• (Self)Censorship, Media Repression, and the Trajectory of Citizen Journalism in Turkey: The Evolution of 140journos

      Fortna, Benjamin; Perugini, John; Nassar, Maha; Hudson, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This research traces the evolution of 140journos, a former citizen journalist group (2012-2017) and now professional media group (2017-present) based in Istanbul, Turkey. In doing so, it connects the evolution of the group with the broader processes of censorship and media repression in Turkey. Since its establishment in 2012, I argue that 140journos can be categorized by three distinct evolutions: On the Ground, Curatorial, and Professional/Creative, and that each evolution has been a distinct, tactical response to evolutions of media repression and censorship in Turkey. By understanding the tactical responses of 140journos during each evolution and what prompted the large-scale organizational and tactical shifts of the group, we can more critically engage with and more thoroughly understand the constantly evolving processes of media repression and censorship in Turkey. Additionally, the trajectory of the group—going from citizen journalists in the first two evolutions to a professional ‘media’ group in its third and current evolution—indicates not only the degree and form(s) of censorship in Turkey but also the strengths, weaknesses, and potentialities of citizen journalism, more broadly.