• Brazil's Anti-Racist Education Reforms And Their Effects On High School History Textbooks: Addressing Critical Reflection On Race And Racism

      Gonzales, Patrisia; Lynch, Lucas Leonard; Gonzales, Patrisia; Cammarota, Julio; Gosner, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Anti-racist legislation and education reforms for the past two decades in Brazil have required that curriculum in all basic education combat prejudice and racism and promote critical thinking of the nation's past and current ethnic-racial relations in an effort to construct a society that is more democratic, equal, and just. In response to the reforms, textbooks have been rewritten. This study analyzes one high school history textbook series that was approved by Brazil in 2012, and asks: How, and to what extent, do these new high school history textbooks address critical reflection on race and racism in Brazil? Using qualitative content analysis, I coded the above series for its attention in these matters. My findings reflect that though there are a number of cases where racism in Brazil was admitted, more explanation on the content on racism is needed, the content was too vague, or it lacked necessary details to make its analysis more informed for student reflection.
    • Examining the Double-Consciousness: Portraits of Americana in the Works of Ulysses Kay

      Mugmon, Matthew; Knox, Grant Stephen; Brobeck, John T.; Rosenblatt, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Ulysses Simpson Kay, Jr. (1917–1995) was a distinguished American composer, conductor and professor. Having composed approximately 140 works throughout his lifetime, Kay established himself as a prominent figure within the scope of twentieth-century American composition. An African American composer, Kay often seemed to downplay the role of race in his music, an approach perhaps best articulated by his categorical definition of Black music as “music written or conceived by blacks.” Indeed, scholars have debated the role of Kay’s racial identity in his music. An examination of selected works by Ulysses Kay, and their contexts, reveals that his American and African American musical identities coexist. This finding suggests Kay’s music to be a case study in the musical expression of W.E.B. DuBois’s (1868–1963) term “double-consciousness.” DuBois’s writings, particularly his 1903 collection of essays The Souls of Black Folk offer a framework for understanding the role of racial identity in Kay’s music. This study will look at Kay’s Danse Calinda (1941), Lift Every Voice & Sing (1943), Harlem Children’s Dance Suite (1973), and Frederick Douglass (1991) as works that are evocative of the African American identity, while A Lincoln Letter (1953), FDR: From Third Term to Pearl Harbor (1958), Forever Free (1962), Presidential Suite (1965), Southern Harmony (1975) represent the broader American identity. Each of these compositions implies the duality of identities through its subjects, contexts, and/or specific musical details. As a result, we are able to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the role of racial identity in Ulysses Kay’s music.
    • Gender and Race of Teacher and Student: Are They Related to Teacher Responses to Incidents of School Bullying?

      Bauman, Sheri; Hirdes, Cassandra Laine; Bauman, Sheri; Falco, Lia; Perfect, Michelle (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      In this study teachers provided responses indicating what actions they would take towards the bully and victim after watching three bullying vignettes in which the gender and race of the students varied. Significant differences revealed that when race, gender, or race and gender of teacher and student differ teachers are more likely to dismiss the victim or seek out adult resources. If the race or gender or race and gender of teacher and student were the same then teachers indicated that they would comfort the victim with more frequency, use a wider array of approaches regarding the victim, and they would also reprimand the victim more. Females were more likely than males to show care toward the victims and Whites were more likely than non-Whites to dismiss the victim. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher responses by student characteristics alone. Implications for teachers and school counselors are discussed.
    • Unions, Corporations, and the State: Ethnic Tension and Legislative Activism in the Arizona Mining Industry, 1873-1903

      Garcia, Juan R.; Ramsey, James Edward; Garcia, Juan R.; Morrissey, Katherine G.; Vetter, Jeremy A. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The mining industry in Arizona first gained prominence with the growth of the Morenci-Clifton district in the 1870s. A "Mexican camp" from its inception, the town differed racially from the other mining centers across the State, most notably that of Bisbee to the south. As the industry expanded and with the coming of the 20th century, each town established its reputation as an ethnic center for Mexicans and Anglos. Competition for jobs and debates over the rights of workers both contained an underlying issue of race. Questions about who held rights to which jobs isolated Morenci-Clifton as a cultural outlier, and the union push to regulate the industry left the region in a precarious situation. A 1903 state law shortening the work day to eight hours prompted the first major strike in the history of the district, and the motivations behind the law's passage had connotations beyond the protection of workers, extending into the realm of racial exclusion.