Now showing items 9476-9495 of 14780

    • O'odham ki: The development of a theme residence and its effect on American Indian students

      Stauss, Joseph A.; Mason, Julia Marie, 1970- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      American Indian students have historically been underrepresented in higher education. Graduation and persistence rates for American Indians are distressingly low. Increasing Indian student retention has become a priority on many campuses. At the University of Arizona, a wing within a residence hall was reserved for American Indian students as part of a recruitment and retention program. The purpose of this thesis was to describe and assess the history, development and implementation of the American Indian wing. All of the traditional predictors for academic success show that the residents of the wing were at risk for dropping out of college. All of the first year students who lived on the wing were enrolled in Spring 1994. Given this important indicator the wing was a success. The American Indian wing was the beginning of a retention program that encourages Indians to remain at college without compromising cultural values.
    • O-okun Yoruba in Yoruba art historiography: History, problems and prospects

      Omari-Obayemi, Mikelle Smith; Ijagbemi, Bayo, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      One of the most obtrusive features of Yoruba studies has been its clear pattern of regional preferences and biases in its scholarship. This pattern is reflected in the present concentration of studies on the southwest, the northwest, the central subgroups of Ife, Owo, Ijesha, Egba, Ijebu, Oyo, and Ilorin on one hand, and the paucity of works on the northeast and southeast subgroups of the O-okun Yoruba, the Igbomina, the Ikale and the Ilaje on the other. There is no other subgroup where this particularistic trend in Yoruba studies and especially, art historiography can better be observed than with the scholarly neglect of the O-okun peoples, the most northeasterly of the Yoruba subgroups. An important goal of this thesis is to foreground the multi-culturalistic tendencies among the Yoruba and underscore the necessity to provide comparable scholarly attention to neglected subgroups, the O-okun peoples in particular.
    • OAK FUELWOOD VOLUME ESTIMATION IN THE HUACHUCA MOUNTAINS OF ARIZONA (EMORY OAK)

      Dueñez, Ricardo Luis, 1954- (The University of Arizona., 1987)
    • Oaths and imprecations in Chaucer's Canterbury tales

      Birdsall, Esther Katherine Schiefer, 1924- (The University of Arizona., 1950)
    • Object Discrimination Using Electrotactile Feedback

      Fuglevand, Andrew J.; Bailey, Elizabeth Fiona; Arakeri, Tapas Jaywant; Fuglevand, Andrew J.; Bailey, Elizabeth Fiona; Fregosi, Ralph F.; Eggers, Erika D. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      A variety of bioengineering systems are being developed to restore the sense of touch in individuals who have lost this mode of sensory feedback because of spinal cord injury, stroke, or amputation. Typically, these systems detect touch pressure on the fingers of an insensate hand (or from a prosthetic hand in the case of amputees) and deliver the detected pressure information to sensate skin above the site of injury (for example, on the back of the neck) by electrically stimulating that skin with an intensity that matches the detected pressure. We implemented a project that involves developing a method to artificially represent tactile and proprioceptive sensations using electrotactile feedback in prosthetic users. Our system uses one set of electrodes to provide information about contact forces applied by the digits and a separate set to indicate aperture of the hand. We tested the ability of five intact human subjects to distinguish objects of varying weight, width and compliance based on electrotactile feedback arising from sensors placed on the hand of an experimenter (not visible to the subject) grasping and lifting the test objects. Over the course of five separate training sessions, we observed a statistically significant (P=0.026) improvement in the mean performance of all subjects. Thus, this study serves as proof that human subjects can learn to make sense of multichannel-multivariable electrotactile feedback to comprehend certain physical features associated with an object.
    • An object oriented approach to finite element analysis and multi-body dynamic analysis program designs

      Arabyan, Ara; Sagal, Ellen Jean, 1954- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Procedurally-oriented computer programs used to perform finite element and multibody dynamics analyses are difficult to understand, use, and modify. A new approach, object-oriented programming, was used to develop a finite element code that is easier to apply, understand, and modify. Object-oriented code is easier to understand, as the characteristics and operations associated with a physical phenomena are grouped in a class whose structure closely parallels the modeled entity. Elements, bodies, joints, and mechanisms are modeled as classes. Program application is facilitated by a hierarchy of class structure. Manipulation of higher level body and mechanism class types direct the complicated, lower level code of element calculations. Lower level code is hidden in an object library resulting in a shorter, simpler driver program for an analysis. Modification and expansion of programs is easily accomplished through object-oriented language features such as modularization of code into classes and overloaded functions. Body and element abstract base classes provide "templates" for creation of new type classes used to develop additional analyses.
    • An object-oriented environment for system structuring

      Rozenbilt, Jerzy W.; Hover, Edward Martin, 1954- (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This thesis describes the design and implementation of a structured knowledge representation scheme within an object-oriented environment. The knowledge representation scheme is based on the system entity structure (SES), a labeled tree-like graph which can be used to represent families of systems. The object-oriented environment is the Knowledge Representation for Object-oriented Simulation (KROS). A brief introduction to these two systems is made and a design of an automated model structuring system based on them is discussed. A detailed example based on a visual flight simulation graphical display system (GDS) is developed to demonstrate features of the model structuring system and show its utility. The SES has been implemented within KROS and does contribute formal ideas for decomposing systems. Implementing the SES within KROS allowed the use of the object-oriented methodology that KROS provides for algorithm implementation. The standardization provided by the Common LISP language allows the resulting system to be used on a variety of machines.
    • Observational Aspects of Cometary Disintegration

      Roemer, Elizabeth; Snell, Charles; Taylor, Donald J. (The University of Arizona., 1969)
      Questions of cometary lifetimes and disintegration rates are important to current theories concerning the origin of comets. Data from recent objective observations are not sufficient for a statistically meaningful discussion of disintegration phenomena. It is necessary to make use of older visual observations, which are often rather vague and subject to personal biases. In spite of the difficulties involved in such a study, it is possible to retrieve useful information from these observations. It has been my goal in this paper to thoroughly utilize the observational material relevant to a meaningful discussion of cometary origins. First, the sources and techniques of the study are described. A discussion of the various sorts of activity is included. Persistence, significance, and conditions of occurrence are discussed. Next, theories of cometary origin are summarized. Important parts of the Oort theory are outlined, with emphasis on points relating to cometary disintegration and the observable characteristics. The calculations of cometary parameters by Oort and Whipple are reviewed, and the important consequences are discussed. Lyttleton's attack on the Oort cloud hypothesis is briefly described and criticized. If the Oort theory is correct, "new" comets on their first close approach to the sun from the comet cloud should show a high disintegration rate or appreciable fading. An attempt is made to correlate activity and disintegration with cometary "age," using reciprocal (original) semi -major axes (1 /a) and spectral continuum strength as indicators of "age." No correlation of any sort is apparent. It appears that activity and disintegration- related phenomena are not correlated with these age criteria. Since outright division and related catastrophic disintegration phenomena apparently do not account for the excessive loss rate among young comets, as required by the Oort theory, fading may be called into play. The mechanisms of brightness variation and the results of previous studies are summarized. Everhart's study of discovery probability functions is described, and the results of this study are utilized to determine the amount of fading required to render "new" comets (on their first passage through the observability region in the inner solar system) undiscoverable on the second and subsequent perihelion passages. A total fading of one magnitude is needed to cause 55% of the "new" comets to disappear (become undiscoverable) at the next perihelion passage. This figure is approximate, and is based on some uncertain assumptions concerning the average brightnesses and other characteristics of various groups of comets. Using two different methods, I have attempted to uncover observational evidence of fading among "new" comets. First, absolute magnitudes are correlated with age, again using 1/a as the criterion. No correlation is found. Next, a number of long -period comets are investigated to determine the exact period over which they were observed. The mean absolute magnitude of the comets observed only before perihelion passage is compared with the mean absolute magnitude of those observed only after, with the expectation of demonstrating fading after perihelion. The opposite effect is found. Some mechanism of residual activity apparently causes these objects to become brighter after perihelion passage. This result is not in very good agreement with some previous studies. We must conclude that there is no direct observational evidence of appreciable fading among new comets. The data obtained in this study have been applied to several subsidiary investigations. An attempt is made to correlate cometary activity and disintegration with sunspot numbers. No significant correlation is found. An investigation is made into some results predicted by Harwit on the basis of his theory of cometary splitting due to collisions in the ecliptic plane. According to Harwit, the incidence of splitting should be higher for retrograde comets than for objects in direct orbits. I find no pronounced correlation of splitting with orbital inclination among long -period comets. Finally, a brief study is made of the absolute magnitudes of split comets. The results verify Whipple and Stefanik's contention that split comets tend to be bright, but I would attribute this, effect to observational selection. The data on splitting among faint comets are probably very incomplete.
    • Observations of nurse's drug knowledge and communication of drug effects

      Bowman, Kathleen Meryl, 1946- (The University of Arizona., 1974)
    • Observations of staff-patient contact in a psychiatric intensive care unit

      Foley, Jean Marie (The University of Arizona., 1981)
    • Observations of the emerging role of the nurse practitioner

      Rios, Frances Clark, 1935- (The University of Arizona., 1974)
    • Observations on the gross and histological morphology of the chinchilla kidney

      Wright, David Victor, 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1969)
    • OBSERVATORY DESIGN

      REYNOSO, RAUL REYES (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Gut Microbiome

      St. John, Paul; Morales, Efreim Joseph Dela Cruz; Kiela, Pawel; Pace, Thaddeus; Parthasarathy, Sairam (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      We investigated how the combined influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) and high-fat diet (HFD)—modelling obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)—can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and alter host gene expression. The study involved 16 mice randomly assigned to four experimental groups receiving distinct treatments as follows: normoxia-normal diet (NM-ND), normoxia-high-fat diet (NM-HFD), intermittent hypoxia-normal diet (IH-ND) and intermittent hypoxia-high-fat diet (IH-HFD). IH-treated mice were subjected to ten IH cycles per hour (six-minute cycles, first three at 9% O2 and the next three at 21% O2). Mucosa and fecal microbiota were characterized by pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA and analyzed via Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) software package. Host response was analyzed through microarray analysis of colonic genes. Nevertheless, the focus of the experiment’s microbiome and microarray analysis shifted to the proximal colon. Alpha-diversity and beta-diversity analysis of the mucosal and fecal microbiota suggested a more potent impact of HFD on distinct differences in bacterial profile, accompanied by an increase in Firmicute:Bacteroidetes ratio. Bacterial community profiles in the proximal colon were demonstrated to have more significant (p<0.05) dissimilarities in contrast to the distal colon. We found that members of the same taxa behaved differently; more specifically the Peptostreptococcaceae family and the Lachnospiraceae family (both from the Firmicute phylum) grew in abundance on HFD but decreased and increased in numbers, respectively, with the added treatment of IH. Two-way ANOVA on samples calculated that dietary content had the most significant (p < 0.05) impact on gene expression; followed by the combined impact of diet and oxygen status, and then oxygen status alone. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) biological functions (ex. cell-to-cell adhesion) while gene set analysis (GSA) further identified the genes (ex. Cldn2, -4 and -15) that may be responsible for regulating these altered processes. Taken together, the combined impact of IH and HFD on the gut microbiota significantly caused dysbiosis on a specific site more than another (proximal colon versus distal colon, respectively), had varied effects on different taxonomic levels and elicited changes on host gene expression involved in intestinal impermeability—playing a key role in immune and metabolic responses that may underlie disease.