Now showing items 11700-11719 of 14815

    • The Role of Feasting in the Development of Complexity in Minoan Society

      Schon, Robert; Kaiser, Luke Frederic; Schon, Robert; Mills, Barbara; Voyatzis, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Feasting is one of the most ubiquitous communal activities in the history of humanity. Oftentimes, feasting is accompanied by a substantial amount of material culture that carries intimate details of the activities that took place at these events. In fact, the changes in the material culture of a feast can also inform us as to how society itself was transforming by becoming increasingly insular or shifting toward a more regional sense of identity. One of the established methods of analyzing a feast is through the examination of its ceramic assemblage. The Bronze Age site of Mochlos in East Crete has a well-stratified Early Minoan deposit which has provided me with an opportunity to interpret a number of social, political, and economic intricacies taking place in East Crete as Minoan society approached the palatial system that dominated the Middle and Late Minoan periods. In order to do this, I provide a background to my research, perform a ceramic study of the stratified deposit in question, interpret the results of the analysis, and include a cross-cultural investigation that serves to further enlighten the data from Mochlos. What is most important to take from this study is that Prepalatial society was not without complexity and structure, and, in reality, much of the complexity that we attribute to the palatial social system of the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE can be traced back to the second half of the 3rd millennium BCE.
    • The role of formal operations and field dependence in identity formation

      Kahn, Marvin; Heberle, Jeanette Day, 1946- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Ego-identity is influenced by many factors. Formal operations and field-dependence have often been cited as important factors in the level of ego-identity achieved. One hundred fifty-three introductory Psychology students were given the Personal Orientation Inventory as a measure of ego-identity and actualization, a test of Formal Operations developed by Karen Hardy-Brown and the Embedded Figures test as a measure of Field-dependence. No correlation was found between any of the measures indicating that a persons ego-identity was not related to the use of Formal Operations or field-dependence. A factor analysis was also performed with each instrument loading on a separate factor.
    • The Role of Gender and Nap Status in Executive Functioning of Four-Year Old Korean Children

      Gomez, Rebecca; Kim, Ji-Soo; Gomez, Rebecca; Edgin, Jamie; Kapa, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Most children discontinue daytime napping by the age of five. This study investigated the role of nap status and gender in executive functioning of Korean four-year olds, about half of whom have transitioned out of naps. Thirty-seven children living in the Gyeonggi-do area in South Korea participated in this study. A sleep diary filled out by parents was used to identify their nap habits and their executive function was assessed using the Fish Flanker Task involving three phases (standard, reverse, mixed). Looking at speed, reaction-time analyses suggested that girls take longer to warm up on the standard flanker task compared to boys a difference that diminishes by the next phase when children encounter the reverse flanker task. Looking at accuracy, children were slow to warm up. Although there were no differences in initial exposure to the standard flanker task, children were more accurate on congruent than incongruent trials in the the mixed phase regardless of nap status or gender. When shifting from the standard flanker to the reverse flanker task, habitual nappers were more accurate on incongruent trials in the reverse-flanker task compared to non-habitual nappers. There were no statistically significant differences in duration of nighttime sleep for habitual and non-habitual nappers supporting the idea that the advantage in accuracy on incongruent trials for habitual nappers was due to the nap. The results suggest that four-year olds may still receive a cognitive benefit from habitual naps, especially when they must shift between tasks.
    • The role of groundwater flow in the genesis of stratabound ore deposits: a quantitative analysis

      Garven, Grant (The University of Arizona., 1982)
      Many conceptual models have been proposed to explain the fluid-flow mechanism responsible for the origin of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits such as those in the Mississippi Valley and at Pine Point. This study is devoted to the quantitative investigation of one ore-genesis mechanism gravity-driven groundwater-flow systemso Numerical modeling techniques are used to develop a self-contained computer code for two-dimensional simulation of regional transport processes along cross sections through sedimentary basins. The finite-element method is applied to solve the steady-state, fluid-flow and heat-transport equations, and a movin6-particle random-walk model is developed to predict the dispersion and advection of aqueous components. The program EQ3/EQ6 is used to compute possible reaction-path scenarios at the ore-forming site. Full integration of geochemical calculations into the transport model is currently impractical because of computer-time limitations. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicate that gravity-driven ground water-flow systems are capable of sustaining favorable fluid-flow rates, temperatures, and metal concentrations for ore formation near the thin edge of a basin. Dispersive processes render long-distance transport of metal and sulfide in the same fluid an unlikely process in the genesis of large ore deposits, unless metal and sulfide are being added to the fluid along the flow path. The transport of metal in sulfate-type brines is a more defensible model, in which case the presence of reducing agents control the location of ore deposition. Hydrodynamic conditions that could result in ore formation through mixing of two fluids are rare. The theoretical approach is a powerful tool for gaining insight into the role of fluid flow in ore genesis and in the study of specific ore districts. A preliminary model of the Pine Point deposit suggests paleoflow rates on the order of 1.0 to 5.0 m3/m2 yr, paleoconcentrations of zinc on the order of 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg• H 2 O, and paleotemperatures in the range 60°C to 100°c. Under these conditions, the time required for the formation of Pine Point would be on the order of 0.5 to 5.0 million years.
    • The Role of HTLV-1 Related Endogenous Retroviral Sequence in the Etiopathogenesis Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      Adelman, Miranda K.; Leo, Nancy Stefany; Adelman, Miranda K.; Burd, Gail D.; Ahmad, Nafees (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease. HTLV-1 Related Endogenous Sequence (HRES-1), a human endogenous retrovirus, produces 2 retroviral-like Gag capsid proteins (p8 and p15) that share significant sequence homology to the U1-subunit of the small ribonucleoprotein complex (U1sn-RNP), an autoantigen of lupus. The central hypothesis is that molecular mimicry between HRES-1 and U1sn-RNP serves as a priming event in SLE via the production of cross-reactive autoantibodies. Anti-HRES-1/U1sn-RNP serological responses in subjects with SLE and comparison populations were characterized. An overlapping peptide set mapping the HRES-1 p8 and p15 proteins was used. SLE subjects produce IgG to several regions of HRES-1. Healthy subjects or those with RA, HIV-1 infection, or HTLV-1-infection produced no significant anti-HRES-1 IgG. Anti-HRES-1 antibodies deposited in the kidneys of patients with SLE glomerulonephritis were identified. Our data suggests that HRES-1 plays a role in SLE by means of a molecular mimicry mechanism with U1sn-RNP.
    • The Role of Identity in Local Environments: Formalization of Tucson's Identity

      Romero, Juan Bustelo; Jeffery, R. Brooks; Frederickson, Mark; Doxtater, Dennis (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Due to several factors such as the excess of the urban sprawl or low density construction, Tucson suffers from certain homogeneity that makes difficult to discern its particular essence. Conversely, we may find a considerable number of cities‐Las Vegas, New York, San Francisco, Rome or Venice among many others‐ that boast about its acknowledged identity. Key investigation will uncover the factors that generate some of these unique identities. Subsequently these assumptions are then compiled in a design agenda that will generate a design project applied to Tucson. Beyond the search of a plain answer the research produces a method of investigation that provides the capacity for designing urban environments with the physical essential qualities that define the identity of a particular place. The research is based on direct observation, aerial and ground level photography and synthesis maps of several case studies.
    • The role of ideology in political action

      Lentz, George H. (George Harry) (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • The Role of Inflammation in Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Patients

      Wilson, Jean M.; Rygelski, Marian Mikaela; Wilson, Jean M.; Connick, Elizabeth; Runyan, Raymond B. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I, or HIV, is one of the most well-known and well-researched viruses in the world. The current standard of care for HIV infected individuals is an antiretroviral drug therapy regiment, or ART, started immediately after diagnosis. While this treatment is generally quite effective at keeping the viral load low and stopping the progression from HIV infection to AIDS, patients receiving ART therapy still have a lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals. Many times, the cause of death in these patients is not the common opportunistic pathogens and cancers linked to HIV and AIDS, but chronic health conditions that develop. One of these conditions that is seen in many of the HIV infected patients undergoing the antiretroviral therapy is cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Research shows that one of the key players in developing these conditions in HIV patients is the chronic inflammation caused by the immune system attempts to control the level of the virus. By studying the links between HIV, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, we may be able to find solutions to the development of chronic disease in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.
    • The role of intermittent rivers and streams in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System/

      Hoffman, Michael Howard.; Underhill, A. Heaton; Brickler, Stanley K.; Ingram, Helen M.; Cox, Milo L. (The University of Arizona., 1981)
      The role of intermittent rivers and streams in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System is explored. The past, present, and future of the National System are examined to determine what role the intermittent watercourse plays in each time frame. Arizona intermittent rivers considered as potential candidates for the National System are profiled. A case study of the San Pedro, an Arizona intermittent river, was conducted to determine if that river has Wild and Scenic potential. Questions of the intermittent watercourse type's eligibility for inclusion in the National System are addressed. The conclusion reached during the study is that, under certain conditions, intermittent rivers and streams are eligible for and merit inclusion in the National System.
    • The Role of Ketone Signaling in the Hepatic Response to Fasting

      Renquist, Benjamin; Foy, Caroline; Renquist, Benjamin; Limesand, Sean; Fregosi, Ralph; Collier, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Ketosis is a metabolic condition that occurs during heat stress, prolonged exercise, fasting, and in obese and diabetic individuals. The major ketone body, β-OH butyrate, affects cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner through its receptor GPR109a. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of diabetes. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to elevate β-OH butyrate production, and in GPR109a +/+ and -/- mice. To directly assess the response to ketone signaling we gave intraperitoneal injections of the GPR109a agonists niacin (0.8mmol/kg) and β-OH butyrate (5.7mmol/kg) to HMGCS2 knockdown mice over the final 9 hours of a 16 hour fast. Ketogenic deficient mice showed a more robust increase in hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) mRNA than control mice in response to fasting. Accordingly, niacin and β-OH butyrate administration decreased fasting CPT1 mRNA expression in knockdown mice, while fasting knockdown UCP2 mRNA and control HMGCS2 mRNA were lowered by β-OH butyrate. GPR109a knockout did not alter the hepatic response to fasting, although the effect of niacin on fasting HMGCS2 mRNA expression was dependent on GPR109a expression. While the role of GPR109a and how chronic hyperketonemia alters β-OH butyrate signaling require further study, these data suggest that endogenous β-OH butyrate signaling during a fast regulates the transcript levels of hepatic genes directly involved in its own synthesis.
    • The Role of Marketing Planning in Small-Sized Architectural Firms

      SOO, FUAT JAW (The University of Arizona., 1994)
    • The Role of Message Frame and Contact in Young Adults' Attitudes toward Older Adults and Social Security

      Harwood, Jake; Springer, Sheila Ann; Kenski, Kate; Rains, Steve (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Message framing and intergroup contact theories provide the framework for this study to examine how episodic and thematic political message frames affect young adults' attitudes toward older adults and Social Security. Three specific moderators were examined: direct contact, trait empathy, and critical consumption skills. Effects were explored experimentally using manipulated messages about abolishing Social Security. Results indicated that political message framing related to public policies does affect attitudes toward those policies. Respondents in the episodic condition reported significantly more negative attitudes toward Social Security than respondents in the thematic and control conditions. A significant effect on individual attribution of responsibility was also found such that respondents in the thematic condition rated individual responsibility significantly lower than respondents in the atypical condition. The study extends previous work by examining both intended and unintended attitudinal consequences of message frames.

      Rylander, Leslie A. (The University of Arizona., 1984)
    • The role of neutrophils in systemic anaphylaxis in the rabbit

      Halonen, Marilyn; Dunn, Anita Marie, 1956- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      The objective of this study was to determine whether neutrophils play a significant role in anaphylaxis or in the response to the anaphylactic mediator platelet activating factor (PAF) in the rabbit. Vinblastine and anti-neutrophil antibodies were compared as neutrophil depleting agents, and 0.35 mg/kg vinblastine was selected as optimal for efficiency and specificity of depletion. Anaphylaxis was induced in sensitized rabbits by intravenous antigen challenge. Neutrophil depletion to 399 ± 101 cells/mm³ blood (14 ± 3%) did not significantly inhibit the physiologic and hematologic events associated with anaphylaxis except tachycardia. However, vinblastine pretreatment significantly reduced tachycardia and the right ventricular pressure increase and abolished the increase in pulmonary resistance caused by intravenous PAF. We conclude that although neutrophils do not play a significant role in IgE-anaphylaxis, they are important in the PAF-induced increases in right ventricular pressure and pulmonary resistance. PAF may not be a major mediator of these two physiologic alterations in IgE-anaphylaxis.