Now showing items 6656-6675 of 14830


      DelGiudice, Glenn D. (Glenn David) (The University of Arizona., 1982)

      Brown, Mark Timothy. (The University of Arizona., 1984)
    • Habitat selection by elf owls and western screech-owls in the Sonoran Desert

      Morrison, Michael L.; Hardy, Paul Christopher, 1969- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Little is known about habitat selection by elf owls (Micrathene whitneyi) and western screech-owls (Otus kennicottii). From 1994 to 1996 in the Sonoran Desert, I used point counts and nest searches to examine habitat selection by both species at multiple spatial scales. The abundance of both species had a positive association with percent cover of washes and mesquite (Prosopis spp.) at the scale of the study area. At both the scale of the study area and the nesting area, elf owls selected areas with high densities of mature saguaros (Carnegiea gigantea) and saguaro cavities. Elf owls nested only in woodpecker cavities in saguaros, whereas western screech-owls nested in both saguaro cavities and in natural cavities in mesquite. Western screech-owls nested nearly exclusively in gilded flicker (Colaptes chrysoides) cavities when they nested in saguaros. Patterns of nest cavity selection by elf owls suggest they may choose cavities that provide thermoregulatory advantages. I give management recommendations based on my findings.
    • Habitat selection by mountain sheep in Mojave Desert scrub

      Krausman, Paul R.; Berner, Louis Robert, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      I identified habitat use by 12-18 mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in a 320-ha enclosure between June 1990 and June 1991 on the Desert National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. The enclosure included 9 vegetation associations and 5 slope classes. I used a non-mapping technique and line transects to determine availability of vegetation associations and slope classes, and species composition, respectively. I determined use of habitats by mountain sheep with instantaneous sampling. Mountain sheep used midslopes and draw associations on the west side of the study area, and slope classes of 36-80% more than expected based on availability. I tested Hansen's (1980) habitat evaluation model on the study area. The model was >98% accurate in predicting mountain sheep use of habitat. Habitat use by mountain sheep in the enclosure was similar to habitat use of free-ranging mountain sheep.
    • Habitat Suitability Criteria for Nonnative Species and Relationships between Fish Populations and Flow Regime in Four Arizona Streams

      Bonar, Scott A.; Lee, Larissa N.; Guertin, D. Phillip; Bogan, Michael T. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Nonnative species invasions and streamflow alteration are two of the primary causes of native fish depletion in the southwestern U.S. Previous research in Arizona has focused on the habitat needs of native species, without understanding the habitat selection of nonnative species. Additionally, fish populations and streamflow can vary significantly throughout a single Arizona stream, so it is important to understand how spatially variable flows affect fish assemblages. This research has two objectives: 1) to define suitable habitat for nonnative species, and 2) to explore the relationships between the distributions of various fish species throughout time and space in four Arizona streams. Four streams in the Mogollon Rim region of Arizona were sampled during summer base flow conditions (May – October) of 2017 to collect information on fish distributions and habitat conditions. A 20-year dataset from fish sampling in the Verde River by the Arizona Game and Fish Department was used to examine temporal shifts in fish assemblages as they relate to streamflow. Streamflow data from USGS stream gages, the USGS StreamStats application, and the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) provided metrics to characterize streamflow throughout the study sites. These metrics included estimates of 2-year flood flows, 10-year flood flows, 100-year flood flows, mean annual flows, mean channel velocity, stream power at mean flow, and stream power at 2-year flood flow. I defined suitable habitat for seven nonnative species across these four streams, and results indicated that nonnative species were generally using warmer temperatures and shallower depths compared to available habitat, but many habitat results varied by species. Relationships between streamflow characteristics and species assemblages also varied by species. I found that certain native species, like Sonora Sucker, consistently demonstrated positive relationships with spatial flow characteristics across all four streams, demonstrating a preference for areas with higher velocities, flow, and power. Results for other species were more variable by stream, and differences often split the four study streams into similarities among Tonto Creek and the Verde River, the two larger systems dominated by nonnative species, as opposed to the Blue River and Eagle Creek, the two smaller systems dominated by nonnative species. These results can inform decision-makers and fisheries managers in streamflow allocation, habitat restoration, and nonnative species removals.
    • Habitat Suitability Criteria for Zuni Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus yarrowi and Navajo Nation Genetic Subunit Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus and Comparing Efficiency of AFS Standard Snorkeling Techniques to eDNA Sampling Techniques

      Bonar, Scott A.; Ulibarri, Roy M.; Bonar, Scott A.; Mata, Melissa; Matter, William (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      I quantified habitat selection for the endangered Zuni Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus yarrowi and the Navajo Nation Genetic Subunit (NNGS) Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus - a recent taxon described from genetic information. Both taxa are found in northern Arizona and New Mexico border regions. I examined fish [≥50 millimeters (mm) total length (TL)] selection of microhabitat conditions (i.e., water velocity, substrate size, overhead cover, water depth, instream cover, and mesohabitat conditions [i.e., pool, run riffle], during summer base flow conditions for NNGS Bluehead Suckers, and during both summer base flow and high spring flow conditions for Zuni Bluehead Suckers in six streams). Electrofishing, seining, and snorkeling were used to evaluate fish occupancy. From this information, I developed stream specific habitat suitability criteria (HSC) and then generalized HSC for each taxon, and tested transferability of the generalized HSC to individual streams. Zuni Bluehead Suckers and NNGS Bluehead Suckers occupied similar habitats: low velocity pools; sand, silt, and pebble substrate; high percent of instream cover; and water temperatures ranging from 2-21°C. However, Zuni Bluehead Suckers selected for low (0-25%) overhead cover where as NNGS Bluehead Sucker selected for high (0-75%) overhead cover. This was likely due to the source of instream cover–aquatic macrophytes that required sunlight in the Zuni Bluehead Sucker streams, and large woody debris falling from overhead branches in the NNGS Bluehead Sucker streams. Suggestions for managers includes maintaining existing cover or artificially construct additional instream cover; promote overhead cover (e.g., maintaining large trees along streams) and pool mesohabitats. In addition to this work I also tested the new method of environmental DNA (eDNA) to further help conservation efforts for these taxa. Environmental DNA has typically been used to detect invasive species in aquatic environments through water samples. I compared the efficacy of eDNA methodology to American Fisheries Society standard snorkeling surveys to detect presence of a rare fish species. My study site included three streams on the Navajo Nation in northern Arizona and northern New Mexico containing Navajo Nation Genetic Subunit Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus and the Zuni Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus yarrowi. To determine sample sites, I first divided entire wetted area of streams into 100-m consecutive reaches. I systematically selected 10 of those reaches for snorkel and eDNA surveys. Water samples were taken in 10-m sections within each 100-m reach, and fish presence via snorkeling was noted in each 10-m section as well. Water samples were collected at the downstream starting point of each reach, and continued upstream in each section 5 to 8 m ahead of the snorkeler. A qPCR was run on each individual water sample in quadruplicate to test for sucker presence or absence. I was able to positively detect both species with eDNA sampling techniques in two out of three streams. Snorkeling resulted in positive detections of both species in all three streams. In streams where fish were detected with eDNA sampling, snorkeling detected fishes at 11-29 sites per stream, where as eDNA detected fish at 3-12 sites per streams. My results suggested that AFS standard snorkeling was more effective at detecting target fish species than eDNA. To improve eDNA sampling, the amount of water collected and tested should be increased. Additionally, filtering water on site may improve eDNA techniques for detecting fish. Future research should focus on standardizing eDNA sampling to provide a widely operational sampling tool similar to electrofishing, netting, and hydroacoustics.
    • Habitat use and life history of the Mount Graham red squirrel

      Smith, Norman S.; Froehlich, Genice Frances, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      I studied habitat use by 9 radio-collared Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) during the summers of 1988 and 1989 in the Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona. My 2 study areas represented an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)/corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa) association on High Peak and a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) association on Merrill Peak. I trapped 9 squirrels in 33,400 trap hours, and calculated the seasonal home range for 4 animals, 2 in each study area. Hidden density was 0.54 and 0.2 middens/ha, respectively, but seasonal home range size (x = 3.62 ha) did not vary between habitats. Squirrel numbers decreased on both study areas between 1988 and 1989. I concluded that preference for habitat characteristics in midden areas explained lower densities in the mixed conifer vegetation. Squirrels fed mainly on cones and mushrooms, depending on season and availability. Mt. Graham red squirrels may breed twice/year.
    • Habitat use and preference of Gila topminnow

      Matter, William J.; Forrest, Robert Eugene, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      The Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) is federally and state listed as endangered. My objectives were to quantify microhabitat use and preference of topminnow in the field and test responses to controlled laboratory settings. In Cienega Creek, topminnow preferred stream margins where the water was calm, shallow, and contained aquatic vegetation. Topminnow were always near the water surface. Water temperature averaged 1-2 C warmer in areas occupied by fish. In outdoor pools, groups of topminnow consistently preferred cover provided over no cover and selected the upper 1/3 of the water column. Plastic strips, elicited the strongest response and styrofoam sheets elicited the weakest response. Topminnow did not show a consistent preference for cover when tested singly in aquaria, but showed a strong preference for calm water. Responses of topminnow to tests in aquaria were not in concordance with behavior observed in Cienega Creek or in tests conducted in outdoor pools.
    • Habitat use and selection by Merriam's turkeys in the Prescott National Forest, Arizona

      Mannan, R. William; Stone, Sylvia Beth, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Habitat use of Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) was characterized in the Prescott National Forest, Arizona, between March 1991 and August 1992. Roost sites were generally found in canyons or on hillsides, and contained a large number of ponderosa pine trees, and Gambel oak seedlings and trees. Turkeys fed on juniper berries, generally in small groups of large juniper trees within ponderosa pine stands. Turkeys fed on acorns in stands of Gambel oak on hillsides. Turkeys feeding on grass/forb vegetation tended to be on flat areas with a large amount of forb and grass cover. Turkeys loafed under Gambel oak, in areas with large amounts of Gambel oak growth near openings, on hillsides or in canyons. Turkeys also loafed under juniper trees; these areas had a large basal area of alligator juniper and high numbers of Gambel oak seedlings.
    • Habitat use by breeding male Northern Goshawks in northern Arizona

      Bright-Smith, Donald Joseph (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      I radio-tagged and followed 5 and 9 male Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) during the breeding seasons of 1991 and 1992, respectively, to evaluate their use of different forest conditions in managed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Sufficient data for habitat analyses were collected for 11 birds. Minimum convex polygon home-ranges averaged 1,758 ha (SD = 500 ha, range 896-2528 ha) and harmonic mean home ranges averaged 1,530 ha (SD = 477 ha, range 859-2,321 ha). I compared use (i.e., number of hawk locations) and availability (i.e., % of area of home range) for three different forest conditions (canopy closure, edge, and diversity) generated from LANDSAT data. Most (≥6) of the 11 birds used the categories in the three overlays in proportion to their availability. Six of the 11 birds used at least one category on one of the overlays nonrandomly. When the categories of canopy closure were ranked for each bird on the basis of relative preference, these ranks increased with increasing canopy closure.

      Ordway, Leonard L. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • Habitat use by desert mule deer and collared peccary in an urban environment

      Krausman, Paul R.; Bellantoni, Elizabeth Susan, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      I examined movements and habitat use by desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) and collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu) in the Rincon Mountain District of Saguaro National Monument (SNM) from February 1988 through December 1989. Movements and habitat use by mule deer were closely associated with the distribution of free-standing water during the driest seasons of the year. Deer responded to losses of ephemeral water sources in SNM by leaving the monument to obtain water. Four of 5 peccary herds supplemented their natural diet by visiting houses and/or restaurants on a daily or twice daily basis. The addition of water and supplemental food sources was a deliberate effort by homeowners to attract wildlife onto their property. The current pattern of habitat islands interspersed with low density housing (1 house/2-4 ha) is an effective and highly desirable buffer zone between the monument and the more heavily developed urban areas 3.2 km west of the park.

      Wallace, Mark Christopher, 1954- (The University of Arizona., 1984)
    • Habitat use by endangered masked bobwhites and other quail on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

      DeStefano, Stephen; King, Nina Monique, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Masked bobwhites used sites with more structural diversity than what was available on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge during 1994-96. Selected habitat variables that adequately predicted habitat use by masked bobwhites included percent herbaceous canopy cover, structure at 15 cm and 2 m, forb richness, and season. Masked bobwhite used more structural diversity than Gambel's and scaled quail. Gambel's quail had broader habitat tolerances than either masked bobwhite or scaled quail. Selected habitat variables that revealed differences among masked bobwhites, Gambel's quail, and scaled quail included percent woody canopy cover, structure at 15 cm, forb richness, and season. A historic perspective revealed that masked bobwhites used sacaton grasses that grew along the floodplains as important escape cover. I believe that we need to restore the integrity of the grassland ecosystems including the floodplain if we are to recover masked bobwhite quail.
    • Habitat use by fishes of the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge

      Maughan, O. Eugene; Maes, Ronnie Andrew (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      I quantified microhabitat conditions used by Yaqui chub (Gila purpurea), Yaqui topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis sonoriensis), and beautiful shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) on the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Different species and different lifestages used different microhabitats. Smaller fish selected shallower water than adults. Yaqui topminnow and Yaqui chub showed seasonal variation in microhabitats used. Yaqui topminnows were found closer to cover when in the presence of beautiful shiners. Close proximity to cover may indicate a negative interaction. Yaqui chubs did not use microhabitats differently when in the presence of the other two species. Microhabitats used by Yaqui chubs in the ponds and Leslie Creek did not differ. Yaqui chub preferred pools with little or no flow. Management of aquatic environments on the refuge should focus on vegetative thinning. Stocking of beautiful shiner with Yaqui topminnow should be postponed until further research is conducted on the interactions between the two species.
    • Habitat, spatial population structure, and methods for monitoring barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in southern Arizona

      Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Goldberg, Caren (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Debate over global declines of amphibian populations has focused researchers' attention on the lack of basic life-history information about and appropriate monitoring methods for amphibian species. We studied barking frogs ( Eleutherodactylus augusti) in a canyon in the Huachuca Mountains of southern Arizona. Annual (capture) surveys and radio-tracking revealed that most barking frogs in this canyon are strongly associated with limestone. Adults rarely moved between limestone outcrops and numbers of frogs on each outcrop were small. Subpopulations consisting of frogs on sets of neighboring outcrops probably function as a metapopulation. We evaluated four methods for monitoring population size of this species: mark-recapture, distance sampling, visual encounter surveys, and call counts. We found none of these to be able to detect changes in population size powerfully enough to alert managers to declines as they occur. We suggest resource managers focus monitoring efforts on distribution rather than population size.
    • Hadfield manganese steel melting practices

      Chang, Shiang-Lin, 1948- (The University of Arizona., 1974)
    • Halophytes and their potential as landscape plants

      Zube, Ervin H.; Schaefer, Christina Maria, 1959- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Based upon literature search, field investigation, examination of the halophyte collection at the Environmental Research Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona, and an expert survey, 97 salt-tolerant plants have been identified for the use as landscape plants. The plants were screened at salinity levels between 5 and 40 ppt which are critical for plant survival. The globally gathered data revealed information about landscape criteria, such as aesthetic value, climate amelioration, soil stabilization, color, form and drought tolerance, which were organized into architectural, engineering and design categories. These landscape halophytes range from herbaceous ground covers to woody trees. The data were filed in a computer data base, including detailed information about the description and performance of every plant, habitat requirements, maintenance, landscape values and economic uses. The data base, which is continually up-dated, is a search-type, which functions as an information storage system and is designed to provide plant selection by needed characteristics or intended use.
    • Han Opera as a Public Institution in Modern Wuhan

      Post, Jennifer C.; Long, Lingqian; Post, Jennifer C.; Mugmon, Matthew; Ren, Hai (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Wuhan Han Opera Theater (WHOT, formerly Han Opera) is a 400-year old regional opera based in Wuhan, in Hubei Province, in China. WHOT’s recent designation as a public institution under China's neoliberal creative economy initiative to enter the global market has necessitated its transformation from a cultural institution (wenhua jigou) into a creative industry (wehua chanye). As such, WHOT must now create adaptive strategies, alter traditional conventions of performance, infrastructure, education and community presence, reconstitute traditional social functions at the national level, and most importantly, manage a relationship with the government that is entirely novel for both. In the summer of 2016, WHOT participated in two government-led projects: Opera into Campuses and the Chinese National Arts Fund. These programs were the focus of my ethnographic fieldwork, to identify possible effects of the creative economy initiative on a traditional musical institution. Specifically, inquiry was made as to whether and how creative musical and organizational adaptations were being decided, implemented and executed, and as to how the outcomes of these adaptations were being evaluated. Despite using an ethnographic approach, findings from the preliminary study were found to be much more broadly generalizable and applicable across disciplines than expected. As a result, this thesis makes the following arguments: for modernization of an institution of traditional music to be effective, a relationship must exist whereby the transitioning institution is given creative license to generate continued socio-cultural productivity through its creative class ("talent") in joint cooperation with, rather than dependence on, government agencies. The goal must be to revitalize rather than simply preserve such an institution, and to avoid cultural attrition of unique musical qualities of the institution.