• Unions, Corporations, and the State: Ethnic Tension and Legislative Activism in the Arizona Mining Industry, 1873-1903

      Garcia, Juan R.; Ramsey, James Edward; Garcia, Juan R.; Morrissey, Katherine G.; Vetter, Jeremy A. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The mining industry in Arizona first gained prominence with the growth of the Morenci-Clifton district in the 1870s. A "Mexican camp" from its inception, the town differed racially from the other mining centers across the State, most notably that of Bisbee to the south. As the industry expanded and with the coming of the 20th century, each town established its reputation as an ethnic center for Mexicans and Anglos. Competition for jobs and debates over the rights of workers both contained an underlying issue of race. Questions about who held rights to which jobs isolated Morenci-Clifton as a cultural outlier, and the union push to regulate the industry left the region in a precarious situation. A 1903 state law shortening the work day to eight hours prompted the first major strike in the history of the district, and the motivations behind the law's passage had connotations beyond the protection of workers, extending into the realm of racial exclusion.