• 1. Mechanistic studies on the formation of glycosyl iodides 2. Synthesis of amino sugars via glycosyl iodides

      Gervay, Jacquelyn; Nguyen, Truc Ngoc, 1972- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The synthesis of oligosaccharides remains a challenging task. In our studies, we applied glycosyl iodides to the synthesis of oligosaccharides. The mechanism of formation of glycosyl iodides from anomeric acetates of glucose, galactose and mannose, and 1,2 and 1,6 anhydro sugars were investigated by NMR. Glycosyl iodides were then applied in glycosidation studies and specifically in the synthesis of a precursor to the trisaccharide of Lewis x, a blood group antigen.
    • 13C and 37Cl characterization of PCE and application to contamination of the Harrison Landfill: Tucson, Arizona

      Rosengreen, Sven Albert.; Bassett, Randy (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Tetrachloroethene (PCE) contamination of groundwater and soil air underneath Harrison Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, likely occurred by downward vapor phase transport of PCE dumped in the landfill. This study has explored the possibility of using isotopic techniques to better understand this process. The author designed and used a technique for the extraction of PCE vapors from soil air, for 6 13C and 637C1 analysis. It involved collecting PCE vapors by passing soil air through PCE adsorbent traps, then processing and transferring the PCE to a combustion tube. The author also measured for 6 13C and 637C1 values from manufactured trichloroethene (TCE, same as measured by another lab) and PCE samples. An additional experiment measured the 6 13C and 837C1 values of the liquid PCE residual after evaporating various fractions of PCE. 8 13C and 837Cl values of the TCE samples previously described were similar to the earlier values, indicating that 8 13C and 637C1 measurements of solvents (including PCE) were reproducible. Successive evaporation of PCE followed a Rayleigh trend, indicating a values of 1.0006 for carbon and 0.9992 for chlorine. The author simulated the PCE soil vapor sampling in the laboratory, achieving high yields and good separation of PCE. 8 13C values from Harrison soil PCE vapors ranged from — 27.3 to —25.1 0/00 and were within previous values for PCE. 637C1 values were at least 2.3 0/00 higher than any previously reported for PCE samples. 637C1 values for PCE, indicated that either the PCE in Harrison landfill became fractionated in situ, or was already 37C1 rich when dumped at the site.
    • The 1888 election

      Reed, Raymond Lawrence, 1912- (The University of Arizona., 1938)
    • The 1889 and 1900 Paris Universal Expositions: French masculine nationalism and the American response

      Moore, Sarah J.; Cooley, Kristin Nicole (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      Universal expositions of the later nineteenth century were opportunities for the host country to reinforce its sense of nationalism and to showcase its technological progress or, read differently, the progress of man. This thesis examines nationhood as defined in terms of masculinity at the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition, which demonstrated French technological, colonial, and artistic superiority over all other nations. This superiority was trumpeted not just through architecture and colonial exhibits, but also through criticism of other countries' artwork, particularly painting and sculpture from the United States. Also discussed is the reaction of American artists to the criticism received in 1889 by producing art at the 1900 Paris Universal Exposition that resonated with masculinity, thereby projecting an enhanced national identity in fine art.
    • A 1968 summer internship served at the Federal Youth Center, Englewood, Colorado

      Mulligan, R. A.; Hallock, Larry C. (The University of Arizona., 1971)
    • 1990 Spousal rape occurrence

      Newlon, Betty J.; Watson, Patti Rae, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the number of Spousal Rapes reported to law enforcement agencies of the Tucson Metropolitan Area during 1990, (2) measure expert perceptions regarding the occurrence of Spousal Rape in the Tucson Metropolitan Area during 1990, (3) compare official reports and expert perceptions regarding the occurrence of Spousal Rape, and (4) determine what experts believe to cause under-reporting, if found. The population for this study consisted of 30 experts working with victims of spousal rape. These experts were from 4 categories: human service workers, therapists, attorneys, and researchers. Thirteen spousal rape reports were received by law enforcement agencies in the Tucson Metropolitan Area. Experts believed that spousal rape occurrence was 10-2500 times higher than the number reported. Most reasons for under-reported that were shared by experts pertained to low public awareness regarding the causes for spousal rape. Also presented are conclusions, recommendations, and implications.
    • 2017 Portfolio of Compositions

      Asia, Daniel; Rice, Willie Aaron; Paiewonsky, Moises; Decker, Pamela (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The following collection represents the sum of works created by composer W. Aaron Rice during his Master's studies at The University of Arizona. This document provides programmatic introductions to each piece performed at the composer's Master's Recital, and the program from said recital is included at the end for archiving. The many separate pieces are introduced with details on compositional intent and brief analyses. In the pages following the introductions, full scores of each piece are included for detailed analysis.
    • 21st Century Change Agents? A Description of the Entrepreneurial Leadership Proclivities of Arizona Extension Educators

      Mars, Matthew M.; Jeffers-Sample, Ashley; Mars, Matthew M.; Rice, Amber H.; Torres, Robert M. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The current knowledge-based economy demands a workforce equipped with the skills to advance innovation through entrepreneurial strategies (Powell & Snellman, 2004). Currently, Extension educators contribute to social and economic development in the sectors of agriculture, natural resource, consumer education, and youth development. Extension educators provide community members with the knowledge and skills needed to obtain a higher quality of life. The strategies of entrepreneurial leadership are relevant to the contemporary work of Extension educators and would provide the opportunity to increase Cooperative Extension’s program planning and implementation success. For the purpose of this study entrepreneurial leadership proclivity is measured through two constructs, innovation and entrepreneurial strategy, in those identified as Cooperative Extension Educators throughout Arizona. The data collected in this study illustrated the lack of entrepreneurial leadership in Extension educators in Arizona, as well as recommends educational possibilities to increase the presence of entrepreneurial leadership.
    • 21st Century Workplace Competencies and the Connection between the University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Undergraduate Students

      Mars, Matthew M.; Moore, Joshua Dane; Torres, Robert M.; Santiago, Frank (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      In 2010, an Association of Public and Land Grant Universities (APLU) study (Crawford, 2010) found that the agricultural industry representatives, Land Grant University alumni, and government employees look for certain skillsets (e.g., communication, leadership) in prospective employees. With the U.S economy recovering from a major economic recession, a greater number of new UA graduates with undergraduate degrees from CALS have cause to be concerned about their overall workforce competitiveness. Crawford's 2010 study examined which soft skills students should possess in order to be deemed hirable by the agriculture industry. Building off of Crawford's research, the current study involves a needs assessment that examines how students perceive 21st century workplace competencies. Specifically, this study will explore and describe the level of perceived importance and ability of 2015 UA CALS students graduating with baccalaureate degrees specific to 21st century workplace soft skill sets. Such identification of needs gaps will lead to greater understanding of the connection between industry demands, higher education institutions, and undergraduate students. The current research required the generation of data capable of leading to insights into the current development needs of undergraduate students in the agriculture and life sciences disciplines specific to 21st century workplace competencies. Student perceptions of such competencies were measured first according to perceived importance, and then perceived ability (Borich, 1980). This descriptive research gathered information from participants with the goal of measuring, summarizing and generalizing among the study's target population (Ary et al., 2010). The results suggest which competencies UA CALS undergraduate students perceive to be important and how they perceive their own abilities within each competency. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data relevant to each of the four research objectives framing this study. In particular, measures of central tendency and variability were used to assess the perceived levels of importance and ability subjects placed on individual competencies. To describe the professional development needs of CALS students in the seven constructs that together categorize 21st century workplace competencies as a whole (professionalism, team, leadership, decision making/ problem solving, experiences, communication, and self-management), mean weighted discrepancy scores (MWDS) were used to analyze the need for the competencies. Borich's needs assessment model was used to reveal the areas of highest training priority as determined by the MWDS.A web based questionnaire with multiple points of contact yielded 61 respondents with diverse backgrounds (e.g., transfer status, geographical background, major fields of study, co-/extra-curricular involvement) from across the college. Of the 52 competencies included within the seven competency categories, 16 had an MWDS that was prioritized as a tier I professional development need, which is of the highest priority. Of the remaining competencies, 20 of them had MWDS's that indicated tier II priority level set for professional development need. Lastly, there were 23 competencies that had MWDS's that indicated tier III priority level set for professional development need, which is the lowest priority level. Recommendations for curricular innovation to better foster student development in the context of the 21st century workplace are provided.
    • A 3-dimensional structural analysis of diploid chromosomes

      Rykowski, Mary C.; Gunawardena, Shermali Dione Shiranthini Harina (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      In this study, we are looking at the 3-dimensional chromosome structure of interphase diploid nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster. The goal is to determine the higher order structure of interphase chromosomes in these nuclei. Higher order structures include those structures larger than the 30nm fiber. Over the years, several general models for higher order chromosome structures have been presented. We look at three popular models for the organization of chromatin during embryogenesis, as each of these models make predictions that can be tested using high resolution in situ hybridization and image processing techniques. For this study we are using the Notch gene for in situ hybridization to embryos in cycles 10-14.Our preliminary results are inconsistent with the radial loop model. It appears that the chromatin might be arranged in folds of 30 and 10nm fibers. We also observe a difference in chromatin structure as the embryo gets older. As the Notch gene is being transcribed during cycle 14 we observe a puffing event. In this study we hope to expand on these observations and present further areas that need to be explored in order to conclusively distinguish these phenomena during early embryogenesis.
    • The 3-point SPAN group decision-making method in sororities

      Kelly, John Fortune, 1943- (The University of Arizona., 1968)
    • 3.0 Bev/c negative pi meson-nucleus interactions

      Schutt, Paul Frederick, 1932- (The University of Arizona., 1959)
    • 3.5 Bev proton-nucleus interactions

      Andrews, Thomas Clyde, 1937- (The University of Arizona., 1961)
    • 3D Endoscope Based on the Controlled Aberration Method

      Tyo, Scott J.; Xu, Mohan; Schwiegerling, Jim; Gmitro, Arthur F. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Surgeons use endoscopes to inspect the cavity of patient’s body in the minimal invasive surgery. However, the conventional 2D endoscopes cannot offer depth information. Surgeons might overshoot the targets due to the lack of depth perception. So, it is essential to develop the 3D endoscopes to overcome this problem. In current 3D imaging technologies, the stereo method and structured light method both require angle diversity. The controlled aberration method is a uniaxial depth measurement method. It only requires the projection pattern and the differential focus to implement depth measurement. It has potential to be applied in the endoscopic system. This research aims to develop a 3D endoscope prototype based on the controlled aberration method and prove it can implement depth measurement. The first part of the work is a simulation study to prove that the controlled aberration method can be scaled down and applied to an endoscopic system for the depth measurement. Then the prototype design was discussed with each element in the projection path and imaging path of the system. Two depth measurement experiments were conducted. One is based on the miniature camera placed next to the projection path, another is based on an on-axis DSLR with diffuser screens. It used diffuser screens as “detector” and DSLR to capture the transmitted image on the screen. These experiement results indicate that endoscope prototype with controlled aberration method can implememnt depth measurement. The mini camera configuration suffers from high distortion. It reduces the measurement accuracy. The DSLR configuration was developed to deal with the distortion problem. But the DSLR camera configuration is not applicable to the actual endoscope. Hence, the future work is to develop a controlled aberration prototype with co-axial projection and imaging path to capture the reflected pattern image of the scene and the optimization of the calibration and measurement processes for more accurate depth measurement.
    • The 6-6 linear intervallic pattern as a style feature in the symphonies of W. A. Mozart

      Kolosick, J. Timothy; Cotner, John Sidney, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      The research for this study entails a systematic classification of all significant instances of the 6-6 pattern in Mozart's symphonies. This data is further categorized according to embellishment types, and discussed with respect to Mozart's application of the model in his complete symphonies. Comparing Mozart's usage with that of Haydn's Paris and London symphonies, one finds that both composers often implemented the model as a means of developing material. Although Mozart and Haydn used the pattern in a variety of conventional ways in thematic and transition sections, there are some striking differences of treatment between the two composers. Haydn applied the pattern as retransitional material to a return of the opening theme. Likewise, his usage is predominantly diatonic. On the other hand, Mozart treated the 6-6 pattern with a high degree of stylization. As his symphonic technique became more distinctive, we find increasingly complex chromatic embellishments of the model. This study reveals that the 6-6 pattern is an important aspect of Mozart's symphonic technique throughout his career as symphonist.
    • 87SR/86SR Analysis as a Method to Explore Human Ecology and Forest Resilience in Ancient Meroe, Sudan

      Pearson, Charlotte; Herrick, Hannah Marie; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Killick, David; Humphris, Jane (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Archaeologists frequently apply 87Sr/86Sr geoprovenance to human and animal bone to answer questions surrounding foodways and migration. Utilizing this method to source archaeological timber has recently expanded, enriching the archaeological record and enhancing studies in wood geochemistry. Due to the effects of time and post-depositional alteration, a considerable portion of archaeological wood is found in the form of charcoal. However, the impacts of carbonization and chemical contamination on wood strontium resilience—and therefore, the applicability of 87Sr/86Sr geoprovenance for anthropogenic charcoal—have not yet been examined. Experimental analysis comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ13C values in wood and experimental charcoal (heated at ~400°C and 900°C) from two Vachellia nilotica trees sourced in modern Sudan illustrated a consistency between untreated wood and both forms of charcoal sufficient to suggest that pyrolysis alone does not significantly alter 87Sr/86Sr ratios or δ13C values in V. nilotica. 87Sr/86Sr values ranged from 0.71715 – 0.71740 (GZL 1) and 0.71678 – 0.71692 (GZL 2). Carbon isotope values ranged from -26.4±0.06؉ (VPDB) to -28.4±0.06؉ (VPDB). Tests on V. nilotica charcoal remnants from late Holocene iron smelting contexts in Meroe, Sudan show that it is possible to produce 87Sr/86Sr ratios from anthropogenic charcoal. Further, these preliminary indications suggest that 87Sr/86Sr data from charcoal supported by carbon isotope data from the same material can be used as a reliable indicator for wood provenance. 87Sr/86Sr data from the Meroe material ranged from 0.70724 - 0.70737, with δ13C values ranging from -26.9±0.06؉ to -24.6±0.06؉ (VPDB). Using this knowledge, I posit that iron smelting fuel charcoal at Meroe may have come from one region between the Atbara confluence and the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile from 400 BCE – 400 CE. Carbon isotope analysis supports this hypothesis. These results suggest that the preference of local V. nilotica charcoal for iron smelting, combined with intensive production ca. 400 – 200 BCE, may have been a catalyst for a break in iron smelting activity at Meroe due to resource exhaustion or climatic variability evidenced throughout the region. Additional improvement in 87Sr/86Sr and δ13C methods for charcoal analysis will enhance this and similar studies in the future.