Now showing items 14557-14576 of 14780

    • Waiving Nepa to Build A Border Wall: From Conflict to Collaboration on the Arizona-Mexico Border between 1990 And 2017

      López-Hoffman, Laura; Rodriguez-McGoffin, Mariana Sofia; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Marsh, Stuart (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Signed in 1969, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the cornerstone of US environmental law. It requires the government to complete an environmental review for every planned action that may have a significant impact on the environment. It also requires extensive public input. Thus, NEPA enables citizens to participate in environmental decision-making. But, in 2005, Congress passed a law—called the REAL ID Act—that gave the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees the Border Patrol, the right to waive NEPA for any action taken along the border. This essentially cut border communities off from the ability to influence Border Patrol decisions. Subsequently, the Border Patrol built a network of communication towers linked by 550 miles of barriers and roads without formally consulting the public. Despite popular perceptions that the Border Patrol has overlooked environmental concerns, in one instance the Border Patrol provided funding to the Fish and Wildlife Service to build a fish barrier to prevent invasive species from entering the San Bernardino Wildlife Refuge. This action helped protect the most ecologically intact watershed, and the only undammed watershed, in the whole southwestern United States. And yet, because of the absence of NEPA, which would have required informing the public, no one seems to know about this and other steps the Border Patrol has taken to mitigate environmental damages. This study highlights some of the ways in which NEPA enhances cooperation between agencies, strengthens accountability mechanisms and facilitates public participation.
    • The wake of bluff bodies in the presence of combustion

      Blumenthal, Donald Kamp, 1930- (The University of Arizona., 1965)
    • Wanting What is Already Gone: Functional Imaging Differentiating Reward Components in Bereavement

      O'Connor, Mary-Frances; McConnell, Mairead H.; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Killgore, W. Scott; Alexander, Gene (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Complicated grief, or persistent complex bereavement disorder, is a condition that affects approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and is marked by intense longing and yearning for the deceased. Little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms contributing to this syndrome, but previous research suggests that reward pathways in the brain may play a role. The present study was designed with this theory in mind, aiming to understand reward processing in those experiencing complicated and non-complicated grief as well as to differentiate the "wanting" and "liking" phases of reward processing in bereavement. Twenty-five older adults were categorized based on grief severity into one of three groups: complicated grief (CG), non-complicated grief (NCG) and non-bereaved married controls (NB). Neural activation was examined using fMRI while participants viewed a countdown on the screen (anticipation) followed by a photo of their (living or deceased) spouse. There was no significantly differential activation between the three groups for the spouse v. stranger photo contrast, nor for anticipation period v. spouse photo. However, these two contrasts were also run separately in the three groups. Each group produced significant activation, in similar and distinct regions, primarily associated with emotion and visual processing. In addition, post-hoc analyses were conducted using self-reported yearning scores as a regressor across all bereaved participants, which revealed that greater symptoms of yearning predicted greater activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). This region of the brain has been previously linked to depression and suggests that symptoms of yearning may present an opportune place to intervene to improve outcomes in CG.
    • War and death: A comparison of Freud's ideas with four works of German World War I literature

      Richter, Roland; Hales, Barbara, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      Sigmund Freud has much to say about the subject of war and death in his later work, written after 1914. Freud explores the effect of war on the soldier, his adjustment to war, his retreat to the primitive, the development of neuroses in combat, and the soldier's reaction to death. War and death are also important subjects found in German literature of the First World War. The aim of this thesis is to briefly review Freud's ideas on the individual in war, and to juxtapose these ideas to various accounts provided by German soldiers of the First World War. The four works of German World War I Literature used in this comparison are: Im Westen Nichts Neues by Erich Maria Remarque, Feuer und Blut by Ernst Junger, Seelenleben des Soldaten an der Front by Ludwig Scholz, and Kriegsbriefe gefallener Studenten edited by Philipp Witkop.
    • War prayer

      Knable, Robert Dennis (The University of Arizona., 1977)
    • The war referendum; innovation for national "pure democracy," 1862-1938

      Sperry, James Russell, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1963)
    • Warfare: An "undesirable necessity" in Navajo life

      Holm, Tom; Spicer, Brent C. (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      The first part of this thesis examines how Navajo cultural philosophy views raiding, warfare, and warriors. Navajos understand raiding and warfare as controlled evils that should only be used for defense and protection. Anything human, environmental, or spiritual that poses a threat to Navajo individuals and/or society is considered an enemy. Likewise, anyone who provides protection against these potential harms may be considered a warrior. The second part of this research tests Clifton Kroeber and Bernard Fontana's hypothesis regarding indigenous warfare in respect to the Navajo. These scholars theorize that indigenous men used warfare as a means to re-establish their social worth which had presumably diminished as a result of some cultural shift in equity between the sexes. Their hypothesis is somewhat accurate as it pertains to Navajo warfare. Warfare, understood as protection, provides several outlets for men, women, and medicine people to bolster their self-esteem and social worth.
    • Warfarin Pharmacogenomics in a Hispanic Population: A Candidate SNP Study

      Karnes, Jason H.; Kaye, Justin; Laukaitis, Christina M.; Darnell, Diana K. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Warfarin remains one of the most widely prescribed anticoagulants but is also a leading cause of adverse drug reactions. Genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms enable accurate dose estimation, potentially leading to improved safety and efficacy. However, genotype-guided dosing algorithms were developed primarily in populations of European descent and limited data are available regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly influence warfarin dose in Hispanic populations. Research Aim: The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical factors and SNPs previously associated with stable warfarin dose variability in populations of European and Hispanic descent accurately predicted warfarin stable dose in a Hispanic population. Study Design: Self-reported Hispanic and Latino patients on stable warfarin dose (defined as the same dose for at least two clinic visits separated by at least two weeks) were recruited. Methods: Candidate SNPs, including CYP2C9*2/*3, VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP4F2*3, and NQO1*2, were genotyped and clinical data were collected using a survey and the electronic medical record. Stepwise linear regression was performed to determine variables that significantly predicted square root of weekly warfarin dose. Results: A total of 76 patients of primarily Mexican American ancestry participated. All SNPs were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The final stepwise regression model incorporated six variables, which explained 71% of the variability in warfarin weekly dose requirements. Significant predictors included weight (R2=0.287, p<0.0001), age (R2=0.143, p<0.0001), amiodarone use (R2=0.067, p=0.0005), and prior stroke (R2=0.025, p=0.02). Significant SNPs included VKORC1-1639A (R2=0.152, p<0.0001), and CYP2C9*2/*3 (R2=0.032, p=0.02). CYP4F2*3 and NQO1*2 did not significantly impact warfarin dose requirements despite previously published associations in Hispanic populations. Conclusion: These findings suggest that clinical and genetic predictors of warfarin weekly dose requirements are similar among populations of European descent and Hispanic populations with Mexican American ancestry. These results require replication and validation in independent cohorts with similar ethnicity, but advance our understanding of influences on warfarin dose variability among different race/ethnic groups.
    • Warrants for the provision of left-turn bays

      Matasic, Richard John, 1940- (The University of Arizona., 1967)
    • Warring states political rhetoric and the Zhanguo ce persuasions

      Shields, Anna M.; Metcalf, Mark Leslie (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      The persuasive speeches of the Zhanguo ce, "The Intrigues of the Warring States," are considered by many to have been written for the purpose of training Warring States political advisers in the rhetorical style of the Zongheng rhetorical school. In contrast to earlier Chinese persuasive styles, the persuasions of the Zhanguo ce were apparently crafted to incorporate manipulative techniques in order to improve the effectiveness of the presentations. This thesis analyzes persuasive speeches from Zhanguo ce in order to identify the types of rhetorical devices used by Warring States rhetors. It also evaluates another reputed Warring States text, the Guiguzi, that openly advocates the use of psychological manipulation in persuasions. Lacking evidence that the received Guiguzi is a valid Warring States text, this thesis compares the Guiguzi teachings and Zhanguo ce persuasions to identify similarities that may indicate general Warring States attitudes toward using psychological manipulation in political persuasions.
    • Watch your language: Metaphor as a source of available information

      Morrill, Calvin; Morgan, Susan Elaine, 1967- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Few studies have attempted to operationalize metaphor or measure its effect on receivers. This thesis suggests that the language used to frame information has a powerful impact on receivers. The experiment following the literature review shows that the use of a {family, plant, biology} metaphor cluster produces significantly greater donations of money to an organization. Better, though nonsignificant, results on other dependent measures were also obtained using the {family, plant, biology} cluster rather than the {war, machine, death} cluster. Theoretical implications and organizational applications of these findings are discussed and new research directions are proposed.
    • Water age dating of the Carrizo sand

      Brinkman, James Edward (The University of Arizona., 1981)
    • Water Age in Residential Premise Plumbing

      Lansey, Kevin E.; Schück, Sasha; Duan, Jennifer G.; Valdes, Juan B. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In most countries around the world, water is treated physically and chemically to a quality that is safe for human consumption. In spite of these efforts, every year people die as a consequence of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. Legionella is arguably the deadliest pathogen in drinking water in the US and efforts are underway to reduce the likelihood of infecting potable water consumers. One of the primary factors to measure water quality degradation is water age. Water quality degrades with the time that the water sits in pipes. Over time, the residual disinfectant decays, disinfectant by products are created and the water becomes more susceptible to pathogen regrowth. This concern is not limited in the distribution systems but carries over to residential premise plumbing system. A key factor affecting water age in the premises is fixtures’ idle times. As a result, poorly designed plumbing layouts and intermittent usage patterns may lead to high residence times. In the present study, a methodology was developed to numerically quantify water age in residential premise plumbing systems. The scheme is composed of a hydraulic solver, EPANET with modifications, a demand stochastic simulator, SIMDEUM-UA, and a plumbing layout generator based on CAD models. This method was used to determine layout design practices that contribute to lower water ages. The layout is shown to have a significant impact on water age. Modified layouts reduced the water age metrics of absolute maximum age, mean maximum and mean water by up to 76%, 66% and 58%, respectively. A best practice is to connect the water closets at the end of the premise distribution branches. The effect of water heater types on residence times was also assessed. It was found that instant or on demand heater helps reduce water age across all layouts for all the metrics, at both the outlet and the point of connection of the fixture to the distribution system. To further decrease water age, auto-flushers were installed on certain nodes, as the USEPA (2016) recommends flushing the system at regular intervals, and further if combined with a flush of hot water at a temperature of at least 60 °C (140 °F), it would help sterilize the hot system between the heater and the flusher as recommended by the WHO (2007). Proposed methods to implement these so-called hot super-flushing were discussed for future research. However, none of the hydraulic approaches proposed here impact the “last foot” of pipe connecting plumbing fixtures with the premise distribution pipes. Lastly, when comparing the resulting pressures using the simulated demands against the peak demand estimates with flows from the plumbing code, code pressures are always lower than the simulated ones. This may indicate that the design method conservatively overestimates demands. Nonetheless, oversized pipes are detrimental for water age and should be avoided, as greater demands are required to flush the system.
    • WATER AND NITROGEN EFFECTS ON THE CROP WATER STRESS INDEX OF COTTON.

      Perez, Jose, 1950- (The University of Arizona., 1985)
    • Water and peace in the Middle East: A case study of Israel and Palestine

      Bradley, Michael; Al-Rayyes, Mohanad; Bradley, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      The world is facing a growing challenge in maintaining water quality and meeting increasing demands for water resources. This trend is particularly evident in the Middle East, where water scarcity has reached critical levels. This water scarcity could lead to poverty, social or political problems, and disputes where any amount of water to be shared between Israel and its neighbors--the Palestinians, Syrians, and Jordanians- decreases the potential allocation for the other groups. Comprehensive development of resources combined with rigid demand management strategies and effective waste water reuse systems could prevent water from becoming a cause for conflict. Management of groundwater, in general, and the management of transboundary groundwater, in particular, are difficult tasks. This is more than true when this transboundary-shared resource is shared by parties who have a history of mutual hostilities for decades. As a result, water management between the Israelis and the Palestinians should focus on property rights, principles of management, and economic aspects and institutional aspects. In order to be efficient and effective in the area of water management, much data and knowledge based on monitoring, modeling, and research are required. As a result, water could become the window of opportunity and cooperation in the Middle Eastern region, because it represents financial aspects, while the other aspects which constrain the peace process are much more political and sensitive in nature and are more difficult to solve. Collaboration in water resources management can thus become a major contributor toward confidence building and a basis for cooperation and joint management between the Israelis and Palestinians, as well as all of the parties in the region.
    • Water availability for the Central Arizona Project : a projection for 1985-2040

      Malloch, Steven Philip,1955-; Buras, Nathan (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      The Central Arizona Project Water Availability Model (CAPWAM) is a simplified model of the hydrology and operations of the Colorado River designed to estimate water availability for the Central Arizona Project (CAP) for the period 1985 to 2040. CAPWAM differs from other models of the basin in that it uses synthetic streamflow data. When historic streamflow data are used in CAPWAM, results are very similar to those of the Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS). However when data from a first-order autoregressive streamflow generator are used in CAPWAM, there is greater average availability of water for the CAP and also greater variability in diversion. Both surplus deliveries and severe shortage deliveries to southern Arizona are more frequent in CAPWAM than CRSS. Using only historic data in a river operations model produces results in which extreme events--both floods and droughts--are underestimated.
    • A Water budget and land management recommendations for Upper Cienega Creek Basin

      Knight, Erik Lloyd.; Ince, Simon; Buras, Nathan; Davis, Don (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      The upper Cienega Creek basin contains a rare perennial stream and riparian system in a desert region where water is not usually found above the ground surface. A water budget is developed for this watershed to provide quantitative assessments of the different water exchange processes. Annual estimates precipitation and surface water outflow are made from historic data records. Groundwater outflows and evapotranspiration losses are calculated with computer models developed for the upper basin. Information from the water budget contributes to the evaluation of what land and management policies will help strengthen the preservation of the Cienega Creek riparian region. The BLM employs many protective management strategies, which can be reinforced with federal riparian protection policies, to preserve the riparian system. Urban development in the Sonoita-Elgin region has the potential to impact the water supply of the upper basin. Federal protection of the riparian region would preclude consumptive use of the basin's water for urban expansion and would preserve the riparian system for future use and enjoyment.