• Falling on Deaf Ears: Trauma in Euripides' Hecuba

      Christenson, David M.; Pare, Julia Elizabeth; Park, Arum; Friesen, Courtney (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This thesis explores the manifestations of trauma and its impact on language and the titular character’s behavior in Euripides’ Hecuba. Trauma signifies a psychological phenomenon encompassing feelings of dissociation and aporia resulting from an event or events that “break in” upon an individual’s previously understood assumptive worldview. The outcome, or “traumatic response,” constitutes the victim’s attempt to remake and function in their new world and can be characterized by violence and previously uncharacteristic reactions. Literary representations of trauma include fractured time, declarations of speechlessness, and intrusive repetitive images or narratives. Because psychological trauma is a distinctly modern construct involving diagnostic criteria, Chapter 1 addresses the limitations of reading trauma into ancient texts, as well as how literary trauma studies deal with interpreting texts in a framework related to, but not wholly dependent upon, psychologically defined trauma. I establish a working definition of trauma that illuminates Hecuba beyond ethical interpretations. In Chapter 2 I consider how repetitive applications of ὄλλυμι and time constructions reveal Hecuba’s psychological state. In Chapter 3 I argue that a traumatic framework is best for consistently understanding Hecuba’s experience of denial and final violent reaction. My conclusion compares Hecuba’s tragedy and the testimony of war-crime survivors, to extend work relating tragedies such as Sophocles’ Ajax to veterans to include women’s traumatic wartime experiences.
    • The Gendered Effects of Violence: War, Women's Health and Experience in Iraq

      Brand, Tamara Diane Drenttel; Hudson, Leila; Betteridge, Anne; Smith, Charles C (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      The violence stemming from the occupation and civil war between 2003 and 2008 in Iraq redefined the oppression and suffering of Iraqi women, disrupting and shifting their social and familial roles, while also making them vulnerable as targets in the civil conflict. This thesis demonstrates the complexity of motive and aim to the violence committed against Iraqi women and argues that the effects of that violence were far more wide reaching and layered than simply the impact of the violent act itself. Because of this, the effects of violence go beyond the battlefield and affect women in the most intimate way possible - their lives, their health and that of their children. By analyzing how violence has intruded upon and shaped the daily reality of Iraqi women one is able to better understand the gendered experience of conflict and violence in Iraq and its responsibility for the deterioration of Iraqi women's health and well-being.
    • Struggle and Survival of American Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom

      Fortna, Benjamin; Koopman, David; Hudson, Leila; Clancy-Smith, Julia (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The past century of American military history has shown a rise in warfare against ideologies rather than nations. In comparison to previous military conflicts against other nations or military groups, America has recently found itself waging costly international wars against communism, drugs, illegal immigration, and most recently, terrorism. During the same period growing numbers of veterans struggle with mental illnesses such as PTSD, fits of anger that produce road rage and domestic violence, substance abuse and addiction, and ultimately suicide, which has climbed to a staggering rate of 20 veterans per day. By listening to and analyzing the voices from war through the autoethnography of one OIF veteran, this project will reintroduce the human element of warfare, specifically the second war in Iraq that was primarily known as Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), while illustrating the unique individual struggles that the humans involved in this conflict endured during the war and continue to fight long after the conflict has “ended."