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A Portrait of an Obaku Monk:The Life and Religion of Jifei Ruyi (1616-1671)This study attempts to present a comprehensive study of Jifei Ruyi (J. Sokuhi Nyoitsu, 1616-1671)'s life. Jifei was originally a monk of Wanfusi (J. Manpukuji) at Mount Huangbo, China, and one of Yinyuan Longqi (J. Ingen Ryuki, 1592-1673)'s leading dharma heirs. He contributed as a founding leader of the Wanfusi expatriates to the establishment and consolidation of Manpukuji in the seventeenth century Japan. Chief among his achievements is his introduction of the Chan style and literati cultural activity of the late Ming China (1368-1644). Jifei's syncretic religious practice combined Linji Chan (J. Rinzai Zen) style and elements from other Buddhist denominations, with his Chan modeled mainly on the teachings of Linji Yixuan (d.867). Jifei's filial piety, Confucian kinship and Buddhist sectarian consciousness, and cultural practice of literati ideal reflect his unitary vision of Confucianism and Buddhism, a popular socio-religious trend during the time.