• Relationships Among Help-Seeking, Self-Esteem, Work Avoidance and Locus Of Control: A Path Analysis

      Erbacher, Monica; Zhang, Wenxin; Burross, Heidi; Tullis, Jonathan; Erbacher, Monica (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This current research tests the hypothesized structural model to explore the relationships among help-seeking goals (instrumental help-seeking and executive help-seeking), help-seeking attitude (help-seeking threat), help-seeking behavior (academic help-seeking resource use), self-esteem, locus of control, work-avoidance and academic performance (GPA) in a big model using path analysis method. Data were collected from a large Southwestern University in the U.S. All participants filled out an online survey in Spring 2016 or Fall 2017. Path analyses were used to choose a final model which in which relationships among help-seeking, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement variables were tested. Self-esteem, locus of control, and work avoidance all predicted to help-seeking attitude and goals. Those three self-regulated learning related factors also have an indirect relationship with GPA through instrumental help-seeking. This study also shows that subscribing to the instrumental help-seeking goal is a better predictor of student academic performance than actual help-seeking behavior. This study has several implications on how to form adaptive help-seeking goals and attitudes through adjusting self-esteem, locus of control, and work-avoidance. Interventions targeting these factors would not only improve help-seeking attitudes, goals, and behavior but academic performance as well.