• The Art of Optical Aberrations

      Sasián, José M.; Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney; Sasián, José M.; Chipman, Russell A.; Schwiegerling, James T. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist’s compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.
    • Astigmatism in Systems With Double Plane Symmetry

      Sasian, Jose; Kirk, William Slater; Peng, Lei Lei; Takashima, Yuzuru (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The waveform aberration equation is developed to sixth order and nodal aberrations are explored using combinations of the aberration terms.
    • Edge Response Characterization of Interferometers and the Effect of Aberrations

      Dubin, Matthew; Millstone, Daniel Brucker; Dubin, Matthew; Kim, Dae Wook; Kuhn, William (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      An edge response characterization technique to predict the ITF of an interferometer using non- interferometric measurements has been shown to be effective. This technique eliminates the need for phase objects to be used in the characterization process. Using coherent imaging with an irradiance sensitive detector and an irradiance step as a characterization artifact to determine an interferometer's ITF was proven viable for diffraction limited, defocused, astigmatic, and spherically aberrated systems. Simulations and collected data demonstrated agreement between the interferometric edge response characterization technique results and coherent imaging edge response characterization technique results. The effect that aberrations have on ITF curves has been investigated in this thesis and an understanding of the system behavior under aberrated conditions was investigated.
    • Polarization Aberrations of Optical Coatings

      Chipman, Russell A.; Jota, Thiago; Chipman, Russell A.; Falco, Charles M.; Pau, Stanley (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      This work does not limit itself to its title and touches on a number of related topics beyond it. Starting with the title, Polarization Aberrations of Optical Coatings, the immediate question that comes to mind is: what coatings? All coatings? Not all coatings, but just enough that a third person could take this information and apply it anywhere: to all coatings. The computational work-flow required to break-down the aberrations caused by polarizing events (3D vector forms of reflection and refraction) in dielectric and absorbing materials and for thick and thin films is presented. Therefore, it is completely general and of interest to the wide optics community. The example system is a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope. It looks very similar to a Cassegrain, but it is not. It has hyperbolic surfaces, which allows for more optical aberration corrections. A few modern systems that use this configuration are the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck telescopes. This particular system is a follow-up on this publication, where an example Cassegrain with aluminum coatings is characterized, and I was asked to simply evaluate it at another wavelength. To my surprise, I found a number of issues which lead me to write a completely new, one-of-its-kind 3D polarization ray-tracing code. It can do purely geometrical ray-tracing with add-on the polarization analysis capability, and more importantly: it keeps your data at your fingertips while offering all the outstanding facilities of Mathematica. The ray-tracing code and its extensive library, which can do several advanced computations, is documented in the appendix. The coatings of the Ritchey-Chrétien induce a number of aberrations, primarily, but not limited to: tilt, defocus, astigmatism, and coma. I found those forms to exist in both aluminum and with a reflectance-enhancing dielectric quarter-wave multilayer coating over aluminum. The thickness of the film stack varies as function of position to present a quarter-wave of optical thickness to oblique rays. Most commercial optical software that I know cannot compute this. And the results are impressive: the scalar transmission, which is a measure of ray efficiency, was raised from 78% to 95%. This means that only 5% of the incident light is lost, assuming ideal coating interfaces. This is very advantageous, considering the application: coronagraphs for exoplanet detection. Exoplanets are very far away, and therefore efficient use of light is essential. I also created a ray! I call it Huygens' twin ray. It is credited to Christiaan Huygens, who postulated that points on a wavefront can be considered as a sources of secondary spherical wavelets. This concept normally belongs to physical optics. The twin ray is emitted from the exact same object point but traced in a slightly different direction, which can be assumed by invoking Huygens's principle, and defined in a special way that consistently prevents vignetting. This requires high-precision ray-tracing, which is introduced along with this thesis work as part of the appendix. The application of this concept is exemplified in finding the exit pupil of the Ritchey-Chrétien telescope. It can be modified to work in a plurality of cases and find the precise image location in three-dimensions, making it completely general and useful. Mastering the ray-tracing documented here depends on how much optics the user knows, but tracing a single ray is something that can be learned in minutes. I welcome you to freely use it and make it your own. If your goal is to learn to ray-trace in Mathematica, the reader is directed to the appendix, especially to the four-port polarimeter example, as it is a 3D system that contains both reflection and refraction through thin films, thick films, retarders, and a single surface is traced at a time!