• A Comparative Study of Broadcast and Print Coverage in Three Criminal Cases

      Hudson, Lisa Rae (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • Liberation: The Story of a French Daily

      Herrera Cruz, Ignacio (The University of Arizona., Not availa)
    • The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter on the Mobilization of Arsenic from a Legacy Mine Tailings Site

      Bozeman, Lauren R. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Legacy mine sites are of concern due to their prevalence and associated environmental and human health risks. The United States Bureau of Land Management estimates as many as 500,000 abandoned mine sites in the US (BLM, 2017). Sites requiring costly management and long-term response to the environmental hazardous risks can be designated to a National Priority List (NPL) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (EPA, 2017). One such site, located in Central Arizona, is the Iron King Mine Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site (IKMHSSS). The site was designated to the NPL in 2008 due to concerns regarding the size of the tailing pile, the proximity of contaminated materials to the town of Dewey-Humboldt and waterways, and the dangerous concentrations of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) of the tailings (EPA, 2017). Remediation efforts have been ongoing since the designation of the site to the NPL, including sampling, yard soil removal, and distribution of information to the local community regarding risks from the site. The University of Arizona Superfund Research Program (UA SRP) has conducted greenhouse and phytostabilization studies of the site in an attempt to understand the processes and mechanisms employed to stabilize the tailings materials as well as reduce dust emissions from the tailings to the town of Dewey-Humboldt (Gil-Loaiza et al., 2016). This effort has successfully demonstrated a reduction of dust emissions (Sáez, 2016), however chemical changes to the tailings due to phytostabilization are the focus of this research. This work attempts to ascertain whether adverse effects from the method of phytostabilization are observed in the pore waters of the tailing material, in particular the potential for contamination of water sources by mobilized As through chemical or microbiological means. Recent studies have proposed potential mechanisms that can promote mobilization of As by dissolved organic matter (DOM) (Mladenov et al., 2015). Heterotrophic microbial respiration under O2 limited conditions can cause the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+, enhancing desorption or dissolution of As from Fe containing minerals (Hasan et al., 2007). Additionally, DOM competes with As for sorption sites at mineral surfaces (Grafe et al., 2002). In this study, batch and column experiments were used to investigate the mechanisms of sequestration and release of As in compost amended mine tailings. Mine tailings were reacted in triplicate in the presence and absence of DOM using plain tailings and radiated tailings for microbiological control and under anoxic and oxic conditions at timescales from ranging from 3 to 900 hours for batch experiments and 1 to 900 pore volumes in column experiments. The highest As release to pore waters was observed under anoxic conditions in the presence of DOM both with microbial activity inhibited and uninhibited through 60Co gamma irradiation after 3 and 910 h of reaction. The release of As from batch experiments was lowest in the control treatment with no DOM added to tailings in both anoxic and oxic treatments after 24 h. Column flow-through experiments were also carried out to better understand the kinetic biogeochemistry of the tailings interacting with DOM. Columns were completed under suboxic conditions to best mimic field scenarios. To test the effect of microbes, control tailing samples were sterilized by 60Co gamma irradiation prior to flowing DOM. Pore volumes (PV) were collected using fractionation equipment from 1 to 900 PVs. The release of As was highest in the presence of DOM after approximately 40 PVs when As release began increasing to its maximum release of 50 μmol l-1. No significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated tailings was observed in either irradiated or non-irradiated tailings. Lowest release of As to effluent solutions was in the absence of DOM. These results were consistent with the findings from batch experiments. Batch and column experiments show that DOM influences the mobilization of As from mine tailings, and demonstrates the potential risk to proximal ground water resources in the absence of attenuation processes between the oxidized tailings and groundwater.
    • Food in Reach: Measuring Access to Public Assistance Food Retailers in Rural Arizona

      Tanoue, Kara Lyn Haberstock (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The current public food assistance system in the United States depends primarily on delivery through vouchers provided to families who cannot afford adequate food due to economic hardship that they can use in retail markets to purchase food. However, how to conceptualize, define, measure, and determine the importance of access to food retail for the nearly 50 million food insecure people in the U.S. remains a challenge. These three papers provide three different methods for measuring food access in the rural context with diverging purposes and applications, moving from simple conceptions of access to more complex approaches that combine quantitative and qualitative measures. I seek to answer the question: How can critical GIS be used to better understand the relationship between access to food retailers, public nutrition assistance programs, and food shopping patterns in rural Arizona? This question is further refined by three sub-questions: How can GIS be used to develop a better measure of physical access to food retail for nutrition assistance recipients in rural areas? What are the barriers to food access for recipients beyond physical access, and how can these be incorporated into measures of accessibility? How does accessibility of food retail affect recipients’ food shopping habits? Through using a grounded mixed-methods approach, I hope to integrate quantitative measures of access with qualitative insight into individual intentions and lived experience in using public assistance benefits to shop for food. Taken together, these papers provide a broad view on how to better quantify and measure food access in the rural setting, as well as avenues for further development of access measures and interventions to ensure equity in food access for all.
    • A Built Environment with Architectural Parameters in Sustainability That Mitigates the Onset of PTSD in High Armed Conflict: Physiological, Cognitive, Psychoanalytic, And Social/Behavioral Stimuli to Induce Cognitive Processing for Self-Healing

      Havelka, Heather Leigh (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was first recognized in veterans of war and called shellshock, and in later years defined by numerous other names. Since 2001 the rate of PTSD within Veterans has increased to the same percentage as that found in the Vietnam War, and I’ve questioned, “what is being done for them on an environmental level”? How is the built environment benefiting them by reducing forms of stimulation that “triggers” or induces unstable behavior? With extensive research the clear answer was that nothing is being done within our built environment, aside from a few guidelines to design to lessen negative impacts. Equally, nothing out in high armed conflict nor in overseas installations that provide rehabilitation care units to wounded warriors are bridging therapy done out there to that done in the United States. The fact is that there is a lack of connection and familiarity with a “sanctity” out in warfare for those with PTSD and this is what inspired this thesis and the innovative design it discusses. A built environment with sustainable architectural parameters will not only allow a “sanctity” to be undetectable and a secure unit for self-rehabilitation as a parallel helper to other forms of therapy for PTSD in conflicted areas, but will equally create an intimacy with the built environment that leads to personal security to enable one to take the necessary steps to continuing rehabilitation after returning home to the United States.

      Foster, Aidan Richard (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Conventional secondary treatment of municipal wastewater designed to achieve biological nutrient removal typically utilize methods of nitrification-denitrification to convert ammonia to nitrogen gas to reduce the environmental impact of human wastewater streams. However, this process requires high energy inputs while also producing greenhouse gases. An alternative nitrogen treatment process is possible that treats nitrogen through anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) which has been reported to have numerous benefits over conventional treatment. While the effect of conventional secondary treatment has been evaluated for its effects on human enteric viruses, the effect of anammox systems on these microbes is undocumented. Through a joint venture between the University of Arizona, Pima County Wastewater and the Water and Energy Sustainability Technology (WEST) center, two different anammox reactors will be established and assessed for their effects on viral fate. Three human enteric viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, and reovirus) will be monitored as well as evaluating possible indicator organisms to monitor human enteric virus in anammox systems.
    • Environmental Contamination from Glove Disposal Practices

      Munoz, Kimberley (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Purpose: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provides a barrier between health professionals and pathogens. Misconceptions related to PPE and its role in environmental contamination, may lead to risky behaviors and/or perceptions in healthcare professionals due to broken barriers of protection. Evidence suggests that doffing and disposal of used PPE can lead to environmental contamination. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the potential for environmental contamination when medical gloves are flung, tossed, or thrown; while using a harmless PR772 bacteriophage and fluorescent dye tracers. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure the overall spread of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye from glove disposal to the surrounding environment; 2) determine the contamination along the glove flight path and the distance from the health professional; and 3) compare the occurrence of bacteriophage and fluorescent dye in the vicinity of glove disposal. Methods: Fifteen Health Professionals flung, tossed, or threw PR772 and fluorescent dye contaminated gloves into a wastebasket, located 1.22 m away. Twenty designated sample areas were set up along the glove flight path, along a wall behind the wastebasket and outside the flight path that represented equipment within a patient room. Following each glove disposal trial, designated Sample Areas were: 1) visually inspected with a blacklight to quantify the fluorescent dye stains and 2) swabbed with a 3M Letheen Broth sponge to quantify PR772. Results: The mean of PR772 contamination from all sample areas was 4.22 log10 PFU/mL. The area closest to the participant (<0.30 m) had the highest PR772 concentrations (mean = 2.61 log10 PFU/mL; range -0.3 to 6.32 log10 PFU/mL). The sample areas within the first 0.61 m of the health professional were statistically higher (p< 0.05) than ≥0.61 m for PR772 and all sample areas, < 0.61 m, were positive for both tracers. Based on the fluorescent dye’s ability to predict the presence absence of viral tracers, it was found to be an appropriate surrogate when used as a teaching tool for PPE disposal scenarios. Conclusion: Among medical personnel, gloves are used every workday and have the potential to contaminate the surrounding surfaces during improper disposal practices. Therefore, proper disposal techniques are required to minimize pathogen transmission. Due to limited education/training, and non-compliance with glove disposal recommendations, health professionals flinging gloves into the wastebasket can contribute significant pathogen contamination within 0.61 m around themselves, with a possibility of contaminating up to 1.52 m. Establishing industry-wide policies, adequate training and education to health professionals on appropriate glove disposal can reduce the spread of microbial contaminants and reduce exposure risks to patients and personnel.
    • Symbiosis in the Context of an Invasive, Non-Native Grass: Fungal Biodiversity and Student Engagement

      Lehr, Gavin Charles (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Grasslands in the western United States face severe environmental threats including those brought about by climate change, such as changes in precipitation regimes and altered fire cycles; land-use conversion and development; and the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native species. Lehmann’s lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) was introduced to the southwestern United States in the early 1900s. Since its introduction, it has become the dominant grass in the mid-elevation grasslands of southern Arizona, including the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), where it has displaced native grasses including Arizona cottontop, three awns, and gramas. Like all plants in terrestrial ecosystems, this grass harbors fungal symbionts that can be important for its establishment and persistence. This thesis focuses on fungal symbionts of Lehmann’s lovegrass and has two components. First, the diversity and distributions of endophytes in Lehmann’s lovegrass are evaluated in the context of biotic and abiotic factors in the SRER. Culturing from roots and shoots of Lehmann’s lovegrass at points beneath and outside the canopy of native mesquites, which are encroaching on grasslands over time, provides insight into how a single plant species can exhibit local variation in the composition of its symbionts. Second, the thesis is used as the basis for engagement of students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through the development and implementation of classroom- and field activities centered on endophytes, which help high school students address core learning aims while also gaining real research experience. Engaging students in important questions relevant to their local environment can catalyze interest in science and help students cross the threshold into research. The contributions of such approaches with respect to learning not only fulfills key next-generation science standards and common core objectives, but provides students with a meaningful introduction to the excitement, importance, and accessibility of science.
    • Freeform Metrology Using 2D Contact Profilometry and Specialized Fixturing

      Scordato, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Advancements in the design and fabrication of optics are pushing the limits of metrology. Freeform surfaces are becoming more common through the provision of non-symmetric corrections to a system’s wavefront. This may result in improved performance with less optical elements in a system’s design. Fabrication tools have been developed, yet the measurement techniques and drawing specifications of these surfaces are not well defined. There are several approaches to characterize a freeform lens. Profilometry is a common method to measure the profile of an optical surface by using a calibrated stylus. 2D profilometer instruments are popular due to their affordability and versatility. An investment is required to increase a contact profilometer’s capability for 3D aspheric surfaces. This paper will focus on expanding a 2D contact profilometer’s capability by using a specialized fixture with references to map multiple tracings in software. In addition, the fixture will also characterize the centration of the optic. This paper compares the results found with various metrology instruments. The specialized fixture was measured with a 2D contact profilometer to provide full surface characterization of the freeform optic. An advanced 3D profilometer was used to provide measurements for evaluation. Included will be a discussion comparing the freeform data gathered from the different instruments to expected performance using a spherical lens.

      HASELHORST, COREY (The University of Arizona., 2017-10-18)
    • Overview of the Microscope Objective

      Niu, Ruijuan (The University of Arizona., 2017-06-14)
      Microscopes are widely used in research and industry. The objective lens is the most significant part of the microscope. Some characteristics and different types of microscope objectives are discussed in this thesis. The markings on the objective indicate some main optical characteristics. However, it is not always possible to know the materials, the radius or the thickness of each surface in an objective lens and it is not easy to simulate an objective without this data. In this thesis, we build a first order model which can simulate a refractive microscope objective when the magnification and numerical aperture are known. The model contains a thin lens made by two standard surfaces and also simulates the principal planes. This model provides more accurate ray heights and it is aplanatic. Some design examples of an objective lens are also discussed in order to get a better understanding of design and optimization considerations.
    • Chemical and Microbial Processes for Rhodium Recovery

      Zhu, Kechen (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This is the first report that demonstrates the ability of anaerobic methanogenic granular sludge to reduce Rh(III) to Rh(0). Recovery of rhodium(Rh) during anaerobic incubations under abiotic and biotic condition with different electron donors was studied. H2 and formate reduced Rh(III) to Rh(0) nanoparticles(NPs) in the absence of microorganisms. However, the presence of microorganism was crucial for Rh(III) reduction with ethanol. Results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of Rh(0) NPs and indicated the localization and morphology of the formed Rh(0) NPs varied with electron donor utilized. Rh(III) reduction with H2 and ethanol obeyed 1st order kinetics. Rh(III) caused a moderate inhibition to methanogenesis. Rh(III) reduction often ceased before coming to completion but this effect is not due to unfavorable thermodynamics. A hypothesis was developed which ascribes the biological reduction of Rh(III) with ethanol as being due to the biological formation of H2 (that subsequently chemically reacts with Rh). The results obtained indicate the potential of utilizing anaerobic granular sludge bioreactor technology as a practical and promising option in Rh(III) recovery.
    • Probing Intracavity Plasma Dynamics with Higher-Order Transverse Modes

      Goodell, Brian Carpenter (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) frequency combs exhibit promise for enabling high-precision spectroscopic measurements of myriad chemical species for the first time. Coherent XUV radiation can be generated through high harmonic generation (HHG) in femtosecond enhancement cavities. HHG efficiency is limited by nonlinear phase shifts induced by residual intracavity plasma. The goal of this work is to gain insight regarding plasma dynamics in order to allay the detrimental effects of plasma interactions. Our approach is to conduct simulations of cavity pump-probe experiments by probing with higher-order transverse modes. We propose methods for estimating spatial plasma profiles, gas jet velocities, and the plasma recombination coefficient based on measurements of plasma-induced phase shifts. Beam distortion due to plasma interaction is analyzed and used as another reference for plasma dynamics.
    • Application of Industrial Wastewater Effluent in Growth of Algae -- Effects of Heavy Metals on the Growth Rate, Fatty Acid and Lipid Content of Chlorella Sorokiniana and Scenedesmus Obliquus

      Udeozor, Jude Onyeka (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Growing interest in biofuel production from non-fossil fuel sources has resulted in several studies exploring different raw material sources as feedstock, including many algae species, for large-scale production of biofuel. Algae are promising feedstock due to advantages such as its short growth cycle, high biomass production, and lipid content. However, there are still challenges to overcome in order to use algae for commercial biofuel production. One of these challenges is the requirement for a large quantity of water and nutrients needed for growing large quantities of the algae. This work explores a potential solution to this challenge by studying the possibility of using industrial wastewater to grow algae for biofuel production. However, many industrial wastewaters, including effluents from semiconductor processing plants, are known to contain heavy metals that are toxic to humans and the environment. In this work, the effects of four of such metals ions, As(V), As(III), Ga(III), and In(III) on Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus strains were studied. In particular, the heavy metal toxicity on the strains, effects on its growth rate, biomass yield, lipid content and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were studied. Also, the effect of controlling pH on growth rate, biomass yield, lipid content, and FAME was studied for Chlorella sorokiniana in the presence of Ga(III). The results of the study confirmed the toxicity of these metals on both strains. However, Ga(III) and In(III) had the highest effect, while As(V) showed the least toxicity to the strains, with Chlorella sorokiniana withstanding concentrations of As(V) as high as 140mg/L. The heavy metals were slightly more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus compared to Chlorella sorokiniana. In addition, the heavy metals reduced the growth rate of both strains. High percent changes in growth rate (more than 50%) were seen in cultures containing Ga(III) and In(III). Furthermore, concentration measurements with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP) before, during, and at the end of the growth period, showed that Scenedesmus obliquus adsorbed higher amounts of the heavy metals compared to Chlorella sorokiniana. Microalgae biosorption of heavy metals limits its end use, hence making Scenedesmus obliquus a less favorable option for this study, but may be a better choice for wastewater treatment applications. The effects of the four metals on the lipid content and FAME profile of Chlorella sorokiniana were studied. The result showed an increase in Chlorella sorokiniana lipid content in the presence of In(III), but a decrease in the presence of As(V) and As(III). The heavy metals had effects on the strain’s FAME compositions. The fatty acid composition included C16:0, C16:1, C16:2, C16:3, C18:0, C18:1, ω-6, C18:2, ω-6, and C18:3, ω-3 accounting for more than 97% of the total FAME composition. Furthermore, controlling the pH of the culture in the presence of Ga(III) at 6.5 led to higher adsorption of the heavy metal, increase in lipid content, but no significant change in FAME composition.
    • Lyapunov-Based Control of Coupled Translational-Rotational Close-Proximity Spacecraft Dynamics and Docking

      Wenn, Chad (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This work presents a non-linear control strategy for the docking of two spacecraft in a leader-follower orbit pattern. The chief craft is assumed to be in a circular orbit around a celestial body. The deputy craft is assumed to have a separation distance from the chief that is small compared to the orbital radius of the chief. Furthermore, the relative dynamics of these crafts can be described by the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. The control strategy developed is able to regulate the relative translational distance and velocity of the docking feature points on the two craft with globally asymptotic stability. Furthermore, the control strategy is able to regulate the relative rotational velocity and relative attitude, between the two craft, to that which it is required for successful docking. The rotational control is achieved with “almost” globally asymptotic stability, inclusive of an infinitesimally small unstable manifold. Other researchers in this field have shown that this unstable manifold is easily avoided using advanced control methods. These control laws are developed using Lyapunov’s Direct Method, and have asymptotic stability claims per the use of the Mukherjee-Chen theorem. Numerical Monte-Carlo simulation shows asymptotic stability for a subset of the domain of convergence for the developed control laws. Un-modeled torques and accelerations are later imposed on the system. The control laws are then augmented with integral feedback terms, and the closed loop system, with the augmented control laws, retains the asymptotic stability claims.
    • Conservation Easements in the Madrean Archipelago: Landscape-Scale Strategy or Random Acts of Conservation?

      Rawoot, Damian Nabil (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      In mixed-jurisdiction landscapes of the Intermountain West, unprotected wildlands in private and State Trust ownership buffer protected areas, support ecosystem and watershed processes, and maintain landscape connectivity, while their subdivision and development, results in losses of habitat and biodiversity, fragmentation, and isolation of neighboring protected areas. In recent decades, conservation easements (CEs) have emerged as the primary tool for protecting private lands, but as private agreements, there is no explicit expectation that land protected provides these conservation values. With this dependence on CEs, identifying their conservation outcomes is critical to understanding their role in landscape-scale conservation efforts. Focusing on the Madrean Archipelago in Arizona and New Mexico, I conducted a mixed methods study assessing the spatial pattern of existing CEs relative to grasslands, riparian areas, and distance from protected areas, and completed stakeholder interviews to identify any process underlying these spatial patterns. Results show that more than 10% of private wildlands in the region are in CEs. They exhibited a strong affinity towards grasslands (almost 20% of private grassland area is in CEs) and protected areas (more than 80% of CEs lie within 1 km of a protected area) but tend to avoid riparian areas. Interviews revealed a moderate level of consistency between the spatial patterns identified and stakeholder objectives. These results suggest that CEs in the Madrean Archipelago do support landscape-scale conservation outcomes, in part because stakeholders engaged in establishing them are prioritizing resources and values with landscape-scale significance. They also affirm the need for more access to spatial data on CEs to better integrate them into regional conservation planning efforts.
    • Exploring the Success and Defeat of Ronda Rousey: A Content Analysis of Twitter and Newspaper Coverage from 2014-2016

      Mikelonis, Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Scholarly research has analyzed how female athletes use their social media platforms and how they are represented in news media coverage. However, no scholarly literature has specifically looked at Ronda Rousey, an American mixed martial artist. The current study used a quantitative content analysis to examine how Rousey has utilized her Twitter account as well as how local and national newspapers in the United States framed coverage of Rousey between 2014 to 2016. For the tweets, content, referring to pictures that Rousey posted, was the most popular category; the second most prevalent category was promotional, referring to tweets that promoted upcoming events or sponsorships. Rousey mainly used her Twitter to post pictures of herself and promote her personal brand. For the newspaper articles, the most frequently used frames were agency, powerless, and goals and ambitions. Two new frames emerged from the current study – fame, referring to Rousey’s film career, and relations, referring to Rousey’s personal life and relationships. The newspapers were predominantly neutral in their coverage of Rousey throughout the three-year study period. This case study is important because it found that Rousey was framed in a way that differed from previous research. The findings in this study demonstrate that Rousey was not marginalized in newspaper coverage or portrayed in a negative manner, as other female athletes have been in the past. Rather than focusing on her appearance or sexuality, the news coverage highlighted Rousey’s success and athletic achievements.
    • Fast Automatic Segmentation of Thalamic Nuclei

      Thomas, Francis Tyson (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Fast, automated segmentation of the thalamic nuclei in the brain has long been desired as it provides for direct visualization of the target for certain procedures like Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) that target a specific nucleus. It is also beneficial in the study of other pathologies that pertain to different nuclei. In this thesis, a novel approach to fast automated segmentation of thalamic nuclei called Shortened Template and THalamus for Optimal Multi Atlas Segmentation (ST THOMAS) was developed using the multi-atlas segmentation approach. It was designed with a focus on robustness and speed by making use of an averaged template for registration and cropping the inputs and the template. The performance of ST THOMAS was first evaluated on 7T MRI data by comparing with manual delineation (ground truth) by an expert neuroradiologist. Dice coefficients and Volumetric Similarity Indices were used as metrics. To extend the applicability of this method, 3T MRI data were also evaluated. Finally, applications to real time ventralintermideiate (VIM) nucleus targeting for DBS and study of the effects of alcoholism are demonstrated.