• Papillomavirus L2-Dependent Endocytosis and Subcellular Trafficking

      Campos, Samuel K.; St. John, Paul; Lu, Mingfeng; Lybarger, Lonnie; Elliott, David; Harris, David (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are among the most common sexually transmitted infections and are responsible for 5% of all human cancers. HPV type 16 is the most prevalent of the high-risk HPVs (a subgroup of HPVs with potential to cause cancer), accounting for ~55% of HPV-associated cancers. HPV16 is a nonenveloped virus, composed of the major capsid protein L1, the minor capsid protein L2, and a circular double-stranded DNA genome (vDNA) condensed with human histones. HPV initially infects undifferentiated basal keratinocytes and viral replication is dependent on epithelial differentiation. Like many other DNA viruses, HPV must deliver its vDNA to the host cell nucleus to successfully replicate. Initial binding of HPV16 to host cells is through L1 interactions with cell surface heparan sulfate receptors. Shortly after virus binding, L2 is believed to undergo furin cleavage-dependent conformational changes, resulting in spanning of the protein across the local membrane and exposure of the central and C-terminal regions of L2 (which was lumenal and and inaccessible before furin cleavage) to the host cell cytosol. L2 is critical for transport of the L2/vDNA from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We hypothesize that furin-dependent early L2 spanning, through the direct binding and recruitment of cytosolic sorting factors, may contribute to viral endocytosis and subcellular retrograde trafficking (trafficking from endosomes to Golgi) of vDNA. We have developed a Tac receptor (CD25 or IL2 receptor, a transmembrane cell surface protein) chimera system to study L2-dependent endocytosis and trafficking. In this system the Tac ecto- and transmembrane domains are fused to the ~400 amino acid portion of L2 that is likely cytosolic upon L2 spanning. Through transient expression of Tac-L2 chimera we use anti-Tac ectodomain antibodies to label and track cell surface populations by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We have also adopted this system to study endocytosis through a cell surface biotinylation approach. Both approaches suggest that L2 may enhance endocytosis and preliminary evidence suggests that the Tac-L2 chimera may recruit the cytosolic retromer complex (the host cytosolic factors help protein retrograde trafficking) to preferentially traffic to the TGN. Retromer-dependent trafficking of cargo from early endosomes to the TGN is known to involve certain members of the sorting nexin family, specifically the SNX-BAR proteins. We performed a small siRNA screen and identify SNX6 and SNX32 (aka SNX6b) as SNX-BAR proteins that may be specifically involved in retrograde trafficking of HPV16 L2/vDNA during infection. Future work will focus on the mechanisms through which L2 and SNX6 influence HPV16 entry and trafficking.