• A Comparative Study of Broadcast and Print Coverage in Three Criminal Cases

      Hudson, Lisa Rae (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • Liberation: The Story of a French Daily

      Herrera Cruz, Ignacio (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • Reverse Engineering of Ancient Ceramic Technologies from Southeast Asia and South China

      Kivi, Nicholas (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Ceramic technologies of Myanmar and South China were analyzed in order to determine characteristic traits and technological origins. Given Myanmar’s geographically strategic position between China and Southwest Asia, its ceramic history needs to be reevaluated among the distinct traditions of Southeast Asia. The ceramics of Myanmar show evidence of imitation China and Southwest/Central Asia using locally sourced materials, giving support to Dr. Myo Thant Tyn’s theory of the convergence of the Chinese and Southwest/Central Asian ceramic traditions in Myanmar. Seven ceramic technologies of Myanmar were analyzed: celadons, black-glazed jars (lead-barium and lead-iron-manganese glazes), brown ash glaze ware, green and opaque white-painted glaze ware and turquoise-glazed, coarse-bodied white earthenware. Celadon glazes and brown glazes were made with ash, similar to the Chinese celadon tradition. Green-and-white opaque ware utilized copper-green colorant glaze decoration with tin and lead oxides as opacifying agents on low-fired oxidized bodies. Both these traditions are probably derived from Southwest Asian ceramic and glass traditions. High-soda, copper-turquoise glazes on coarse white earthenware bodies are influenced by Southwest and Central Asian low-fire ceramic and glass traditions. Black-glazed, “Martaban”-style storage jars were variable in body and glaze technology and are still of indeterminable technological origin. A phase-separated glaze was analyzed that had a similar phase-separated appearance to northern Chinese Jun ware. Additionally, two black-glazed ware types from South China with vertical streaking phase separation were analyzed: Xiba kiln of Sichuan and Jianyang kilns of Fujian. The recently discovered and excavated Xiba kiln made experimental and striking stoneware bowls similar to Jianyang “hare’s fur” ware. Reverse engineering the manufacture of Xiba kiln ware determined that Xiba was an innovative site that imitated Jianyang ware aesthetically but not technologically. Xiba and Jianyang do not have any connection to the six Burmese glaze styles, however, future analyses of Southeast Asian ceramics can use the data for comparison and variability research.
    • Stress in Augmented Reality Human Computer Interfaces

      Elbishari, Yunes M Y (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The ability of a user to control their attention within an Augmented Reality (AR) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is an unreliable quality for the design of an AR system. An alternative design approach is to adopt adaptive HCIs that adapt to specific user needs. One user need is to manage stress levels. Stress is an issue because it affects user performance. Often users are not aware of their stress levels, therefore a User Interface (UI) that independently identifies stress and automatically adapts to it would be very beneficial. The present study examines the research questions: how would a UI adapt to stress and what would be the utility of such be? The study included both descriptive and experimental elements. The descriptive element reasons from fundamental neuroscience and psychology that stress is an important factor in user performance and that a UI that reduced excessive stress would have utility, namely it would enable improved user performance. The experimental element proved a means to measure stress via a proxy. The experiment utilized a situation demanding an AR UI, that is both real world and computer created data were required to complete the required tasks: one “performance” task for which user performance mattered and a “distraction” task to ensure the user’s cognitive engagement was saturated. The experiment demonstrated that stress (measured by proxy) is directly correlated to stimuli complexity of the AR UI and that user performance in an AR UI is inversely correlated to stress. These facts together provide a strong indication that an AR UI that adapts to the stress proxy would provide significant value to the user.
    • An 8 Channel Imager/Polarimeter for Astronomical Observations

      Taylor, Brian William (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Discussion of optical designs and instrument polarization for an Eight Channel Imager/Po- larimeter are presented. The designs will cover the optical and Near Infrared(NIR) wavelengths from 330nm to 2400nm in a simultaneous acquisition mode for eight distinct broad bands. The simultaneous acquisition provides capabilities to study unique events such as supernovae, Gamma Ray Bursts(GRBs), and occultations. It also increases the efficiency of long term monitoring pro- grams such as the study of blazars. The selection of the wavelength bands were specifically chosen to match the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(u′, g′, r′, i′,z′) and the 2MASS(J,H,K) catalogs.
    • CC16 Depletion in the Lung Due to Early Life Biomass Exposures

      Calderon, Stephanie Marie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Millions of people across the globe are affected by respiratory diseases that include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, emphysema, as well as cancer. COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide due to the increase in global air pollution and smoking. Currently, there is no treatment that can change the outcome of the disease. The clinical manifestations of COPD are lung function decline and recurrent episodes of exacerbations (Knabe, 2015). Many pollutants that can lead to COPD come from sources such as wood and coal burning, cigarette smoke, and industrial air pollution. Many people across the world rely on the combustion of biomass for fuel as energy for heating and cooking. Biomass smoke exposures are recognized as a significant public health issue due to respiratory health implications. This paper will provide a review and synthesis of human and mice studies of lung insults that cause inflammatory diseases such as COPD and explore the role of club cell protein 16 in the development of disease following exposure to biomass smoke.
    • The Status and Vitality of Moroccan Tamazight and Darija

      Graybill, Aaron James (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Various social and political factors determine language status and vitality. These factors are fluid and change over time, making status harder to measure. However, through an overview of the recent political and educational history, and current events in Morocco, I chart the status changes of Darija (Moroccan Arabic) and Tamazight (Berber) using the UNESCO language vitality framework. The results show that Tamazight is shifting in its respective status and vitality. In contrast, Darija, while maintaining linguistic vitality demographically and historically, lacks institutional support. This lack of institutional support has implications for key vitality factors and stems from its subordinate place in relation to Standard Arabic. Tamazight, after the recent history of marginalization, is beginning to enjoy increased institutional support. The result is an increase in Tamazight broadcasting and textbooks as well as the appointment of an Amazigh Prime Minister. However, despite this support, Tamazight is still in a demographic decline, and it remains to be seen whether government interventions will slow or reverse this language shift.
    • Tobacco Residue On Archaeological Pipes: Analysis Via Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry

      Lindsey, Wendy (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Current methods of residue analysis in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage science mostly rely on destructive sampling methods that often damage objects of cultural heritage. Tobacco residues found on an archaeological object may contain insights into the object’s use in antiquity, even impacting its legal status under the Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act. However, museum or legal limitations on destructive sampling often prevent curators and conservators from carrying out any analysis. In addition, contamination is a concern for any residue analysis, especially for items that have been in a museum for decades or centuries. By conducting a series of experimental analyses that included documented archaeological collections from the Arizona State Museum, we have developed a non-destructive method for the detection of tobacco residue. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with widely-available gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GCMS), was used to successfully detect nicotine as a biomarker in tobacco residues from three of the museum pipes.
    • HCMV Manipulation of Host Cholesteryl Ester Metabolism

      Dahlmann, Elizabeth Alan (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a β-herpesvirus that infects over 50% of people above the age of 40. Once infected, HCMV establishes a lifelong latent infection with periodic reactivation. Most infections are asymptomatic. However, infection in immunocompromised patients may result in fatal HCMV-related complications. Further, congenitally-acquired HCMV infection is the leading cause of birth defects in the United States. The HCMV virion contains a large double-stranded DNA genome encapsidated by a protein shell that is surrounded by a lipid membrane. Like all enveloped viruses, HCMV steals host lipids to generate its envelope membrane. While previous studies demonstrate that HCMV replication requires lipid metabolism, the details of virally-induced lipid changes remain poorly defined. We performed an untargeted lipidomic screen using liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantitatively measure how infection alters the lipidome of cells. We found that HCMV increases cholesteryl esters (CE) by 24 hours post infection. CE lipids are synthesized by sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) attaching a fatty acyl-CoA to a cholesterol molecule. I hypothesized that early stages of HCMV replication induce CE biosynthesis and that CE are required for viral replication. In support of our hypothesis, we found HCMV induces SOAT1 gene expression. Further, HCMV immediate early pUL37x1 is partially responsible for virally-induced CE accumulation. We found that treating infected cells with a SOAT1 inhibitor blocked CE production and infection. Overall, our findings suggest that HCMV induces CE synthesis that can be targeted to block infection.
    • A Structured Approach to Training Text Messaging in an Individual with Aphasia

      Fein, Mira (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Background: Text messaging is an increasingly common communication modality that can present considerable challenges to individuals with aphasia. Not only does “texting” rely on central (linguistic) and peripheral (sensorimotor) abilities, it requires unique procedural and pragmatic skills. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a structured treatment protocol to promote mastery of communication via text messaging in an individual with aphasia. Methods: This exploratory study with a 72 year-old woman with anomic aphasia and mild limb apraxia extended language treatment to target technical and pragmatic skills for mobile phone use. Beginning three years post stroke, she received a three-phase training sequence that first addressed single-word typing on her mobile phone, followed by script training for text messages, and finally conversational skills for initiating and responding to text messages. Results: Despite some residual language and visual processing impairments, the participant developed functional text messaging abilities at the word, script, and conversational levels. She demonstrated generalization of skills to novel content and situations, and maintained her text-messaging abilities one year post-treatment. Conclusions: The treatment protocol to retrain text messaging skills in an individual with aphasia yielded strong positive outcomes, warranting further examination in other suitable individuals.
    • Liquefaction of the Brain Following Stroke Shares Multiple Characteristics with Atherosclerosis and Mediates Secondary Neurodegeneration in an Osteopontin-Dependent Mechanism

      Chung, Amanda (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The response to ischemic injury in the brain is different to the response to ischemic injury in other organs and tissues. Almost exclusive to the brain, and for unknown reasons, dead tissue liquefies in response to ischemia by the process of liquefactive necrosis. However, the data we present here indicate that at the macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular level, liquefactive necrosis strongly resembles atherosclerosis. We show that chronic stroke infarcts contain foamy macrophages, cholesterol crystals, high levels of osteopontin and matrix metalloproteases, and a similar cytokine profile to atherosclerosis. Crystalline cholesterol is a principal driver of atherosclerosis, and because cholesterol is an important structural component of myelin, we propose that liquefactive necrosis in response to stroke is caused by an inflammatory response to myelin debris, and is exacerbated by the formation of cholesterol crystals within macrophages. We propose that this leads to the chronic production of high levels of proteases, which in a partially osteopontin-dependent mechanism, causes secondary neurodegeneration and encephalomalacia of the surrounding tissue. In support of this, we show that genetically ablating osteopontin substantially reduces the production of degradative enzymes following stroke, reduces secondary neurodegeneration, and improves recovery. These findings suggest that treatments that prevent or target the regression of atherosclerosis may also be useful for mitigating the harmful effects of liquefactive necrosis following stroke.
    • Linking Net Assimilation with Multispectral Vegetation Classification to Understand Mesquite-Grass Response to Fire

      Sutter, Leland Frederic (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Understanding vegetation dynamics across space and time has been a grand challenge in Earth sciences, but the induction of remote sensing products has made large-scale mapping of vegetation possible. We initially used Landsat satellites (30 m; eight-day return interval) to assess the Sawmill Fire of 2017 within the Santa Rita Experimental Range. Because of the spatial and temporal decoupling associated with this remote sensing product, important, but smaller-scale disturbances may not be properly captured; this prompted the use of finer scaled data. As such, we used an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a five band Micasense RedEdge camera for derived land classification and scaling. Additionally, we measured leaf level net assimilated photosynthesis (ANET) to quantify plant function. We repeated the measurements at three points in time at a control and burned site. Spectrally, changes in the Relative Normalized Burn Ratio (RNBR) using Landsat images from directly before the fire and then after the growing season showed minimal evidence of the fire because of its spatial scale, though there were significant impacts from the fire on vegetative physiognomy and ecosystem function. Classifications built from the multispectral camera showed an overall accuracy of 0.89. This study shows the need for fine-resolution data from newly available UAV systems for practical land management practices. Low altitude, fine resolution data, combined with ecophysiological datasets, can be used to quantify and follow tractable land cover changes not captured by our traditional, lower resolution remote sensing sensors and derived products.
    • The Pathophysiology of Chronic Stroke Infarcts: What Happens After Brain Tissue Dies?

      Likens, Jacob Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      A stroke can occur when blood flow to a specific area of the brain is interrupted. There has been extensive research in both animal models and humans that has characterized the pathophysiology of the first few weeks following stroke. However, there has been far less research into the chronic stage of infarction. This is an important area for research because more than 10 million individuals worldwide suffer a stroke each year. Approximately one-third of these survivors develop dementia in the first year after their stroke. The cause behind this dementia is currently unclear, and there are no neuro-protective drugs that can improve recovery and provide cognitive protection in the chronic time period. Therefore, the chronic stage of stroke recovery is a promising target for future therapeutics for stroke-related dementia and, as will be shown later in the paper, Alzheimer’s disease as there are likely to be neurodegenerative processes that proceed for months following stroke. The goal of this thesis is to provide a review of what is currently known about the pathophysiology of chronic stroke infarcts (an area of brain tissue that has necrotized due to a blockage in an artery in the brain causing a lack of oxygen), explain why so little is known, and how we can learn more, and provide potential mechanistic links between the response to dead brain tissue and the development of dementia.
    • Mapping Saguaro Cacti Using Digital Aerial Imagery in Saguaro National Park

      Carter, Forest (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The saguaro cactus has been the subject of extensive ecological research since the establishment of Saguaro National Monument in 1933. Saguaro mapping and monitoring has always been limited in extent due to inherent restrictions of in situ field methods. This research developed a method for automated mapping of mature saguaros over large extents using fine spatial resolution digital aerial imagery. Saguaro shadow signatures were identified using a novel contrasting custom search kernel method. The shadows detected were used as proxies for mature saguaro locations. This research focused on (1) the development of a method of automatically identifying saguaros using their shadows in aerial imagery, (2) applying the method to aerial imagery of Saguaro National Park (SNP) to conduct a large extent saguaro census, (3) validation of the saguaro distributions against in situ field measurements, (4) investigating causes of shadow omissions, (5) estimating total saguaro densities and populations in SNP. The shadow method developed identified 446,092 saguaros across 231 square kilometers in Saguaro National Park. These results were found to be highly correlated (R2 value of 0.966) with saguaro locations recorded by SNP staff in 11 field plots in 2011. This study demonstrates that mature saguaros can be reliably mapped automatically using digital aerial imagery. The method developed will facilitate saguaro monitoring and ecological resource management in SNP and throughout the range of the saguaro cactus.
    • Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Efficiency is Associated with Ambulatory Blood Pressure in a Community Sample

      Doyle, Caroline Y. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Objective: Epidemiological data increasingly supports sleep as a determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Fewer studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship or employed objective sleep assessment approaches to discern the CVD impact of specific sleep characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine associations between objectively assessed sleep duration and efficiency and daily blood pressure as a potential atherogenic pathway. Methods: A diverse community sample of 300 men and women ages 21-70, enrolled in the North Texas Heart Study participated in the study. Actigraphy assessed sleep was monitored over 2 consecutive nights with ambulatory blood pressure sampled randomly within 45-min blocks on the first and second day and second night. Results: Complete data was available for 216 participants. As predicted, individuals with lower mean sleep efficiency had higher daytime (systolic: B=-0.241, SE=0.100, p<.017, adjusted R2 =0.412; diastolic: B=-0.121, SE=0.06, p<.045, adjusted R2 =0.356) and nighttime BP (systolic: B= -0.696, SE=0.174, p<.001, adjusted R2 = .243; diastolic: B= -0.410, SE= 0.093, p<.001, adjusted R2 = .230). Moreover, lower sleep efficiency on one night was associated with higher systolic (B= -0.386, SE= 0.111, p<.001, adjusted R2 =0.325) but not diastolic BP (B= -0.126, SE= 0.067, p=.062, adjusted R2 = .223) the following day. Overall, sleep duration was associated with systolic BP only, with the exception of nighttime BP. Conclusions: Objectively assessed sleep efficiency and duration are associated with both concurrent nighttime BP and subsequent day BP and may serve as pathways linking sleep to CVD.
    • Crust and Lithospheric Melting Under Plateaus: A Petrologic and Geochemical Pilot Study of Pliocene Volcanic Rocks West of Lake Titicaca (Southern Peru)

      Campbell, James Hugh (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Volcanic rocks of the Pliocene Barroso formation in southern Peru were collected for a preliminary petrologic study. These volcanic rocks are typically found as aerially extensive 5-25 meter thick lava flows immediately west of Lake Titicaca and are interlayered with sedimentary continental and lacustrine deposits. Regionally, they represent the latest volcanic products in an area where various forms of subduction-related magmatism have generated distinct arc segments since the Cretaceous. Barroso flows are more mafic than previous volcanic products and formed at a time when the main arc was being formed significantly inboard; consequently, it is plausible that they are formed because of secondary processes operating on the plateau and not the main slab dehydration-related melting above the slab. On a TAS diagram the samples are high-K calc-alkaline series while some are shoshonitic and range from trachyte to basaltic trachyandesite. They are mafic to intermediate in silica concentration and have relatively high concentrations of MgO (<7%) and FeO (<9%). Trace elemental concentrations are indicative of a near-adakitic composition. Overall, these petrographic and geochemical characteristics are like other relatively small volume magmatic products found elsewhere on the plateau near local “bobber-type” basins (Ducea et al., 2013; Murray et. al., 2015) and where magmatism was interpreted to be triggered by small scale delamination events or heating overthickened crust. Thermodynamic forward modeling using major element composition suggest that these rocks were generated at pressure/temperature conditions corresponding to the lower part of the lithosphere, perhaps including the lowermost crust. The most likely source rocks are peridotites mixed with various pyroxenite-rich cumulates pre-existent in the crust (also found as rare xenoliths in some Barroso lavas). We speculate that these dense assemblages provide the negative buoyancy responsible for the topographic low represented by Lake Titicaca. The basin will presumably invert when the dense anomaly will detach and founder in the mantle.
    • Municipal Risk and Time Preferences in Western Water Transactions

      Isaaks, Rowan Mansi (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Markets for water rights have the potential to increase allocative efficiency of perhaps the scarcest natural resource in the western United States. Due to several features of markets in the region, they are best modeled by game theory. The Rubinstein Bargaining Model can be appropriately adapted to the case of bilateral negotiations for water rights, and predicts that the time preferences of players impact the outcome. It is also possible to model the effect of risk and municipal risk preferences relating to the available supply of water, which microeconomic theory predicts will also affect outcomes. While previous literature has written about various determinants of water market outcomes, little attention has been paid to the empirical measurement and testing of the effect of time preferences and risk in these markets. In this thesis, I attempt to bridge this gap between the theory and empirical analyses by testing theoretical predictions using both a well-known data set and a novel one. I find moderate evidence suggesting that a greater time preference results in a less favorable outcome, and that buyer risk-aversion is a disadvantage in bargaining when risk is present.
    • Points of View: Landscape Persistence in Northeastern, AZ

      Soza, Danielle Renae (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This thesis investigates the processes of place-making at Rock Art Ranch, northeastern Arizona from the Paleoindian period to early agricultural Basketmaker II period (11,500 BCE-600 CE) using the surface distributions of projectile points. Three major canyons cross-cut the ranch providing ample water resources that can be exploited year-round through natural springs, groundwater, and seasonal pools, attracting fauna and providing a diverse range of floral resources. Resources at Rock Art Ranch also include two cobble outcrops, providing raw material for stone tool manufacture. Additionally, thousands of petroglyphs scale the walls of Chevelon Canyon, ranging from Archaic to Pueblo styles. The sample of 162 preceramic projectile points are mostly found close to the canyons. Paleoindian, early Archaic, and middle Archaic projectile points are concentrated around Bell Cow Canyon. Projectile points made by semi-sedentary groups of the late Archaic and Basketmaker II periods occur more often around Chimney Canyon, demonstrating a shift in settlement. Projectile points dating from earlier periods are often associated with pithouse and pueblo sites, suggesting curation practices and active engagement with these materials. Continued use of the landscape seen in the discard of projectile points indicates that RAR was an important area for procurement of resources such as water, plant and animal foods, and lithic material. Evidence of discard and engagement with the artifacts and features from older occupations suggest that their cultural memories tied to this place were associated with the resources found there, but that memory of the place was reinforced by the archaeological record
    • Assessing the Feasibility of Using a Sealed Landfill for Agricultural Graze Land

      Hard, Hanna R. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The average American produces approximately 4 pounds of trash per day, approximately 55% of which is buried in municipal solid waste landfills. Once full, these landfills are closed, sealed, and maintained according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s standards and regulations, and then monitored or remediated as necessary. There is great interest in putting closed landfills to some sort of productive use—particularly via agricultural activities. This project was commissioned by the City of Tucson Environmental Services Department as a part of an effort to explore ways to reuse one or more of the 16 landfills it manages in the Tucson metropolitan area. The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a closed and sealed landfill to support safe goat browsing. A site investigation was conducted at the Harrison Landfill in Tucson, Arizona to assess the site’s history and to characterize the soil quality and uptake of deleterious metals by the following plants commonly observed at the landfill: buffel grass (Pennisetum ciliare), desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides), Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.), creosote (Larrea tridentata), salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima), and four-wing salt brush (Atriplex canescens). Site characterization data were combined with goat browsing and plant consumption patterns to determine exposure risks. It was observed that soil concentrations of metals (Al, Ag, As, Be, Ba, Fe, Co, Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Pb) did not exceed Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s soil remediation standards. Furthermore, salt cedar, willow baccharis, buffel grass, Russian thistle, desert broom, creosote, and four-wing saltbush contained metal concentrations that fell well within maximum tolerable levels (MTLs). This project determined that, after soil and plant assessment, urban, arid landfills in general may be safely used for economic development through agricultural grazing ventures.