• Liberation: The Story of a French Daily

      Herrera Cruz, Ignacio (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • A Comparative Study of Broadcast and Print Coverage in Three Criminal Cases

      Hudson, Lisa Rae (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • ¡La Puebla Lucha! LGBTI Activism and Organizing against Violence in El Salvador

      Green, Linda B.; Gardella, Annalise; Pieper Mooney, Jadwiga; Bacelar da Silva, Antonio (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) people in El Salvador face some of the highest rates of violence in the world. The modalities of violence impacting the LGBTI population span across many levels, including physical, economic, structural, and symbolic, and intersections of identity like gender, race, sexuality, and class within the population determine people’s proximity to and risk for violence. In response, local organizations, some with international ties and others working independently on a small-scale are attempting to organize the LGBTI population into a community that can work to redress this violence through community-building and support structures as well as make visible the oppression the community faces at a public and legislative level. This thesis outlines the historical formation of the Salvadoran LGBTI movement beginning in the 1980s through the present day, focusing on coalition-building and historical moments of unity that have led to the creation of a national Federación Salvadoreña LGBTI, or a federation of LGBTI organizations, to combat the most important issues facing the Salvadoran LGTBI population currently. Through an analysis of interviews and participant observation, this thesis examines the numerous and interconnected iterations of oppression and violence facing the Salvadoran LGBTI community and consequently explores the ways in which organizations and activists are strategically responding to the violence that devastates their community.
    • Computational Exploration of the Cislunar Region and Implications for Debris Mitigation

      Rosengren, Aaron J.; Namazyfard, Hossein; Amato, Davide; Joerger, Mathieu (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      For the investigation of the Earth's magnetosphere and the interplanetary space outside of it, satellites with orbits of large semi-major axis and large eccentricity are often used. While end-of-life (EOL) disposal options are well established for missions in low-Earth orbits (atmospheric decay) and the geosynchronous belt (near circular graveyard orbits), existing mitigation guidelines do not fully regulate the whole, useable circumterrestrial orbital space, such as these highly eccentric orbits (HEO) science missions; e.g., NASA's Eccentric Geophysical Observatory (EGO) and ESA's INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). The collision risks posed by these LEO-GEO transiting spacecrafts has motivated both theoretical study and practical implementation of disposal options. The solution to the space debris problem, from LEO to GEO, can only be found by coupling a deep understanding of the circumterrestrial phase space with satellite mission analysis and design. For future missions, the EOL options have to be clearly identified in the early stages of mission design, taking into account orbital interactions and environmental evolution. This more holistic approach parallels that of ESA's Clean Space initiative, fostering innovative techniques and tools in orbital dynamics to novel spacecraft design to reduce both the space industry's environmental impact and mission costs. We emphasize here the new paradigm of the self-removal of satellites through dynamical instabilities caused by natural perturbation resonances (passive disposal) in the Earth-Moon-Sun system and discuss how lifetime estimates can be incorporated into launch window constraints to ensure the timely demise of satellites. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the satellite during the mission design phase will ensure that the missions develop predictably over both nominal and possibly extended timespans (without the need to make future significant orbital adjustments). Such dynamical assessments could have a profound and tangible influence on mission design, perhaps attacking the debris problem at its source. For the analysis of already orbiting satellites in this region, accurate orbit predictions are crucial to understanding the long-term dynamics of the satellite. Considering the chronic and significant lack of publicly available ``actionable'' observation data, researchers are generally forced to work with Two-Line-Elements (TLEs) as ``pseudo'' observations for orbit modeling and prediction. There have been many interesting approaches to the TLE-based-prediction problem over the past decade. Propagation based on these TLE-orbit-estimation methods have been carried out over month timespans at best; however, reasonably accurate orbit predictions based on TLEs over decadal timespans is unprecedented, especially for objects that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. To this end, we apply a new dynamically-inclined route to orbit prediction based on TLEs to obtain a statistically accurate initial conditions for orbit propagation of resonant orbits on decadal timespans.
    • An 8 Channel Imager/Polarimeter for Astronomical Observations

      Hart, Michael; Taylor, Brian William; Chipman, Russell; Guyon, Olivier (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Discussion of optical designs and instrument polarization for an Eight Channel Imager/Po- larimeter are presented. The designs will cover the optical and Near Infrared(NIR) wavelengths from 330nm to 2400nm in a simultaneous acquisition mode for eight distinct broad bands. The simultaneous acquisition provides capabilities to study unique events such as supernovae, Gamma Ray Bursts(GRBs), and occultations. It also increases the efficiency of long term monitoring pro- grams such as the study of blazars. The selection of the wavelength bands were specifically chosen to match the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(u′, g′, r′, i′,z′) and the 2MASS(J,H,K) catalogs.
    • HCMV Manipulation of Host Cholesteryl Ester Metabolism

      Goodrum, Felicia; Dahlmann, Elizabeth Alan; Purdy, John; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Marty, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a β-herpesvirus that infects over 50% of people above the age of 40. Once infected, HCMV establishes a lifelong latent infection with periodic reactivation. Most infections are asymptomatic. However, infection in immunocompromised patients may result in fatal HCMV-related complications. Further, congenitally-acquired HCMV infection is the leading cause of birth defects in the United States. The HCMV virion contains a large double-stranded DNA genome encapsidated by a protein shell that is surrounded by a lipid membrane. Like all enveloped viruses, HCMV steals host lipids to generate its envelope membrane. While previous studies demonstrate that HCMV replication requires lipid metabolism, the details of virally-induced lipid changes remain poorly defined. We performed an untargeted lipidomic screen using liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantitatively measure how infection alters the lipidome of cells. We found that HCMV increases cholesteryl esters (CE) by 24 hours post infection. CE lipids are synthesized by sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) attaching a fatty acyl-CoA to a cholesterol molecule. I hypothesized that early stages of HCMV replication induce CE biosynthesis and that CE are required for viral replication. In support of our hypothesis, we found HCMV induces SOAT1 gene expression. Further, HCMV immediate early pUL37x1 is partially responsible for virally-induced CE accumulation. We found that treating infected cells with a SOAT1 inhibitor blocked CE production and infection. Overall, our findings suggest that HCMV induces CE synthesis that can be targeted to block infection.
    • Matrix Matters: Biomarker Potentials of Phagocytes, Exosomes, and Cytokines

      Ahmad, Nafees; Buckley, Maverick J.; Ahmad, Nafees; Wesselhoft, Marie; Nayak, Ramesh; Wertheimer, Anne; Lybarger, Lonnie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Overview: The Applied Biosciences Professional Science Masters (ABS-PSM) program at the University of Arizona prepares students in the fields of biological science to enter areas of business and scientific competition. This interdisciplinary course of study involves the completion of an internship wherein students demonstrate scientific inquiry in the context of the goals and economic pursuits of the hosting agency. Students are required to convey how their projects contribute to the ambitions of the company or academic institution as well as to the larger scientific field. In this report, two internship projects completed to fulfill this requirement for the ABS-PSM degree will be described. Biomedical research and diagnostics rely heavily on the use of biomarkers for drug discovery and disease management. Biomarkers are “characteristics that are objectively measured and evaluated as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to therapeutic interventions,” as defined by the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Definitions Working Group (2001). Drug development and many facets of clinical diagnostics involve the measurement of a combination of biomarkers to evaluate the status of disease in an individual or their physiological changes following some treatment. In contrast to symptoms, biomarkers are not perceived by the patient but rather are observed from outside the patient (Strimbu & Tavel, 2010). The most well-studied biomarkers, such as troponin for the assessment of cardiac injury (Babuin & Jaffe, 2005), are applied regularly in predicting the incidence or outcome of a disease. This use of biomarkers as clinically meaningful surrogate endpoints is entirely justifiable, but only when such a characteristic has extensively and repeatedly proven predictive of outcome (Strimbu & Tavel, 2010). Additionally, the most logical biomarkers are those directly involved in the pathophysiology of a certain pathway, enabling more accurate interpretations of an individual’s disease status to be made. The evaluation of a biomarker’s potential is challenged by the way in which it is measured. Biological samples are wide in variety, and, aside from ensuring the marker is present in the medium at all, determining what sample type is most compatible with existing instruments and what is most associated with a disease or anatomic site is a complex task. Cardiac troponin, for example, is measured in a peripheral blood sample to assess heart damage. The correlation of this enzyme’s concentration in the blood with heart muscle damage makes it a valuable disease indicator because the enzyme is produced in cardiac tissue and immediately released into the circulation (Antman et al., 1996). Neurodegenerative disease markers are markedly complicated because their presence in conventional fluid samples may not be accurately representative of concentrations in the brain. MSDx, Inc. (Tucson, AZ), a company that develops diagnostic solutions for neurodegenerative diseases, has identified phagocytes as a suitable source of biomarkers for this purpose. These cells naturally concentrate and carry remnants of disease pathology through phagocytosis, thereby preserving intact markers of neurodegeneration from the potentially degradative extracellular environment that can be quantified in a blood sample. In comparing this approach to conventional fluid analyses, the first chapter in this report describes a literature review performed on various potential neurodegenerative disease biomarkers and their alterations relative to controls by sample matrix. A second aspect of this project that will be discussed was an exploration of entities involved in the research of exosomes, a type of extracellular microvesicle capable of carrying proteins between cells. Cytokine concentrations in the blood also change during various disease processes such as inflammation, making them attractive potential biomarkers. Their use, though, is hindered by variation in normal levels from person to person and an uncertainty as to the optimal sample matrix in which to quantify them. For biomarkers to be identified among cytokines, it is essential to first determine what constitutes “normal” levels of a selection of pathologically relevant cytokines, whether serum or plasma samples should be used, and what collection and processing practices such as anticoagulant should be employed. This is the overarching goal of a group at the University of Arizona BIO5 Institute whose small pilot study will be the focus of the second chapter of this report. The study involved recruiting a cohort of self-identified healthy adult volunteers at specific time intervals and obtaining blood samples for quantifying their cytokines using a commercial multiplex Luminex-based assay. An abbreviated preliminary analysis of the results was then conducted, which concerned the levels of cytokines obtained at different time points and in different sample matrices, supporting a brief evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks of using certain anticoagulants and preparation strategies over others. Both projects produced exciting findings related to biomarker discovery and measurement. Based on my review, phagocytes seem to be largely ignored in neurodegeneration research, yet represent a promising medium in that they avoid many of the drawbacks associated with measuring central nervous system components outside the brain; as well, they did not appear to be studied elsewhere beyond MSDx nor their potential to carry important biomarkers dismissed. On the other hand, exosomes have been shown to be increasingly studied in neurology with broad potential, but important challenges mostly related to their small size remain. Cytokines, in contrast to such biomarker cargo carriers, are information couriers that may also have biomarker potential. These intercellular messengers mediate inflammatory processes but are in constant production at different degrees depending on one’s immunologic and overall health status. Determining what is normal must first be established and is a major challenge since cytokine levels vary by individual, even in an uninfected state. To advance this process, plasma collected with EDTA as an anticoagulant may be optimal, though serum is attractive due to its widespread use and would help make comparisons with the majority of other cytokine studies possible. Despite its invaluable capability to simultaneously measure multiple cytokines in a single sample, the bead-based assay also has its weaknesses that may be related to the matrix type or antibodies being used. Thus, determining the most appropriate method for sample retrieval, reliable measurement of the marker of interest, and establishment of reference values for novel biomarkers appear to be the most pressing challenges associated with the goals described here.
    • Upstream Regulators of TORC1 Signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

      Capaldi, Andrew; Vaishampayan, Prajakta; Capaldi, Andrew; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Paek, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Many nutrients including glucose, phosphate and amino acids regulate TORC1 activity and when the cells are in stress or starvation conditions, TORC1 activity is inhibited. It remains unclear how this happens. So, we are interested in mapping the signaling system that talks to TORC1 to ultimately understand how the complex integrates signals to control growth in stress conditions. In this project, the response of TORC1 under nitrogen, glucose and phosphate starvation conditions was checked in strains lacking one or more stress signaling pathway proteins to identify the mechanism which leads to inhibition of TORC1 in stress conditions.
    • Tribes, Water, and Economic Characteristics of the Western United States

      Colby, Bonnie; Young, Ryan Michael Coatsworth; Thompson, Gary; Scheitrum, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Native American tribes in the Western United States experience persistent socio-economic challenges that impede economic development and improved standards of living within their communities. In this study, U.S. Census Bureau data on tribes is linked with additional data sources to perform econometric analyses to better understand how “tribal presence” explains economic well-being. This study finds, as expected, that “Tribal Presence” (created from percent of tribal land and percent of Native American population ) has a significant negative relationship with Per Capita Income at census tract and county spatial scales. Consistent with the findings on income, the Tribal Presence variable has a significant negative relationship with Percent Families Above Poverty. Variables for education, internet access, urban population, and climate were also significant determinants for income and family poverty. The climate variable results were interesting as they infer that the more unusually dry or wet it is, the more income and more poverty there is. Further analysis of counties with “tribal presence” was conducted to better understand how counties with tribes who have quantified water rights compare to counties with tribes who have yet to quantify water rights.
    • L'Usage de Ressources Technologiques dans l'apprentissage du Français au Ghana

      Price, Joseph E.; Fianoo-Vidza, Etornam; Hellmich, Emily; Knisely-Southerland, Kris (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Given technological advancements, studies (Knisely 2018 ; Pun, 2013 ; Mitchell, 2012 ; Clark & Gruba, 2010, Cetto, 2008 ; Furstenberg et al., 2001) show the great potential of technological resources in the optimization of the language-learning experience. This said, this project attempts to find out whether technological resources are exploited and optimized in tertiary institutions for the learning of French in Ghana. In the Ghanaian context, French is an important foreign language due to its membership in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS, a community dominated by francophone countries) and the fact that its neighboring countries are all francophone. Owing to this, French is a subject taught at almost all the levels of education in the country, although it is compulsory only at certain levels. However, some factors hinder the teaching and learning of French in Ghana. Considering the status of French and the factors that militates against its teaching and learning, our first aim is to find out whether French learners are aware of the technological resources that are available for enhancing their language learning. Secondly, we would like to find out what kind of technological resources they use, how they use them and finally, whether courses are structured to integrate technology. In order to get answers to these crucial questions, French students from all levels in the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Ghana Institute of Languages were asked to take an online survey. The thirty-two questions asked on the survey are related to materials used for French instruction in their institution, the kind of technological devices they own, their awareness and use of technological resources for French learning as well as the type of resources they would want their lecturers to include in the teaching of French. The result of our study shows that Ghanaian students who are aware of technological resources constitute the majority (N = 146, 73.36%) of students. The results also show that students use their Smartphones (N = 186, 77.17%) and the internet (N = 193, 93.24%) in their learning of French. Furthermore, the results show that they use these resources in fun ways such as listening to French music, listening to French audios, watching French films. Finally, the results indicate that lecturers integrate technological resources with audiovisuals (N = 190, 65.51%) being the most used and the internet (N = 103, 35.51%). being relatively less used. Based on the results of this survey and acknowledging that the restructuring of French programs could be a gradual process, we suggest that lecturers should integrate different technological resources in a coherent way in their teaching in order to make French teaching interesting, fun, attractive, varied and efficient for Ghanaian learners.
    • Condensed Chaos

      Zielinski, Angela; Dahlke, Ashley; Vaden, Cerese; Zielinski, Angela; Bradford, Carlton; Moore, Sarah; Leslie, Kelly (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The relationship we have with objects is one that is often quite complex. Things that we own can bring us feelings of joy, nostalgia, comfort, melancholy, and can become burdensome. Objects that we choose to surround ourselves with gives insight into who we are and can become portals to our past experiences and memories. Condensed Chaos looks at objects found in thrift stores and resale shops and how their proximity to other objects creates a range of narratives about who the previous owners were and what the life of the object once was.
    • Late Helladic Emulation: An Analysis of Palatial and Domestic Architecture and Construction Techniques in Mycenaean Greece

      Schon, Robert; Fricker, Laurel; Voyatzis, Mary E.; Romano, David G. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In this thesis, I investigate to what extent the architecture and constructions at the Mycenaean palaces are emulated at non-palatial sites, using methods and theories involving emulation, the power of architecture, and peer-polity interaction. I first compare the Palace at Mycenae with the Panagia Houses at Mycenae, houses at Korakou, and houses at Asine, to examine how distance from the palace and the time period affects the construction of houses in the Argolid and the Corinthia. Then I compare the Palace of Nestor at Pylos with Nichoria to see how distance, geographical boundaries, and site status affect the construction of houses in Messenia. A building is a statement, having the ability to form and communicate personal identities and communities, indicate social associations, highlight political organizations, and provide details for understanding aspects of life. Further, architecture can influence how people view their society and their community; the central unit (including the megaron hall with its hearth and columns) of the Mycenaean palaces, constructed on the monumental palatial scale, became a statement of power. The status of these constructions would have made them perfect candidates for locals at periphery sites attempting to emulate the authority of the palaces in LH III Greece. However, the dates of construction of the palaces and the residential structures, locally available materials, previous traditions of construction, and geographical boundaries all could have affected how much emulation was possible in LH IIIA-B Greece.
    • Among The Arboreal: Herman Van Swanevelt, Trees, and the Early Modern Landscape

      Cuneo, Pia F.; Widdifield, Stacie; Marquis, Jonathan; Moore, Sarah J.; Busbea, Larry (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The lifeworlds of humans and trees entangle in an ecology of relations to give shape to early seventeenth-century developments in landscape painting. Yet, trees are given little academic consideration, in favor of broad, ahistorical frameworks like the pastoral and sublime, even though the gnarled forms of trees dominate the earliest instances of the landscape genre. This thesis considers an arboreal-turn toward art history and examines early modern trees from a post-human, new materialism, and somatic perspective to shed light as to why trees are so profuse at a formative moment in the development of autonomous landscape pictures. Trees are dynamic sites of encounter and exchange in the landscape, whose meaning takes form through a range of disciplines and bodily activities that include labor, leisure, walking, contemplation and drawing. According to Tim Ingold, it is only after this mutually generative exchange does one get to thinking about the landscape. The landscape, it must be remembered, is inhabited before it is painted, and inhabitation, at its root, is a sensorial and somatic process unfolding within a landscape. Nicknamed the “Hermit” for his predilection to solitary wanderings near Rome, Herman van Swanevelt (1604-1655) is remembered for being one of the first to render specific atmospheric conditions of light, free of the religious subject matter that long defined the genre. However, trees dominate Swanevelt’s entire oeuvre. A close examination of Swanevelt’s etching View of the Palatine in Rome reveals the therapeutic efficacy of early modern arboreal landscapes, enacted through the activities of the print’s figures.
    • Boom: Latinos, the Modern Pioneers

      González de Bustamante, Celeste; Lanuza, April; Relly, Jeannine; Duncan, Daniel; Newton, Kim (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Latino dispersion is changing communities around the United States. Latinos are moving to and living in ‘non-traditional’ places around the country. The demographics of predominantly white, rural cities and states are changing. According to a PEW Research Study, Williams County, North Dakota, led the nation in Latino population growth from 2007 to 2014. For my thesis I visit Williston, the largest city in Williams County, to produce a documentary about the city’s growing Latino population in a post oil boom society. Williston suddenly had a surge in Latinos from 2007 to 2014 because of an oil boom and the increase in jobs that ensued afterwards. According to the US census of North Dakota (Cicha, 2015), as of 2015, every county in the state has a Latino population. Twenty-three percent indicated they were born in-state, sixty-one percent born out of state and sixteen-percent born outside of the country. However, even with the stabilization of the oil boom, a Latino community remains. The objective of my thesis is to investigate this shift in Latino migration and examine the networks that have been built as a result. Through the eyes of several Latinos in Williston, I have produced a documentary detailing their experiences in this city. Other people in the community give their perspectives about what the community is like and what is or isn’t supporting this new Latino population. As Latinos move away from ‘traditional’ places such as Miami and Los Angeles, rural, smaller, Anglo-American dominated communities are seeing an increase in native Spanish speakers that they had not seen before, thus influencing community dynamics. Using ethnographic research and the conceptual framework of moral geography, I will examine how the community perceives this new population. Keywords: Immigrant, Networks, North Dakota, Williams County, Hispanic, Latino/a, community, oil boom, Williston, moral geography
    • Waiving Nepa to Build A Border Wall: From Conflict to Collaboration on the Arizona-Mexico Border between 1990 And 2017

      López-Hoffman, Laura; Rodriguez-McGoffin, Mariana Sofia; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Marsh, Stuart (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Signed in 1969, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the cornerstone of US environmental law. It requires the government to complete an environmental review for every planned action that may have a significant impact on the environment. It also requires extensive public input. Thus, NEPA enables citizens to participate in environmental decision-making. But, in 2005, Congress passed a law—called the REAL ID Act—that gave the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees the Border Patrol, the right to waive NEPA for any action taken along the border. This essentially cut border communities off from the ability to influence Border Patrol decisions. Subsequently, the Border Patrol built a network of communication towers linked by 550 miles of barriers and roads without formally consulting the public. Despite popular perceptions that the Border Patrol has overlooked environmental concerns, in one instance the Border Patrol provided funding to the Fish and Wildlife Service to build a fish barrier to prevent invasive species from entering the San Bernardino Wildlife Refuge. This action helped protect the most ecologically intact watershed, and the only undammed watershed, in the whole southwestern United States. And yet, because of the absence of NEPA, which would have required informing the public, no one seems to know about this and other steps the Border Patrol has taken to mitigate environmental damages. This study highlights some of the ways in which NEPA enhances cooperation between agencies, strengthens accountability mechanisms and facilitates public participation.
    • Simulating Crack Initiation and Propagation in Ceramic Matrix Composites using Peridynamics

      Madenci, Erdogan; MITTS, CODY AARON; Missoum, Samy; Naboulsi, Samir (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This study uses Peridynamics (PD) to predict the crack propagation in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). This investigation employs both the strong and weak form of the PD equations of motion. The solution approach based on the strong form of PD was applied to three-dimensional models. The weak form was developed to apply natural and essential boundary conditions. It was subsequently applied to axisymmetric problems. Both solution methods were executed using a high-performance computer to simulate the damage propagation of a CMC. For both approaches the results indicate that the critical stress ratio and fracture energy ratio between the coating and matrix have a strong influence on crack deflection in a CMC. Also, it was observed that the smaller these ratios are the earlier the crack deflection in the coating occurs.
    • Designing Citizen Science for Environmental Health Justice

      Buxner, Sanlyn; Davis, Leona F.; Ramirez, Monica D.; Johnson, Bruce (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Citizen science (CS) has become increasingly popular as a method of collecting data, and participants in CS projects have been shown to gain knowledge and self-efficacy to effectively address community issues through participation. However, a participation gap exists as volunteers in CS projects are overwhelmingly college educated, affluent, and white. Acknowledging the potential benefits of CS participation to understand and address environmental health risk, how can researchers design projects to invite and engage diverse participants? A mixed methods approach is used here to analyze 1) Environmental health literacy in participants of participatory environmental health trainings, and 2) Motivation, support, and barriers to participation in an environmental health CS project. This research involves 53 training participants, 127 CS project participants, and 7 promotoras in five Arizona communities with documented environmental contamination, who participated in the co-created CS program Project Harvest. Over half of these participants are “low-income” or below, over half are people of color (predominantly Latino/Hispanic), and over half do not have a college degree. Findings suggest the following as effective criteria for promoting participation and learning of diverse citizen scientists: 1) Relevant research questions, 2) Appropriate communication methods, 3) Adaptive and contextual project design, and 4) Balancing flexibility and relationship-building at all levels of the project. Finally, the concept of designing participatory CS for participants to function as a community of practice is discussed as a novel conception of building a supportive culture for learning and action within an environmental health justice context.
    • Truncated Specters, Managed Affects: Alternative Tourism to Historic Palestine

      Nassar, Maha; Feldman, Neal; Hudson, Leila; Günel, Gökçe (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Tourism in its political and social forms has always been an affective, embodied experience. These affective experiences have occurred in tourism to historic Palestine, both in the colonial context and in decolonial resistance. Recently, “alternative tours” to historic Palestine have become affective, embodied experiences that explicate the politics of the region from the perspective of Palestinians. Given the political nature of “alternative tours,” Palestinian and Israeli tour guides find themselves managing the affects and feelings of the tourist to whom they impart their narrative, both reifying and critiquing liberal discourses that prioritize the comfort of privileged groups, at the expense of the marginalized. In my second chapter, I explain some of these affective techniques. Later in my two subsequent chapters, I describe three objects of analysis through which Palestinian and Israeli tour guides modulate the affects of their tourists, in order to provide them a controlled, truncated, and safe experience. Such an experience imparts a taste of the constant affective, sensory, and tactile elements of the occupation wielded against Palestinians, but upon tourists primarily from the Western world. These controlled affects are meant to attempt to jolt Western tourists into action, inspired by their emotional experiences. I take up each of these three themes based on ethnographic work on one four-day tour package with the company Green Olive Tours (GOT); I explain how the discourses that tour guides use become affective. First, I describe how Ido’s tour of Jerusalem problematizes the affect of the notion that Israel is in a two-sided conflict with Palestinians. Second, I show how Yaqoub and Muhannad make Bethlehem and Hebron into an experience of “gazing back” affectively at oppressive technologies of surveillance. Finally, I argue that two sites in Nablus force tourists to feel haunting of ancestors with regard to temporality, and take their shock with them after the tour. These are fundamentally affective strategies of alternative tourism.
    • Wrong Side Of The Tracks: Transportation Systems And Exclusionary Urban Planning In Tucson

      Steptoe, Tyina; Adams, Jaynie Elizabeth; Hemphill, Katie; Brescia, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Tracks for the Southern Pacific railroad through Tucson were completed in 1880, and solidified segregation housing patterns and the political and economic dispossession of Tucson’s minority communities. This thesis argues that growing numbers of Anglo settlers of Tucson used the placement of the railroad tracks as a form of urban planning to separate themselves from Tucson’s barrio. While the barrio tended to be predominantly Mexican in demographic composition, this thesis also calls for a deeper look into barrio life. It examines the ways in which exclusionary urban planning brought on by the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks effected Native, black, and Chinese Tucsonans. Vignettes of both prominent and understudied Tucsonans are interwoven with details about community development and railroad construction to draw connections between people’s lived experience and the movements of local, state, federal, and colonial governments. Ultimately, the placement of the railroad tracks would act as the ceiling for Mexican Tucson’s development and would legitimize continued dispossession of Tucson’s minority communities.