Now showing items 1400-1419 of 15247

    • Bottom sediment analyses of the recreational waters of upper Sabino Creek

      McKee, Patrick L.; Brickler, Stanley K.; Bradley, Michael D. (The University of Arizona., 1977)
      Bottom sediment quality of the uppermost 3.5 miles of Sabino Creek, Santa Catalina mountains, Coronado National Forest was analyzed on a Wednesday-Sunday sampling scheme four times per month from September, 1975 through August, 1976. Eight permanent sampling stations were monitored for sediment fecal coliform concentrations and particle size distribution, surface water fecal coliform concentrations, streamflow, suspended solids, air and water temperature, and residual chlorine at stations below a sewage treatment facility discharging primary effluent into Sabino Creek. Surface water data were obtained from a concurrent surface water analyses conducted by Brickler, Phillips, and Patterson. Results of sediment analyses indicate the high probability of a health hazard existing in Sabino Creek, particularly during the high recreational use season and at stations below the effluent discharge when no residual chlorine was detected. Sediments consistently displayed fecal coliform densities 10 to 10,000 times greater than surface water fecal coliform densities. Adsorption of fecal coliform bacteria in sediments and prolonged bacteria survival induced sediment fecal coliform bacteria at all stations to exceed the primary recreation contact standards every month.
    • Boulder Dam and the public utilities

      Aston, Rollah Estil, 1899- (The University of Arizona., 1936)
    • Bound water in soils as affected by chemical and mechanical treatments

      Rosenblum, Mordecai Sterling,1915- (The University of Arizona., 1939)
    • Boundary layer receptivity at a suction surface-hard wall junction

      Kerschen, Edward J.; Choudhari, Meelan, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      Receptivity refers to the generation of boundary layer instability waves by external disturbances. Recent work by M. E. Goldstein has set the general framework for the different types of boundary layer receptivity mechanisms. Therefore, it is now understood that receptivity occurs near the leading edge or at locations downstream where the boundary layer undergoes a rapid streamwise adjustment. The present work analyzes the receptivity due to a free-stream acoustic wave interacting with a suction surface--hard wall junction. In this case, receptivity occurs because of the rapid changes in wall suction distribution. Analytical expressions for the amplitude of the generated instability wave have been derived and numerical estimates provided for parameter values typical of hybrid laminar flow control applications. The importance of the junction receptivity as compared to other receptivity mechanisms has been assessed.
    • Bovine liver function as affected by short chain volatile fatty acids

      Raymond, Laurence Nichols, 1938- (The University of Arizona., 1972)
    • Branching in Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis): Natural variation and effects of plant growth regulators and pruning

      Palzkill, David A.; Ravetta, Damian Andres, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      In jojoba, flower buds are typically produced at every other node on new growth near branch tips. An increase in the number of branch tips (branching frequency) could possibly increase flower bud and fruit production. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of three concentrations of Benzyladenine (BA), Gibberellin4+7 (GA), and Promalin (a mixture of BA and GA) on branching and flower production of three jojoba clones. Treatments involving pinching and untreated control plants were also included. The growth regulators had a significant effect on both branching and flower bud production, and clones differed in their response. For the most responsive clone, the most effective treatments (100 ppm GA and 100 ppm Promalin) resulted in 133% and 110% increase in flower buds after 17 months, respectively. The increase in flower buds was associated with an increase in the number of growing tips and node production. Similar responses were observed in both greenhouse and field experiments. The results of these studies indicate that growth regulators can be used to significantly increase flower bud production on jojoba.
    • Brazil's Anti-Racist Education Reforms And Their Effects On High School History Textbooks: Addressing Critical Reflection On Race And Racism

      Gonzales, Patrisia; Lynch, Lucas Leonard; Gonzales, Patrisia; Cammarota, Julio; Gosner, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Anti-racist legislation and education reforms for the past two decades in Brazil have required that curriculum in all basic education combat prejudice and racism and promote critical thinking of the nation's past and current ethnic-racial relations in an effort to construct a society that is more democratic, equal, and just. In response to the reforms, textbooks have been rewritten. This study analyzes one high school history textbook series that was approved by Brazil in 2012, and asks: How, and to what extent, do these new high school history textbooks address critical reflection on race and racism in Brazil? Using qualitative content analysis, I coded the above series for its attention in these matters. My findings reflect that though there are a number of cases where racism in Brazil was admitted, more explanation on the content on racism is needed, the content was too vague, or it lacked necessary details to make its analysis more informed for student reflection.
    • The Brazilian military ideology: Implications for institutionalized democracy

      Buchanan, Paul G.; Smith, Jeffery Bradley Stewart, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      The Brazilian military possesses an institutional ideology separate from that of civil society. This ideology has in the past mistakenly been identified as the National Security Doctrine (NSD). However, the NSD is merely the codification of a flexible and continuous ideology that began to develop in the nineteenth century. The ideology is based on geopolitical theory which the military believes offers an objective and scientific approach to the problems of national security. According to the ideology, the organic state's national security is in a constant state of peril which grants the military the role of state guardian. As guardians of the state the military also views itself as society's tutor in the process of preparing the nation for the responsible exercise of democracy. As long as the flexible and authoritarian military ideology is present, democracy in Brazil cannot be institutionalized and will, at best, be a limited democracy.
    • BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutations in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Abraham, Ivo; Oh, Yeum Mok; Abraham, Ivo; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Slack, Marion; McBride, Ali (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Background: The relevant risks associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation in breast and ovarian cancer have been well studied. BRCA mutations have also been found to be associated with other cancers, including colorectal cancer, but with conflicting results. Aims: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify, characterize, and review published studies evaluating BRCA mutation carriers with colorectal cancer, and to quantify the risk of colorectal cancer overall and in subgroups of BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved through systematic review using multiple databases. Unadjusted odds ratios were used to derive pooled estimates of colorectal cancer risk overall and in subgroups defined by mutation type, comparison group, and study design. Results: A total of 18 studies were included in the systematic review, of which 14 were also used in the meta-analysis: seven cohort studies comparing to the general population, five case-control studies, four cohort studies involving pedigree analysis, and two kin-cohort studies. Meta-analysis not differentiating between BRCA1 and BRCA2, revealed a statistically significant increased risk of colorectal cancer in BRCA mutation carriers in a fixed-effects model (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.01-1.48, p=0.041), but not in a random-effects model (OR=1.20, 95%CI=0.96-1.50, p=0.111). Analyses stratified by study design and comparator found no association between BRCA mutation and colorectal cancer risk. In subgroup meta-analyses by BRCA type, BRCA1 mutation was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.13-1.94, p=0.005), but not in BRCA2 mutation. Conclusion: Systematic review and meta-analysis point at potential 1.22-fold greater risk of colorectal cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, attributable largely to a 1.48-fold greater risk of colorectal cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers, regardless of age.
    • Breaking the Silence: The Media's Role in Covering Incest

      Kohout, Cheryl Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 1993)
    • Breaking through the FOV Limit of Augmented Reality Near-To-Eye Display with High Resolution by Digital Micromirror Device and Volume Hologram Grating

      Takashima, Yuzuru; Luo, Chuan; Hua, Hong; Kostuk, Raymond (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This thesis presents a novel concept of Augmented Reality (AR) Near-to-Eye Display (NED) design which combines Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and Volume Hologram Grating (VHG) to achieve two complimentary novel concepts: 1) Single-chip, Field of View (FOV) selective, and variable resolution image projection, and 2) Multiplexed full color image transfer via a single image guide, to achieve full color, 90 degrees FOV, and retinal image resolution. The proposed AR NED design provides solutions to simultaneously solve three main optical challenges that occurs in the current commercial AR-NED, which are: 1) material limited FOV; 2) étendue conservation, and 3) limited display resolution.
    • Breast Cancer Epigenetics: Modification by Genistein

      Romagnolo, Donato; Donovan, Micah Gerard; Romagnolo, Donato; Laukaitis, Christina; Selmin, Ornella; Doetschman, Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Breast cancer it is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. Women who inherit mutations in the breast cancer 1 susceptibility gene (BRCA1) are five times more likely to develop breast cancer than women who do not. However, only ~5-10% of breast cancer cases are due to germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes. There are currently no targeted therapies available triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), which often lack BRCA1 expression. BRCA1 is epigenetically silenced by the activated aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), suggesting that dietary antagonists of the AhR may inhibit BRCA1 silencing. Genistein is an isoflavone abundant in soy foods and its high consumption levels is thought to underlie the lower prevalence of breast cancer in Asian countries compared to Western countries. The hypothesis of this work is that genistein antagonizes AhR-dependent epigenetic silencing of BRCA1. To test this hypothesis we first determined the capacity of genistein to prevent AhR-dependent silencing of BRCA1 in estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) expressing cells, with wild-type BRCA1 and inducible AhR (MCF-7). We also determined the effectiveness of genistein in reversing silencing of BRCA1 in ERα-negative cells with hypermethylated BRCA1 and constitutively active AhR (UACC-3199). The effect of genistein on BRCA1 promoter methylation and markers of cell proliferation was also determined in both cell lines.
    • Breast self examination by women : is age associated with frequency?

      Berg, Judith A.; Laloudakis, Despina; McArthur, Donna; Moore, Ki (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      A descriptive study was conducted on the breast self examination (BSE) practices among women they relate to the constructs (susceptibility, motivation, confidence, barriers to BSE, benefits to BSE, and seriousness) in the Health Belief Model Scales (HBMS) developed by Champion (1993). A convenience sample of 75 community based women (n=25/group) in three age groupings (20-35 yrs; 36-55 yrs; and 56-75 yrs) was used for comparisons. Significant differences were detected among age groups on frequency of BSE and on the perceived susceptibility and confidence subscales of the HBMS. Differences among age groups on regular performance of BSE were not statistically significant, although differences did approach significance. Level of education was significantly related to the susceptibility subscale of the HBMS. Frequency of BSE was significantly correlated with the perceived benefits of HBMS and the perceived barriers subscales of the HBMS.

      Miller, Jean Anne. (The University of Arizona., 1982)

      Ammar, Fadia. (The University of Arizona., 1984)
    • Breathing patterns associated with hyperventilation: Thoracic vs. abdominal

      Sechrest, Lee; Shapiro, Cheri Joan, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that individuals with the Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) are predominantly thoracic breathers. An analogue population was used to examine the breathing patterns of likely (N = 16) as opposed to unlikely (N = 16) hyperventilators. The relative thoracic as opposed to abdominal contribution to total respiratory volume was assessed during periods of quiet breathing and mild stress. Differences in thoracic contribution to total respiratory volume were not found between the likely and unlikely hyperventilators, nor between the quiet and mild stress conditions. A significant effect for sex existed, with females demonstrating a greater thoracic contribution to total respiratory volume than males. A significant group by sex interaction occurred, with likely male hyperventilators displaying a significantly lower thoracic contribution to total respiratory volume than both likely and unlikely females. Results are discussed in terms of application to the HVS, and future avenues of research are suggested.