• Responsiveness to Motivational Interviewing Among Latina Ovarian Cancer Survivors Participating in a Large, Well Powered RCT: A Mixed Methods Analysis

      Crane, Tracy E.; Penaloza, Irlena Alejandra; Hingle, Melanie D.; Thomson, Cynthia A. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Background: In the United States, cancer is the leading cause of death among Latinas. It is estimated one in four cancer cases could be prevented with modifiable lifestyle behaviors including diet and physical activity. However, approaches for changing these behaviors may be different based on cultural factors, including diet. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach for changing lifestyle behaviors composed of 5 constructs: evocation, collaboration, autonomy, direction and empathy. However, previous research, as well as our own anecdotal observations, suggests that Latinas may be less responsive to usual MI behavior change techniques. Purpose: The present study aims to, assess potential differences in MI responsiveness between Latinas and non-Hispanic white women who recently completed treatment for ovarian cancer. These survivors participated in the intervention arm of a large, well-powered RCT, focused on changing dietary intake. Secondly, it aims to qualitatively describe the 5 MI constructs for behavior change, using qualitative descriptive methods, among Spanish-speaking Latinas and English-speaking Latinas. Methods: Women randomized to the intervention arm received a total of 33 lifestyle counseling sessions with health coaches trained in MI. Recorded coaching sessions were randomly selected from a subsample of Spanish-speaking (SPA) Latina group (n=10), English-speaking (ENG) Latina group (n=10), and age-matched non-Hispanic white (NHW) women (n=10). All Coaching sessions (n=123) were scored using Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 3.0 code, a behavioral coding system to assess MI fidelity by the interviewer (coach). Language preference for either English or Spanish was used as a proxy for acculturation. Differences in Individual MITI constructs were also assessed between groups. Adherence to dietary study goals was assessed with the AFFQ tool. Differences in total MITI scores between groups were evaluated using ANOVA, while individual constructs were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For the qualitative descriptive analysis, a sub-sample of calls from the MITI scored sample was used (n=12). These calls were transcribed and coded for the 5 MI constructs in both the SPA and ENG Latina groups. Results: Mean MITI scores were 18.3 (SD ±1.1), 20.6 (SD ±1.0) and 21.0 (SD ±0.3) for SPA Latina group, ENG Latina group and NHW group, respectively. Spanish-speaking Latinas’ MITI scores were significantly lower (p<0.001), with a β-coefficient value of -2.7 (95%CI: -3.5, 1.8) than NHW, while ENG Latina group MITI scores were not significantly different than NHW. Of the 5 MITI constructs, direction and collaboration were significantly different between groups, with SPA Latina group having significantly lower scores than NHW, with a mean of 3.28 (SD ±0.42) for collaboration and 3.88(SD ±0.40) for direction. The SPA Latina group also had higher mean behavior counts for giving information, 7.55 (SD ±2.0), and open-ended questions, 8.78 (SD ±4.9) compared to NHW group. Conclusion: Significant differences between MITI scores were observed in Latina cancer survivors based on language preference used as a proxy for acculturation in this analysis. This secondary analysis supports the need for behavioral interventions tailored beyond language for both race and culture; potentially with special attention to direction and collaboration when using MI for these interventions.
    • Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Taura Syndrome Virus of Shrimp From Archived Davidson’s Fixed Paraffin Embedded Shrimp Tissue

      Viswanathan, V.K.; Ochoa, Lauren; Dhar, Arun K.; McCarthy, Fiona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Taura syndrome (TS) is an OIE-listed (World Organization for Animal Health) disease of marine shrimp that is caused by Taura syndrome virus (TSV). TSV has caused more than US $2 billion losses since the initial discovery of the disease in 1992. This work focuses on the detection and genome reconstruction of TSV from Davidson’s fixed paraffin embedded (DFPE) shrimp tissues. The data generated for this thesis demonstrate the utility of archived DFPE shrimp tissues as biological samples for detection and genetic studies in TSV. In Chapter 1, the status of TS is summarized. The review gives an overview of the diseases since it was first identified in Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Ecuador in 1992. The review covers the identification of the etiologic agent, clinical signs and geographic distribution of the diseases, development of histopathological and molecular diagnostic tools. Efforts made to control the disease using biosecurity in shrimp farming, and development of genetically resistant lines of shrimp are also reviewed. Chapter 2 describes the detection of TSV from archived DFPE shrimp tissues. Twenty-nine DFPE P. vannamei shrimp tissue blocks from 2005 representing samples originating in 4 geographical locations were selected for this study. Sample screening indicated lesions of acute stages pathognomonic of TSV infection. Total RNA was isolated from DFPE blocks using three different commercial kits to compare the quality and quantity of extracted nucleic acids. The results showed that RNA isolated from Qiagen RNeasy FFPE Kit provided highest quality of RNA based on 260/280 and 260/230 ratios. Conventional and real-time RT-PCR results show that TSV nucleic acids can be detected in archived DFPE tissue samples. Sanger sequencing of representative amplicons confirmed the identity of TSV. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequence of the capsid proten (VP1) gene shows the genetic relationship among different geographical isolates and homologous sequences of TSV isolates deposited in the GenBank database The feasibility of virus detection and genome reconstruction from archived DFPE tissues opens opportunities for the discovery of novel pathogens and will help enhance our understanding of the evolution of shrimp viruses. This study is the first of its kind in the field of shrimp pathology in using archived DFPE-derived tissue samples for pathogen detection. These results suggest that archived DFPE tissue samples can be utilized for the discovery of novel pathogens and evolutionary analyses. In addition, the findings have direct implications for disease management in shrimp.
    • Characterization of a Novel Isolate of Hepatopancreatic Parvovirus From Madagascar

      Dhar, Arun K.; Siewiora, Halina; Riggs, Michael W.; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad M. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Since the late 1980s, farming of finfish, shellfish, and crustaceans has expanded globally. The worldwide growth and expansion of many aquaculture species were possible due to the development of novel technologies and methods such as the development of captive breeding programs, the availability of high-quality formulated diet, and the development of biosecurity protocols to prevent the introduction of diseases in a production system among many other factors. However, after many years of success, the growth and sustainability in the farming of many marine species such as shrimp are threatened by the emergence of infectious diseases, many of which are caused by viruses. More than twenty viruses have been identified in shrimp alone, and some of these diseases have caused more economic losses compared to others and, at times, have changed the trajectory of the industry. For example, the early 1980s IHHNV outbreak in blue shrimp led to the development of a shrimp resistant line and a shift in the captive breeding program from blue shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) to Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei). Today, P. vannamei is the most common farmed species. Another virus that has impacted the shrimp aquaculture is the Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), a small single-stranded DNA virus first reported in farmed marine prawns in Singapore in 1982. Today, the virus is present in all geographic regions where shrimp are farmed. The virus affects post-larval and mid-juvenile stages of penaeid shrimp, increasing mortality and negatively impacting growth, causing economic losses on farms. The viral reservoir and pathogenesis are understudied, and no treatment is available against HPV infection. HPV targets the hepatopancreas, a digestive glad of arthropods and mollusks. The virus is routinely diagnosed by PCR and histology. A key histopathological characteristic of HPV infection is the production of large inclusion bodies in the nuclei of the hepatopancreas tubule cells. Penaeus monodon farmed in Madagascar has been found to carry HPV since the early 1990s. Although at this moment, HPV is not a threat in the hatcheries, recently, a novel strain of the HPV has been discovered in Madagascar where post-larvae occasionally tested positive for HPV by PCR but without any histopathological changes or clinical signs like isolates from other regions. HPV from Madagascar was sequenced by Kathy Tang and colleagues (Tang et al., 2008), but the differences in detecting it by histology and PCR have not been investigated before. The overall goal of this project was to characterize this novel strain of the HPV. The approach was to sequence the full genome of the novel isolate, perform a genomic comparison with homologous isolates, and to compare the histology with conventional and real-time PCR in detecting HPV in P. monodon post-larvae from Madagascar. The analysis showed that the new Madagascan strain was most closely related to the previously sequenced Madagascan strain. The similarity was only 96.9%, and phylogenetic analyses revealed the novel strain constitutes a distinct subclade from the previously sequenced one. The sequence analysis of the HPV genome showed mutations at different sites in the putative capsid promoter region. Further study is needed to determine if those changes may affect the pathogenicity of the strains. The histological analysis of P. monodon post-larvae from Madagascar displayed no inclusion bodies. Total genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples embedded in the paraffin block, and PCR was performed to detect HPV by conventional and real-time PCR. All samples tested negative by histology and by the PCR using an OIE-recommended method. However, new primers designed to amplify smaller amplicon showed up to 58% samples as positive for HPV. The sequencing and the histopathology data obtained in this study suggest that the novel isolate of HPV from Madagascar may constitute a new species. Further studies need to be carried out to (1) perform bioassay to demonstrate the infectivity of the new isolate, (2) carry out in situ hybridization to localize the infection, (3) conduct a promoter assay to determine the effect of the mutation on the transcription of virally encoded genes, (4) measure the expression of the capsid protein in infected tissue, and (5) screen for secondary diseases in HPV-infected shrimp. This information will help to delineate if the criteria for defining a new species are met by this novel isolate.
    • Involvement of Mas in Neuroinflammation

      Rodgers, Kathleen E.; Hurst, Chelsie; Streicher, John; Khanna, May; Yin, Fei (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by cognitive decline in memory and behavior. Targeting the common pathologies associated with AD (amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs)) have yielded little success in improving cognition in AD patients. Research has turned to exploration of other AD pathologies, including neuroinflammation caused by chronically activated microglia. In the following studies, decreasing microglial activation through modulation of the anti-inflammatory Mas receptor of the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain was explored. First, using an AD mouse model, mice were treated with Mas receptor agonists (the native ligand angiotensin (1-7), in addition to two small molecules, RASRx1902 and RASRx1911). Expression of hippocampal RAS receptors and microglial activation markers was explored using RT-qPCR. Mas receptor expression was found to be positively correlated to expression of both the pro-inflammatory RAS receptor At1r-1b and the microglial activation marker Cd68. Cd68 expression was negatively correlated to novel object recognition (NOR) score. These results indicate a possible relationship among Mas receptor expression, microglial activation, and cognition that will be explored further in future studies. Next, the HMC3 cell line was used as an in vitro model of human microglia, and the resting and activated states of the cells were characterized by measuring the microglial activation markers CD68, HLA-DR, CD11b, reactive oxygen species, and cell size. After activating the cells with IFN-gamma, they were treated with RASRx1902 and a significant decrease in microglial activation occurred. These results indicate that RASRx1902 might be effective in decreasing neuroinflammation caused by microglial activation in AD. Lastly, in preparation for future experiments to study signaling pathways modulated by the Mas agonists, efforts to overexpress the Mas receptor in cell lines were made. CHO-K1 cells were transfected with human Mas, and the cells were selected with an antibiotic and cloned. Using RT-qPCR, it was found that the cells overexpressed human Mas RNA; however, when cells were stained with antibodies and viewed with flow cytometry, immunofluorescence imaging, and western blot, no protein was found. Current work on overexpressing the Mas receptor in HMC3 cells is also described. Overall, it was found that decreasing microglial activation using Mas receptor agonists has promise to be an effective treatment of neuroinflammation in AD.
    • Global Assessment of Rain Gauge Undercatch Correction Factors and Comparative Analysis of Snowfall Accumulation Using Diverse Data Sets: In-Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis

      Behrangi, Ali; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Panahi, Milad; Niu, Guo-Yue (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Despite its importance for hydrology and water resources, accurate estimation of snowfall rate over snow-covered regions has remained a major observational challenge from both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Snowfall accumulation can be measured by either accumulating snowfall estimates or measuring snowpack properties such as Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) and mass. By focusing on snowfall over snow accumulation period and using case studies and long-term average (2003 to 2015) over CONUS, the first phase of our study compares snowfall accumulation from gauge stations (using GPCC and PRISM products), satellite products (GPCP and the suite of IMERG products), and reanalysis (ERA-interim, ERA5, and MERRA-2). Changes in SWE, based on the recent UA-SWE product and mass change observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), were used for assessment of precipitation products for snowfall estimation. In the second phase of our study we assess two popular rain gauge undercatch correction factors (CFs) used in the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) monitoring and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) products, and quantify how much the choice of the CFs can impact our total estimate of precipitation over land at seasonal, annual, regional, and global scales. Rain gauges are critical for measuring precipitation rates at regional and global scales and are often used to calibrate precipitation rates estimated from other instruments such as satellites. However, precipitation measured at rain gauges are affected by gauge undercatch that is often larger for snowfall than rainfall. The main results include: (1) Based on UA-SWE and GRACE analysis over cold regions in the CONUS: Snow accumulation from most of the products is bounded by GPCC with and without correction, highlighting the critical importance of selecting proper CFs for gaugeundercatch correction. The CF based on Legates and Willmott method used in GPCP was found to be more consistent with the SWE-based analysis than CF based on the Fuchs method. Reanalysis products show very similar spatial pattern among themselves, but represent a large variation in simulating snow accumulation, with ERA-interim showing the least accumulation and MERRA-2 showing the highest accumulation and closest to the snow accumulation suggested by SWE. (2) Based on Global rain gauge analysis: Overall CFs are largest in higher latitudes and in winter when snowfall is dominant. The CFs are also compared with respect to the environmental variables used in their development, among those are near surface air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. Results show that the correction factors can increase the annual precipitation rate based on rain gauges by about 8%, although this amount can vary from about 3% (in boreal summer) to 10% (in boreal winter), depending on the season and the method used for gauge undercatch correction. It was also found that annual variations in CFs can be large, so the use of climatology CFs, like the one used in GPCP, requires caution.
    • Mathematical Modeling of Induction Thermoforming Process for Radio Telescope Panels Manufacturing

      Chan, Cholik; Bani Issa, Abd Alrhman Mohammad; Ganapol, Barry; Li, Peiwen (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Obtaining a high-efficient, low-cost, and time-saving method for manufacturing radio telescope primary reflectors is one of the most considerable obstacles for further progress in this area. In addition to the above, the lack of literature in this subject presents another problem, as the currently available manufacturing methods are considered trade secrets by their owners. To that end, the novel process of induction thermoforming was developed in the Steward Observatory Solar laboratory at the University of Arizona. This method offers potential advantages over the existing means of shaping curved metallic sheets. The main objective of this work is to develop and implement a numerical study to verify the performance of the proposed method. Hence, a mathematical model of the induction thermoforming was constructed. Finite element analysis (FEA) was implemented with the aid of ANSYS software to solve and analyze the model for a prototype plate with dimensions 120×120×3 mm. The simulation technology was developed by integrating the electromagnetic and thermal analysis modules in ANSYS. Comparing the results with those given by the existing experimental data shows an agreement, with a relative percentage error of less than 12% in temperatures data. Several numerical simulations were performed for many cases to study the effect of coil current, frequency, coil to plate distance, and heating time in the system performance. The research in this field is still at the beginning and has not been deeply investigated yet. It needs more improvements to obtain better control in system parameters and improve the process efficiency.
    • Tectonic Evolution of the Bhumichula Plateau: A High-Elevation Low-Relief Surface in Western Nepalese Himalaya

      DeCelles, Peter G.; Lama Sherpa, Tshering Zangmu; Carrapa, Barbara; Quade, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The Bhumichula plateau is an anomalously high elevation low-relief (HELR) surface at >4000 m in the midst of the western Nepalese Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The plateau is situated in the northeastern part of the Dadeldhura klippe, an erosional outlier of Greater Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks surrounded by low-grade, structurally underlying Lesser Himalayan rocks. Using low-temperature thermochronology, we test whether the Bhumichula HELR surface formed at low elevation and was later uplifted, developed in situ at high elevation following tectonic disturbance, or if it is a remnant of an older, more extensive HELR that has been shrinking due to recent tectonically driven incision. Average apatite (U-Th)/He ages are ~6 Ma on both the plateau surface and along the valleys that cut through the surrounding region, whereas apatite fission track ages are ~7-9 Ma on the plateau surface and ~11-14 Ma on the flanks. Thermal modeling suggests that the main period of exhumation and erosion was ~14 Ma for the valley bottom samples in the southwest limb of the klippe and ~7 Ma for Bhumichula plateau in the northeast limb of the klippe, consistent with the timing of slip on the Ramgarh thrust and initial growth of the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD), respectively. Spatial differences in the timing of cooling for the northeast and southwest limbs of the klippe 24 is interpreted to indicate heterogenous exhumation due to structural variation. Slow exhumation since ~7 Ma on the Bhumichula plateau suggests attainment of high elevation by mid-Miocene time. Exhumation and uplift ~7 Ma due to growth of the LHD is therefore likely to be responsible for drainage reorganization and resulting preservation of low-relief at Bhumichula due to a combination of fluvial and glacial processes.
    • Raising Intercultural Consciousness through Literary Dialogue in a Second Language Classroom

      Warner, Chantelle; Alfred, Olapeju Oseyemi; Gramling, David; McGregor, Janice (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Scholars have long discussed the use of literature in (inter)cultural awareness raising/teaching in foreign language teaching. This MA thesis presents a study conducted in two beginning German language classes, in which literary texts thematizing minority perspectives were implemented in order to raise students’ intercultural awareness. The classroom-based study combines literary reading, digital social media, and peer dialogue. Data obtained from learners’ comments on google documents from classroom discussions, show evidence of learners’ emergent intercultural awareness, and an analysis of student response surveys indicate that learners had a positive experience working collaboratively. This study therefore demonstrates that literary texts can be used in beginner classes in foreign language classrooms to teach intercultural awareness.
    • "Within and Without His Religion": The Formation of the Colonial Mexican Jesuits, 1600-1650

      Lotz-Heumann, Ute E.; Plummer, Marjorie E.; McClain, Hannah Grace; Gosner, Kevin M. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This thesis examines processes of identity formation among the colonial Mexican Jesuits in the first half of the seventeenth century. Recent historiography has emphasized the central role played by the early modern Jesuits in European imperial and missionary expansion. While the global significance of the Society of Jesus is asserted in these works, little attention has been paid to the identity and day-to-day activities of the Jesuits, especially as these were religious in nature. This project seeks to address this gap in the literature by closely analyzing Jesuit identity as it was conceived and performed in the province of New Spain. Utilizing contemporary manuscript and print sources composed by the Jesuits, this thesis explores the ways in which Jesuit priests formed their identity through both internal discourses and external interactions in colonial Mexican society. It accomplishes this through a social and cultural analysis of the Mexican Jesuit community as a whole, while also referring to a comparative case study of an individual Jesuit in the province, namely the Irish-born Padre Miguel Godínez. By examining identity at the level of the individual and the group, this thesis argues that a distinctly Jesuit identity was formed internally through a textual discourse of perfection that required constant negotiation. Externally, Jesuit identity was formed through social interactions with other actors in colonial Mexico, including the indigenous subjects of the Jesuit mission. As missionaries, the Jesuits constructed an identity that prioritized sacramental and pastoral duties within local communities, duties that were simultaneously logistical and spiritual. By providing a clearer view of the colonial Mexican Jesuits as they understood themselves, this study enriches our grasp of transregional early modern phenomena, particularly global Catholicism.
    • Un bilan de la Compétence Symbolique chez les Apprenants du Français Langue Seconde

      Knisely-Southerland, Kris; Gorham, Julia Anne; Price, Joseph; Dupuy, Beatrice (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      La notion de compétence est une idée pour laquelle il existe plusieurs conceptions dans le domaine de l’apprentissage et l’enseignement des langues secondes (L2). Depuis le travail de Chomsky (1965) sur la distinction entre la compétence et la performance, les chercheurs ont été nombreux à formuler de nouvelles définitions de la compétence. On passe, alors de la compétence socioculturelle (Bourdieu, 1991) à la compétence interculturelle (Byram, 1997 ; Deardorff, 2009) et plus récemment à la compétence symbolique (Kramsch, 2006, 2009). Ce dernier concept souligne l’importance de la capacité des étudiants des L2 de reconnaître et de subvertir le pouvoir et la hiérarchie. Plus précisément, il s’agit de « the ability to manipulate symbolic systems, … and to position oneself to one’s benefit in the symbolic power game » ainsi que la capacité de réfléchir sur sa propre position dans le monde. Cette compétence, grâce à son emphase sur le pouvoir et la violence symbolique, est essentielle pour tout étudiant dans cette époque de « nouveau capitalisme » (Cope & Kalantzis, 2009). Il est alors surprenant que, malgré de multiples études précédentes conceptualisant la compétence symbolique au niveau théorique, on constate un manque important d’études examinant le côté pratique de celle-ci dans les cours de L2 et même plus son développement et son évaluation chez les apprenants du français. La littérature existante démontre néanmoins une relation entre la compétence symbolique et l’utilisation d’une approche pédagogique basée sur les littératies multiples et multimodales (Étienne et Vanbaelen, 2017 ; Kearney, 2010). Alors, l’étude présente vise à contribuer aux recherches cruciales sur ce sujet en répondant aux questions suivantes : 1) Est-ce que les étudiants démontrent des indices de la compétence symbolique en visionnant des films francophones, en complétant des questions d’analyse et en maintenant des journaux de réflexion et si oui, lesquels ? et 2) Quelles stratégies cognitives ou réflexionnelles sont utilisées par les étudiants, consciemment ou non, lorsqu’ils démontrent la compétence symbolique, s’ils en utilisent ? Afin de répondre à ces questions, des données ont été recueillies auprès de deux sections d’étudiants (N = 27) inscrits en quatrième semestre de français langue seconde à une grande université publique dans le sud-ouest des États-Unis en automne 2019. Une séquence pédagogique de multilittératies a été créée à partir de trois films francophones – Bienvenue chez les Ch’tis (2007), Bienvenue à Marly-Gomont (2016), et Divines (2016), choisis parce qu’ils abordent les thèmes de la diversité, l’altérité et l’identité. Les données récoltées comprennent des fiches de travail analytiques sur les trois films ainsi que des journaux de réflexion complétés par les étudiants et l’enseignante, des entretiens avec des étudiants consentants après la fin du semestre et des informations démographiques. Pour analyser ces données qualitatives, un processus consistant de trois cycles de codage, ouvert, axial et sélectif, a été adopté. Les résultats suggèrent que la compétence symbolique se manifeste souvent sous la forme des capacités de manipuler des biens symboliques (les émotions et expériences ainsi que les identités et affiliations), de créer de la complexité et d’analyser la forme et moins souvent sous la forme de la tolérance de l’ambiguïté. Ces indices se manifestaient lorsque les participants ont abordé une variété de stratégies largement classables dans trois catégories : les stratégies d’analyse, de réflexion, et d’écriture. Pour résumer, les résultats de cette étude indiquent que la vaste majorité des participants ont démontré au moins certains indicateurs de la compétence symbolique au fil des activités pédagogiques, ce qui suggère que celles-ci ont la capacité d’encourager les habilités supérieures de la pensée.
    • Dans le Corps du Texte : Le Roman Francophone comme Perversion Libératrice (Lectures dans L'œuvre D'abdellah Taia, Leila Silmani et Nelly Arcan)

      Provencher, Denis M.; Rebhi, Salma; Taoua, Phyllis; Mouzet, Aurelia (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Ce présent travail explore la perversion sexuelle dans l’œuvre romanesque d’Abdellah Taïa, de Nelly Arcan et de Leila Slimani. En comparant ces trois œuvres, nous prouvons que l’excès dans la perversion sexuelle des personnages clefs des trois romans Infidèles (2012), Putain (2010) et Dans le jardin de l’ogre peut se lire comme la réflexion de l’excès dans la perversion des sociétés dans lesquelles vivent au quotidien ces auteurs. En d’autres termes, nous prouvons que l’homophobie de la loi pénale et la marginalization des personnes gays au Maroc,la putophobie et la misogynie des milieux socio-culturels au Canada, ainsi que la reclusion et l’aliénation des générations issues de l’immigration maghrébines au sein de la France, bien qu’ils soient des formes différentes d’oppression, engendrent dans l’œuvre des trois écrivain.e.s des figures fictives similaires d’un personnage principale qui vit son corps charnel comme corps-souillure qui se révolte contre l’injustice par une rébellion primordialement sexuelle. Cette rébellion est étudiée en tant qu’apanage romanesque pour une transgression créative à travers de laquelle des auteur.e.s expriment leurs malaises devant la perversite des pays où ils vivent et dont les formes de corruptions politiques et sociales normalisent des tares et désagrègent des droits humains essentiels. This work explores the different manifestations of sexual addiction and erotic perversions in Infidels ( 2012) by Abdellah Taïa, Whore (2001) by Nelly Arcan and Adele (2014) by Leila Slimani. By comparing and contrasting these three novels, we prove that the forms of sexopathy experienced by the main characters are reflections of socio-cultural, political and intellectual perverse forms of oppression endured by these authors while living in their home countries. In other words, we prove that the homophobic judicial system and the marginalization of gay people in the Moroccan society, the putophobia and the misogyny of the intellectual and socio-cultural milieux in Canada, as well as the seclusion and the alienation of generations of French citizens from Maghrebi immigrant background, all contribute to the creation of similar fictitious figures whose excessive masochistic sexual addiction is a rebellious answer to the injustice they live on a daily basis because of their gender identity and/or their ethnic origins. This rebellion is studied as a romantic appanage for a creative transgression through which such authors express their rejection of the perversity of their countries where political and social corruptions normalize violence and marginalia essential human rights.
    • Substrate Composition Effect on Growth of Cotinis Mutabilis Larvae: A Case for Detritivore Scarabs in the Insect Agriculture Industry

      Davidowitz, Goggy; Slagle, Meck L.; Hunter, Martha; Schuch, Ursula; Wheeler, Diana (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Edible insects have great potential in alleviating some of the food insecurities that are increasing globally. Many cultures eat wild-harvested insects which is contributing to declining insect populations and increasingly fragile food webs and ecosystems. Insect agriculture (farming) is a solution to many associated issues with wild harvesting. Insect farming can also help reduce landfill loading with food loss and waste (FLW) which is nearly 33% of all food produced globally. Farming of detritivore insect species, those that can consume decaying organic material including manures, increases the economic and environmental sustainability of the insect agriculture industry. The Green Fig Beetle (Cotinis mutabilis, Scarabaeidae) is a native to the Sonoran Desert in the United States of America and Mexico. This study explored the effects of organic waste diets on the growth and survivorship of the larvae to evaluate if C. mutabilis is a viable and sustainable candidate for insect farming. Scarabs are found globally and have similar life histories; therefore, this study can be used for modeling rearing protocols, especially in arid regions.
    • Natural and Synthetic Oligopyrroles as Chromophores and Electron Reservoirs in Metal Complexes

      Tomat, Elisa; Ghavam, Ameen; Miranda, Katerina; Gianetti, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Oligopyrroles are prevalent throughout nature in a variety of roles, from light-gathering pigments vital to photosynthesis to active sites in enzymes performing complex biochemical modifications. The versatility of oligopyrroles is due largely to their ability to harbor unpaired electrons, which allows them to stabilize multiple redox states independent of their metal cations. Oligopyrroles are “non-innocent” ligands which can undergo reduction and oxidation independent of the metal center. Their structure often forms stable, planar complexes with many metals, and their extended π-conjugation produces lower-energy absorbances in the near-IR – a property of organic materials which is increasingly important for many emerging technologies, including bioimaging and photovoltaic materials. Because of the proven utility of many natural oligopyrroles, many synthetic oligopyrroles and their metal complexes have also been synthesized. The first chapter of this thesis introduces photoacoustic imaging, an emerging bio-imaging technique, and presents the progress we have made towards the synthesis of a sensor molecule which would allow photoacoustic imaging of metals in-vivo. The starting material, methyl pheophorbide-a, is a chlorin pigment which can be extracted from Spirulina maxima, an algae that is widely available as a health supplement. We have established several pathways for modifying methyl pheophorbide-a and have successfully isolated two novel chelating molecules. The second chapter focuses on complexes with the synthetic tripyrrole hexaethyl tripyrrin-1,14-dione. Previous work in our group outlined the chemistry of complexes of tripyrrindione with Pd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II). In all these past complexes, an aqua ligand occupies the fourth coordination site in a square planar geometry. We recently discovered that primary amines can occupy this position in Pd(II) complexes of tripyrrindione. We also discovered a unique interaction between nitriles and Pd(II) tripyrrindione which may be emerging evidence of the catalytic potential of tripyrrindione complexes.
    • PIKFYVE Modulation Mitigates TDP-43-Dependent Disease Phenotypes in a Drosophila Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

      Zarnescu, Daniela C.; Kueth, Chuol; Lybarger, Lonnie; Tax, Frans E. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neuron and marked by progressive muscle weakness. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron death remain unclear. Currently there is no cure for ALS. Therapies fully capable of mitigating complex disease processes are not well developed and greatly needed. So far, three drugs Riluzole, Radicava and recently Terasemtiv, have been approved for ALS, but none of them are very effective. Recently, a small molecule modulator of vesicle trafficking (Apilimod) has been reported to rescue patients motor neuron survival and improve the degree of degeneration in mouse model of ALS based on C9ORF72 mutations. Here, I used a Drosophila model of ALS to test the therapeutic potential of Apilimod and its target, PIKFYVE, in TDP-43 proteinopathy. My results show that PIKFYVE knock down (PIKFYVE RNAi) in motor neurons rescue locomotor dysfunction caused by TDP-43. Consistent with the PIKFYVE knockdown results, Apilimod also rescues TDP-43-dependent locomotor dysfunction. PIKFYVE knockdown was also able to slightly improve lifespan in TDP-43 mutants. These findings confirm that PIKFYVE may provide a useful, albeit limited therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy.
    • Efficacy of Natural Extracts Against Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Causing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Pacific White Shrimp Penaeus Vannamei

      Dhar, Arun K.; Kaneshamoorthy, Sukanniya; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Limesand, Sean W. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Over the past decade, shrimp industry has experienced billions of dollars of losses due to Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), and AHPND is now posing a threat to the sustainability of shrimp industry worldwide. The disease is caused by Vibrio spp which carries a plasmid containing two toxin genes, PirA and PirB. Although AHPND is a bacterial disease, antibiotic-based therapy is not feasible due to the potential for development and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, environmental issues, and rejection of consignment of commodity shrimp by many importing countries in Europe and North America for antibiotic residues. This study aimed to evaluate plant-derived extracts as potential therapeutics in controlling AHPND. The overall goal of the project is to enhance shrimp production through control of AHPND by delivering natural extracts (NEs) via feeds. The antibacterial activities of twenty-three NEs (NE01-NE023) were initially screened against Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing AHPND using a paper disk diffusion assay. Five (NE01 to NE05) out of 23 extracts showing anti-AHPND activity comparable to a commercial antibiotic, Doxycycline Hyclate were taken for further screening. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that NE01, NE02, NE03, NE04, and NE05 were effective at 0.15%, 0.15%, 0.075%, 0.04%, and 0.02% concentrations (expressed as v/v%), respectively. Subsequently NMR spectroscopic analyses were performed to determine the purity of these five extracts. While NE05 showed 100% purity, other NEs were found to have varying levels of impurities. Scanning electron micrographs of V. parahaemolyticus cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentration of five candidate natural extracts, NE01 to NE05 revealed that all five NEs arrested cell growth and displayed clumping of cells. In addition, cells treated with extracts NE03, NE04 and NE05 showed leaking of cell content. This suggests all five NEs have anti-bacterial properties. The natural extract, NE05 that showed the highest inhibition against V. parahaemolyticus in in vitro assays and had the highest level of purity was subsequently taken to evaluate the efficacy in controlling AHPND in in vivo experimental challenge using Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Following an immersion challenge, the survival was found to be significantly higher in shrimp fed with a commercial diet containing NE05 at a 20% incorporation level (93% survival) compared to shrimp fed with the same diet containing 10% of NE05 (15% survival) or the commercial diet alone (3% survival). Shrimp raised on diet containing 20% NE05 neither displayed any clinical signs nor they developed any histopathological lesions in hepatopancreas that are hallmarks of AHPND infection. However, the animals raised on a diet containing 10% NE05 or a commercial diet developed clinical signs upon AHPND challenge and showed pathognomonic lesions of AHPND infection in hepatopancreas tissue. The data showed that NEs such as NE05 could be used as a potential therapeutic at 20% incorporation level in diets for controlling AHPND in shrimp. The feasibility of administering NE05 through oral route opens an opportunity for developing a NE-based therapy against AHPND.
    • Can the Post-Soviet Subaltern Speak? Silence, Women Emancipation and Postcolonial Discourse in Guzel Iakhina's Zuleikha Otkryvaet Glaza

      Lucey, Colleen; Shvyrkov, Alexey; Weiner, Douglas; Jens, Benjamin; Caffee, Naomi (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      In 2015 the first book of a young Tatar writer Guzel' Iakhina Zuleikha otkryvaet glaza received two main Russian literary awards: “Bol'shaia kniga” and “Iasnaia poliana.” Her novel depicts the process of dekulakization, mass deportations and life in a labor camp under Stalin. Success of the book was not limited to Russia as it was translated into eighteen languages. Through the analysis of the subalterns in the novel, I am aiming to deconstruct contemporary Russian (neo)orientalism to argue that the postcolonial discourse is constructed for them and not by them. Firstly, relying on Alexander Etkind’s framework of “internal colonization,” Michael Foucault's analysis of power, knowledge and “silence as a discourse;” Gayatri Spivak and Edward Said’s postcolonial critique I will argue that Iakhina’s characters are internally appropriate colonizer’s discourse that is exemplified and communicated through three forms of “silence:” Zuleikha’s reticent silence, Ignatov’s silence of memories and Professor Leibe’s Chekhovian-like silence. Secondly, constructed in terms of binary oppositions, counter-history told by Zuleikha au contraire to the dominant discourse is, in reality, conveying a colonizer’s rhetoric. The hybrid story of her emancipation is told in terms of creating a New Soviet Woman, who had to adopt “masculine” qualities to be able to work and fight, at the same time preserving “feminine” traits necessary for duties at home. This story is constructed through binary oppositions of colonizer/colonized, civilized/primitive, advanced/backward, where life in the camp is contrasted to a traditional Tatar way of life. Subjugation to the colonial rhetoric further perpetuates the existing dominant discourse of the exceptionality of the Soviet past in terms of its civilizing attempts. Thus, reproducing the same patterns of thought and behavior towards the ethnic minorities in contemporary Russia.
    • Expression of Femininity through The Rusalka (Mermaid) Figure in Russian Cinema of the Twenty First Century: Patriarchal Norms and Feminist Responses

      Lucey, Colleen M.; Potapova, Irina Alexandrovna; Gordiienko, Anastasiia; Bernheimer, Kate (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      “I don’t believe in the betrothed one!” says Polina, one of the characters in Sviatoslav Podgaevskii’s horror film The Mermaid: Lake of the Dead (2018). The phrase may be shocking and troubling to the majority of Russian women, who grew up reading the tales about Ivanushka Tsarevich (Ivan the Prince). Fairy tales, according to some feminists, educate women to be passive, submissive and wait for their princes to rescue them from misery. However, some folkloric female personages disrupt patriarchal norms. One such character is the Slavic rusalka (mermaid). A charming culprit, she is notorious for her ability to seduce as well as to kill. Within sexualized, misogynistic frameworks, the alluring and unrestrained rusalka becomes a demon. Nevertheless, in the twenty-first century, the rusalka figure garners an alternative reading. From the perspective of Russian women directors, she is a secure, creative, independent woman and a subject of her definition, rather than an object of male conditioning. The current thesis analyzes the multiplex rusalka character through an interdisciplinary lens, and then examines the purpose of the rusalka figure in three contemporary Russian films. The analysis shows the connection between the rusalka and the mermaid, which supports the theory of the rusalka as a hypersexualized object for male satisfaction. Secondly, folkloric studies reveal the rusalka's uniqueness, which adds to the purposes of the character. The study of the three movies shows that the horror movie, filmed by a male director, invariably presents the rusalka as a vamp figure, or as a socially constructed other, while the films by the female directors attempt to show alternative femininities through the rusalka figure.
    • Discerning the Determinants of Ethnic Repression in the Former Soviet Union

      Willerton, John P.; Hodgin, David Tyler; Lucey, Colleen; Jens, Benjamin (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The collapse of the Soviet Union brought undeniably drastic changes to the stability of the ethnic landscape across the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Consequently, in the effort to establish new national ideas, FSU states have largely promulgated policy centered around the promotion of the state's historical ethnic group. As a result, states have begun to repress ethnic groups under various pretexts. The onset of state sponsored ethnic repression has been relatively ignored in modern conflict scholarship. Accordingly, this project constructs a theoretical framework to analyze the determinants and consequences of repressing ethnic-Russians repression in post-Soviet Kazakhstan, Latvia, Estonia, and Ukraine. The ethnic make-up, strength of democratic institutions, and human rights track records of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) states provide preliminary evidence as to how the treatment of ethnic-Russians has evolved over the last thirty years. Current findings suggest, that even strong democratic institutions in the FSU may not protect ethnic groups from experiencing violations of physical integrity rights or linguistic and cultural repression. Additionally, the FSU states inability to reconcile their Soviet era grievances has led to the development of anti-Russian sentiments embedded into their national ideas.
    • The Mind of a Mathematician: Evgenii Zamiatin's We

      Lucey, Colleen; Durst, Helen; Weiner, Douglas; McGraw, Rebecca (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Evgenii Zamiatin’s novel We has been read as a criticism of Bolshevism and an indictment of rationalism. More specifically, Zamiatin’s use of mathematics as a metaphor for rationalism has been accepted as a warning against the intrinsic nature of science and mathematics to be used as tools of oppression. This thesis argues that the true target of Zamiatin’s criticism in the novel We is the pernicious effects of entropy and dogmatism. A close reading of Zamiatin’s personal essays in the original Russian are used to elucidate Zamiatin’s message in the novel We, which rather than impugning science and mathematics as being intrinsically predisposed to use in oppression, instead celebrates the understanding of the creative force of science and mathematics. An affirmation of science and mathematics which is to be expected from a naval engineer and mathematician of Zamiatin’s caliber.
    • Individual Differences in Vigilant Behavior, Attention Bias to Emotions, and Cardiovascular Correlates

      Ruiz, John M.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Jovel, Krystal Shannon; Croft, Alyssa S. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Social vigilance refers to the process of monitoring one’s social environment for potential threats or monitoring a threat to determine a change in status that may require coping. Vigilance itself may be an outcome of attentional bias for ambiguous and negative social cues. Recent work has examined the effects of vigilant behavior on cardiovascular reactivity as a potential health-moderating pathway; however, a connection between attention bias and vigilance has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between individual differences in social vigilance, attention bias for negative social cues, and cardiovascular reactivity. A diverse sample of 96 young adults (55 women) completed an observational laboratory study involving a baseline followed by an attention bias dot-probe task and later a 5-min video observation period. Participants were selected based on outer tertile scores on the social vigilance questionnaire to represent high and low individual differences in social vigilance. An incentive condition was created by informing half the participants that their $5 payment is contingent on their performance in the attention bias task (high incentive) while half are told they will receive payment regardless of performance (low incentive). Thus, the study is a 2 (high, low vigilance) X 2 (Female, male gender) X 2 (high, low incentive) experimental design. The attention bias task is a 15-minute program wherein reaction times to a standardized set of emotional faces is performed. A Tobii eye tracker is used to quantify gaze time, with impedance cardiography and a GE Carescape BP monitor used to assess cardiovascular reactivity throughout the study. Separately, the NH H-Probe(S) type was found to have a decrease in reaction time by 2.3/ms of those in the high incentive condition, t(935) = -2.01, p<0.05. Individuals in the high-incentive group, told they were to receive $5 dollars had a decrease in reaction time when presented with a happy stimulus. Incentive type and SVQ did not interact to predict reaction time to any stimulus valence-types. There was no interaction between incentive, SVQ, or stimulus valence. Social Vigilance did however predict a lowering of reaction time, quicker responses, for vigilance towards threat equations by 4.408/ms, t(1066)=-2.072, p<.04. A significant interaction between incentive type, vigilance, and gender was discovered F(1,65) = 7.99, p< 0.01 for systolic blood pressure during the task. During rest, a significant main effect of vigilance on systolic blood pressure arose at F(1,61)=5.221, p<0.05. Contributions to the understanding of vigilance as a consequent behavior from attention bias and as a moderating factor of stress effects on cardiovascular reactivity are discussed.