making and intraprofessional squabbling between the president's civilian and military doctors.
    • A Chilean Free-Market Miracle? The Effects of Neoliberal Economic Changes on Small-Scale Fishermen on the island of Chiloe

      Daughters, Anton (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      How are culturally distinct regions affected by free-market forces? It is with this question in mind that I set out this past summer to study the impact of neoliberal economic strategies on the island of Chiloe in southern Chile. In particular, I looked at how Chile's thirty-year policy of export-oriented resource extraction has affected- and been perceived by workers and families involved in the fishing industry of Chiloe. Throughout my eight-week stay in the country I gathered enough preliminary data to suggest that Chile's economic policies have had mixed results for fishermen in Chiloe: while major national and international companies have flourished, small-scale independent fishermen have faced increasing restrictions on where, when, and how they can fish. Furthermore, many of the islanders I spoke to linked these changes to a broader, more fundamental impact on Chiloe's overall culture - a gradual but perceptible shift from collectivity to individualism.
    • Pampa, Puchero, Petrona: An Argentine Culinary Trilogy

      Toth, Castorila Unda (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Argentina's emerging gastronomic cultures in the twentieth century have been the result of three fundamental ingredients: (first) abundance of meat and wheat (second) large and diverse immigrant populations, and (third) a highly influential cookbook writer. This thesis explores the development of Argentine cuisine over fifty years, from 1935 to present. This culinary series focuses on meat consuming habits, immigrants' contributions, and Dona Petrona de Gandulfo in integrating and restructuring the cuisine. Certain subjects such as the beginning of the television industry and changes in women's political rights are also considered. The thesis thus explains how Dofia Petrona' s example opened doors for the next generation of career women to challenge social and economic barriers. This thesis argues that the present cuisine can be characterized as the evolutionary process of a decentralized society. The gastronomic traditions are the cultural expression of a powerful middle class society fused with the elite's taste in food preferences. The amalgamation of those elements has produced the cuisine that is known today. This study is based upon an analysis of some of Dofia Petrona's cookbooks located in the Biblioteca Nacional de Buenos Aires, supplemented with popular periodicals such as El Hogar and printed materials obtained at the Escuela de cocina de Belgrano as well as interviews with chefs and culinary students, ~thnographic narrations from immigrant followers of Dona Petrona, and three culinary professionals who worked with her. The last part of this thesis deals briefly with the new gourmet attitude in that country. Others writers have deeply and amply addressed the matter of women's political rights; hence, I devote most of my attention to middle-class women and culinary patterns as the new hybrid expression of culture.
    • LIBERTY AND POWER: THE BUCCANEERS OF THE CARIBBEAN

      Glasco, Jeffrey Duane (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The buccaneers of the Caribbean were pirates based at colonial English Jamaica from 1659 to 1671. Because of the lack of funds for a military garrison, the governors of colonial Jamaica issued privateering commissions to attract pirates to the colony a~. c\ reserve military force. The buccaneers created their own social organization, drawng upon preceden s from the English military, the cultur.e of sailors, and various groups of Frenchmen on Hispaniola. The ranks of the buccaneers swelled with lower class men abundant in the Caribbean. The hardship of life as pirates and the need to create an effective privateering society shaped the buccaneers' culture. Starting from an egalitarian base, the rise of powerful captains created an economic and rank hierarchy that stratified portions Qf buccaneer life. Untoppled throughout their existence was the social egalitarian nature of the buccaneers.
    • EVALUATION OF VIRAL FATE DURING ANAMMOX TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

      Foster, Aidan Richard (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Conventional secondary treatment of municipal wastewater designed to achieve biological nutrient removal typically utilize methods of nitrification-denitrification to convert ammonia to nitrogen gas to reduce the environmental impact of human wastewater streams. However, this process requires high energy inputs while also producing greenhouse gases. An alternative nitrogen treatment process is possible that treats nitrogen through anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) which has been reported to have numerous benefits over conventional treatment. While the effect of conventional secondary treatment has been evaluated for its effects on human enteric viruses, the effect of anammox systems on these microbes is undocumented. Through a joint venture between the University of Arizona, Pima County Wastewater and the Water and Energy Sustainability Technology (WEST) center, two different anammox reactors will be established and assessed for their effects on viral fate. Three human enteric viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, and reovirus) will be monitored as well as evaluating possible indicator organisms to monitor human enteric virus in anammox systems.
    • STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE WATER MANAGEMENT IN MEXICAN IRRIGATION DISTRICTS: A CASE STUDY IN SONORA

      Palacios-Velez, Enrique (The University of Arizona., 1976)
      Few studies have been made regarding the efficiency of water use in irrigation systems in operation. Therefore, in this work the search for methodologies to evaluate the actual efficiency of water use in a Mexican irrigation district as well as methods which may improve this efficiency is emphasized . . The work has been divided into four parts. In the first part, the analysis of the economic activities in the irrigation district by means of linear programming has permitted finding the marginal productivity of water which is used as a shadow price for economic evaluation of the operating rules. In this part a relationship between the marginal productivity of water and the conveyance efficiency has also been found. In the second part, using hydrological historical data and a pattern of monthly water demand for crops obtained in the first part, control curves of the reservoir levels which permit knowledge of the probability of risk of spill and shortage were computed. Utilizing these curves and a simple linear programming model for finding the optimal economic annual average release, operating rules for the reservoir have been deduced. These rules were tested by means of a simulation model and their economic effectiveness was estimated using a benefit-cost analysis, showing a significant improvement in benefits for the farmers as a cons ·equence of using these rules. In the third part, the conveyance losses in the canal network are analyzed using a linear regression between releases and deliveries. The proposed model permits an estimation of the conveyance efficiency and its division into two component factors, the intrinsic efficiency directly related to the physical characteristics of the canals, and the operational efficiency related to water management in the canal network. Knowing these components, it is possible to classify the conveyance losses as well as deduce operating rules for improving the operational efficiency. In making decisions about the methods to be used for improving the conveyance efficiency, benefits and costs must be taken into account. Therefore, a practical relationship for evaluating the economic feasibility of lining canals, considering those benefits and costs, is found as well as a method for economic evaluation of the operating rules. Finally, in the last part of this work, a practical methodology for estimating the application efficiency at the farm level in an irrigation district and small divisions as well is shown. This method is useful in finding where the problems in water use are more important within the district and which could be their principal causes. Utilizing data from experiments, which are available in most of the ~1exican irrigation districts, production functions relating yields of crops to the amount of water applied and the percentage of moisture depletion in the soil before and during the flowering season of the crop, have been found. These functions can be used not only for obtaining the optimal economic depth of water to be applied and irrigation timing but also for deriving the optimal water use efficiency, which, when related to actual values of this water efficiency in each subdivision of the district, permits the deduction of a practi~al water use efficiency index which is useful for detecting where the problems in water use are and what are the potential returns for the farmers in each of the considered subdivisions.
    • Water Law and policy in the Sonoita Creek Basin

      Blomgren, Nathan Frederick (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      The Sonoita Creek Basin covers 270 square miles in southeastern Arizona, Santa Cruz County. The city of Patagonia is the main population center in the watershed with about 1000 residents. There are numerous surface water rights and applications to appropriate the waters of Sonoita Creek, which flows perennially from the city of Patagonia to Patagonia Lake. The relatively small flows of the Creek are divided among numerous users, including ranching, irrigation, municipal water supply, domestic water supply, recreation and wildlife. The separation of groundwater and surface water in Arizona water law makes the legal determination of rights difficult in many circumstances. The eventual status of many vested water rights is unknown because the law is being written at the time of publication. A Court decision on a method to identify wells that are pumping appropriable water is pending, after which the Gila River Adjudication will examine all water rights in the watershed and decide on their legitimacy. Water quality regulation in the Sonoita Creek Basin is limited to drinking water and effluent standards, and monitoring of abandoned mines. The determination of the source of water supply for Patagonia will dictate their treatment requirements. The struggle to replace an aging wastewater treatment plant is ongoing. High acidity and metal content in waters percolating through abandoned mines continues to be monitored and the threat to downstream targets assessed.