• 3D Endoscope Based on the Controlled Aberration Method

      Tyo, Scott J.; Xu, Mohan; Schwiegerling, Jim; Gmitro, Arthur F. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Surgeons use endoscopes to inspect the cavity of patient’s body in the minimal invasive surgery. However, the conventional 2D endoscopes cannot offer depth information. Surgeons might overshoot the targets due to the lack of depth perception. So, it is essential to develop the 3D endoscopes to overcome this problem. In current 3D imaging technologies, the stereo method and structured light method both require angle diversity. The controlled aberration method is a uniaxial depth measurement method. It only requires the projection pattern and the differential focus to implement depth measurement. It has potential to be applied in the endoscopic system. This research aims to develop a 3D endoscope prototype based on the controlled aberration method and prove it can implement depth measurement. The first part of the work is a simulation study to prove that the controlled aberration method can be scaled down and applied to an endoscopic system for the depth measurement. Then the prototype design was discussed with each element in the projection path and imaging path of the system. Two depth measurement experiments were conducted. One is based on the miniature camera placed next to the projection path, another is based on an on-axis DSLR with diffuser screens. It used diffuser screens as “detector” and DSLR to capture the transmitted image on the screen. These experiement results indicate that endoscope prototype with controlled aberration method can implememnt depth measurement. The mini camera configuration suffers from high distortion. It reduces the measurement accuracy. The DSLR configuration was developed to deal with the distortion problem. But the DSLR camera configuration is not applicable to the actual endoscope. Hence, the future work is to develop a controlled aberration prototype with co-axial projection and imaging path to capture the reflected pattern image of the scene and the optimization of the calibration and measurement processes for more accurate depth measurement.
    • 4D Reconstruction of the Carotid Artery and Determination of the Vessel Elastic Response Utilizing a Novel Pulsatile Ultrasound Phantom

      Laksari, Kaveh; Thurgood, Harrison; Witte, Russ; Zohar, Yitshak (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      As a major application focus of vascular ultrasound, the carotid artery has long been the subject of phantom design and procedure focus. It is therefore important to produce procedures that are minimally invasive and informative, initially using a physiologically accurate anthropomorphic phantom design to validate the methodology. In this paper, a novel phantom design protocol is presented that enables the efficient production of a pulsatile ultrasound phantom consisting of soft and vascular tissue mimics as well as a blood mimicking fluid. These components, when combined, give the phantom high acoustic compatibility and life-like mechanical properties. The phantom was developed using “at-home” purchasable components and 3D printing technology. A novel use for the phantom in the development of a 4D reconstruction of the pulsing vessel using the MATLAB coding base is also presented. In pattern with recent developments in medical imaging, the 4D reconstruction enables physicians to view vessel wall motion in a 3D space without a need for manual intervention. The reconstruction algorithm also produces measured inner luminal areas and vessel wall thickness further giving information relating to properties such as arterial stiffness and occlusion. This protocol is given in its infancy and will be a focus of further development.
    • The 6-6 linear intervallic pattern as a style feature in the symphonies of W. A. Mozart

      Kolosick, J. Timothy; Cotner, John Sidney, 1963- (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      The research for this study entails a systematic classification of all significant instances of the 6-6 pattern in Mozart's symphonies. This data is further categorized according to embellishment types, and discussed with respect to Mozart's application of the model in his complete symphonies. Comparing Mozart's usage with that of Haydn's Paris and London symphonies, one finds that both composers often implemented the model as a means of developing material. Although Mozart and Haydn used the pattern in a variety of conventional ways in thematic and transition sections, there are some striking differences of treatment between the two composers. Haydn applied the pattern as retransitional material to a return of the opening theme. Likewise, his usage is predominantly diatonic. On the other hand, Mozart treated the 6-6 pattern with a high degree of stylization. As his symphonic technique became more distinctive, we find increasingly complex chromatic embellishments of the model. This study reveals that the 6-6 pattern is an important aspect of Mozart's symphonic technique throughout his career as symphonist.
    • 87SR/86SR Analysis as a Method to Explore Human Ecology and Forest Resilience in Ancient Meroe, Sudan

      Pearson, Charlotte; Herrick, Hannah Marie; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Killick, David; Humphris, Jane (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Archaeologists frequently apply 87Sr/86Sr geoprovenance to human and animal bone to answer questions surrounding foodways and migration. Utilizing this method to source archaeological timber has recently expanded, enriching the archaeological record and enhancing studies in wood geochemistry. Due to the effects of time and post-depositional alteration, a considerable portion of archaeological wood is found in the form of charcoal. However, the impacts of carbonization and chemical contamination on wood strontium resilience—and therefore, the applicability of 87Sr/86Sr geoprovenance for anthropogenic charcoal—have not yet been examined. Experimental analysis comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ13C values in wood and experimental charcoal (heated at ~400°C and 900°C) from two Vachellia nilotica trees sourced in modern Sudan illustrated a consistency between untreated wood and both forms of charcoal sufficient to suggest that pyrolysis alone does not significantly alter 87Sr/86Sr ratios or δ13C values in V. nilotica. 87Sr/86Sr values ranged from 0.71715 – 0.71740 (GZL 1) and 0.71678 – 0.71692 (GZL 2). Carbon isotope values ranged from -26.4±0.06؉ (VPDB) to -28.4±0.06؉ (VPDB). Tests on V. nilotica charcoal remnants from late Holocene iron smelting contexts in Meroe, Sudan show that it is possible to produce 87Sr/86Sr ratios from anthropogenic charcoal. Further, these preliminary indications suggest that 87Sr/86Sr data from charcoal supported by carbon isotope data from the same material can be used as a reliable indicator for wood provenance. 87Sr/86Sr data from the Meroe material ranged from 0.70724 - 0.70737, with δ13C values ranging from -26.9±0.06؉ to -24.6±0.06؉ (VPDB). Using this knowledge, I posit that iron smelting fuel charcoal at Meroe may have come from one region between the Atbara confluence and the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile from 400 BCE – 400 CE. Carbon isotope analysis supports this hypothesis. These results suggest that the preference of local V. nilotica charcoal for iron smelting, combined with intensive production ca. 400 – 200 BCE, may have been a catalyst for a break in iron smelting activity at Meroe due to resource exhaustion or climatic variability evidenced throughout the region. Additional improvement in 87Sr/86Sr and δ13C methods for charcoal analysis will enhance this and similar studies in the future.
    • A 5-Axis Calibration System for Calibrating DOI-Correcting Gamma-Ray Detectors

      Furenlid, Lars R.; Anderson, Owen Adams; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Sabet, Hamid (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Improving the resolution of pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) depends on correcting parallax error at the edges of gamma-ray detectors. A novel way to achieve this is to use laser-induced optical barriers (LIOB) to restrict the spread of scintillation photons to a segment of the crystal that corresponds to a ray angle through the pinhole. The gains in resolution at the edge of the detector would be lost, however, without a way to use maximum likelihood (ML) position estimation to correlate detector response to the segment of the scintillation crystal where the gamma ray scintillated into visible photons. To find the response from a given segment of the crystal, a mean detector response function must be acquired from recording the mean detector responses when a known ray angle of gamma ray enters the detector. This motivates designing an building a novel calibration stage that has the ability to aim a pencil-beam of gamma rays into a detector at any position and angle that is possible with a photon traveling through the pinhole from the field of view.
    • A 7.5X Afocal Zoom Lens Design and Kernel Aberration Correction Using Reversed Ray Tracing Methods

      Sasián, José M.; Zhou, Xi; Schwiegerling, James; Liang, Rongguang (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This thesis presents a design of an afocal 7.5X zoom lens with maximum resolution of 0.68μm followed by a reversed ray trace method to show and correct kernel aberrations in zoom lens, with some examples. In Chapter 1, some fundamentals of geometric optics are introduced to help understanding lens design, including terminology, aberration theory, and methods to quantify a lens system performance. Chapter 2 starts with a brief introduction on zoom lens system, which includes characterizing the functionalities of different moving groups, the variator and the compensator, different types of zoom lens configurations, evolution of zoom types and lastly several novel applications of zoom lenses. In Chapter 3, design of a 7.5x afocal zoom with maximum resolution of 0.68μm is presented. The process starts with finding a thin lens solution, then a monochromatic thick lens solution; finally a diffraction limited polychromatic thick lens solution is achieved. In Chapter 4, a reversed ray trace method is introduced to identify and correct the kernel aberrations in zoom lens. Some patent examples are used to show kernel aberrations with the reversed ray trace method. Then two optimization examples of the kernel aberrations are given at the end. Chapter 5 concludes the work presented in this thesis, with some suggestions for possible future works.
    • A Barthesean Analysis of Revisionist Stagings of Verdi's La Traviata

      Rosenblatt, Jay M.; Morneault, Gwyndolyn E.; Brobeck, John T.; Mugmon, Matthew S. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      David Levin wrote in his book Unsettling Opera, “Staging has played an important role in the history of opera, dictating compositional choices and affecting public reception. However, the notion that staging is integral to both the interpretive work and the eventness of opera is relatively recent.”1 Levin made this remark in 2007, but more than ten years later, we still have not developed a consistent framework for which we as an audience can judge the value of revisionist productions. In this document I will analyze and evaluate three different productions of Giuseppe Verdi’s La Traviata in terms of their effectiveness as revisionist stagings by using a set of criteria from the writings of Roland Barthes as laid out by Alessandra Lippucci in her article “Social Theorizing on the Operatic Stage: Jean-Pierre Ponnelle’s Postmodern Humanist Production of La Traviata.”2 Lippucci borrows Barthes’s concepts of relevance, logic, and innovation from his research in reading revisionist literature and applies these concepts to revisionist opera stagings. By demonstrating how we can use these three concepts (the Barthesean model) to create a standard by which to judge revisionist productions, I hope to uncover the value of revisionist productions and determine whether they are valid based on Barthesean principles. This paper will use information gained from isolating these productions of La Traviata as a microcosm for understanding the benefits and cultural necessity of welcoming and evaluating other operas staged in modern revisionist ways.
    • A Brazilian-Muslim Identity in the Land of the Holy Cross: The Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in Curitiba, Brazil (2001-2020)

      Clancy-Smith, Julia A.; Spinder, Nathan; Fortna, Benjamin C.; Hudson, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Scholarship on the Muslim diaspora in Brazil is still relatively scarce. There is an abundance of English and Portuguese academic research focused mainly on Arab Christian immigrants, who arrived in the late nineteenth century, in large measure because of the estimated twelve million Syro-Lebanese descendants now calling the country home. Nevertheless, Muslim communities have deep roots in Brazil, stretching back to the slave trade. Thus, Muslim immigrants have played a significant role in the evolution of a Brazilian society. This thesis investigates the assimilation of Muslim immigrants in Curitiba, the capital of the southern state of Paraná, mainly during the latest period of the diaspora, from 2001-2020. I chose the city of Curitiba for my fieldwork because of the strong assimilation (Birgit Meyer, 1999) of the Muslim community into society and the hyphenated Brazilian-Muslim identity (Jeffrey Lesser, 1999) there. However, my fieldwork revealed that instead of being a united ummah (Vanessa Souza-Lima, 2016), Shi’i and Sunni Muslims in Curitiba currently compete in order to create a more ample social space in society for themselves. To explain this competition, I lay out the historical background, the physical, non-physical and virtual spaces in which these immigrants have created a Brazilian-Muslim identity, and the forces that have led to exclusion and discrimination. This thesis identifies a Brazilian-Muslim identity and argues that acculturation is not merely or simply a one-sided process but that both Muslim and non-Muslim immigrants in Brazil have adapted to some aspects of Brazilian culture, norms, and social expectations, and distancing themselves from others.
    • A Case Study Analysis of Problem-Based Learning via Fabrication Laboratory Applications in a Southwestern Secondary School

      Rice, Amber; Merrick, Taylor; Mars, Matthew; Molina, Quintin (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers at a southwestern secondary private school utilize the on-campus fabrication lab to promote the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL). Guided by the theory of constructivism, I qualitatively explored the processes teachers engage in when implementing a PBL lesson using a multi-case study design. Five teachers and two fabrication lab directors from various content areas were interviewed and observed. Five overall themes emerged: the differing emphasis on PBL framework components; conflicts, limitations, and constraints perceived with PBL; teachers use of PBL for cognitive development, the role of the environment in PBL; and the role of reflection in the PBL framework. Research recommendations include further exploration into the factors that contribute to a positive environment conducive to PBL, in-depth investigation into the role of each step in the PBL framework, and additional observation periods to elicit the impacts of PBL over time. Recommendations for practice include purposeful teacher reflection, scaffolded planning, strengthening connections between PBL and real-world applications, and strategies for increased student support and encouragement in the classroom.
    • A Change in the Worker’s Party: Evolution of The People’s Republic of China’s Rhetoric in the Twentieth Century

      Lanza, Fabio; Rahmer, Sebastian; Gregory, Scott W.; Schlachet, Joshua (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Having come to power following decades of western imperialist intrusion, dynastical degradation, and a brutal civil war, the People’s Republic of China touted its connection to Communism and its desire to assist in worldwide efforts to remove imperialism and colonialism. China’s government worked on its international image even when large parts of the western world had yet to recognize its legitimacy, through acts such as participating in the 1955 Bandung Conference and supporting anticolonial efforts on several continents, including the Black Power movements of mid-century United States. Using military, diplomatic, and economic means, the Chinese Communist Party transformed its approach to international relations over time, especially after the international recognition of the People’s Republic of China and its further entrance onto the world stage as China grew into an economic powerhouse. Its alliances and friendships with other nations and with non-state movements transformed alongside its approaches, causing their circle of acquaintances to look very different from the foundation of the country to its point of international recognition. This paper will explore the evolution of China’s international relations in terms of their message of anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism. Both were tenets of the Chinese Communist Party’s ideology, and while they have remained a central part of its messaging, their relative importance has ebbed and flowed over the years.
    • A Chemoenzymatic Approach to Stereospecific Green Synthesis of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants

      Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Roberts, Tyler William Glen; Aspinwall, Craig A.; Christie, Hamish S. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Surfactants are an integral component of the modern industrial and consumer economies. They perform indispensable functions and yet their production and disposal pose grave environmental concerns. To address these concerns, work has been undertaken for several decades in the burgeoning field of biosurfactants – surfactants derived from biological sources. Of the biosurfactants, rhamnolipids are perhaps one of the most promising. They boast superb surfactant performance, are structurally simple, and are, most importantly, environmentally benign. Chemical approaches to the production of biosurfactants have been undertaken for a number of years with limited industrial applicability. Recent developments from the Pemberton lab, however, open new, industrially relevant synthetic pathways to rhamnolipids. Until this point, even these state-of-the-art production methodologies have lacked the ability to control for rhamnolipid stereochemistry. Natural products are given in high diastereomeric purity from their correspondent biological sources. The lack of stereochemical control results in either impure products or sacrifices yield, efficiency, and green indices if diastereomeric purity is achieved. To address this issue, the present work reports a chemoenzymatic approach to the stereospecific and green synthesis of rhamnolipids. Immobilized lipase B of Candida antarctica was used to provide enantiomerically pure starting materials for rhamnolipid synthesis. Optimal enzyme performance parameters such as time, temperature, conversion efficiency, etc. were quantitatively determined, primarily using spectroscopic methods. Diastereomerically pure rhamnolipid products were subsequently synthesized and characterized by standard methods. In addition, their interfacial properties were investigated using surface tensiometry with a du Noüy ring, and key parameters such as CMC, γCMC, and Γm were determined and/or calculated. The reported work demonstrates a novel advance in the field of biosurfactant production by chemical means, and a controlled synthesis that maintains green indices and is industrially relevant can now be achieved.
    • A Comparison of Electromagnetic Physical Scale and Numerical Modeling for Geophysical Exploration

      Sternberg, Ben K.; Burkart, Riley; Johnson, Roy A.; Rucker, Dale F. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Numerical modeling has, in the twenty-first century, become the dominant form of modeling for electromagnetic exploration geophysics, but few studies have been undertaken that compare numerical models with physical scale models to determine the constraints on numerical algorithms. In this thesis, a physical scale model system was constructed and twenty-six profiles run to analyze the strengths and limitations of four algorithms in PetRos EiKon's EMIGMA V8.6 modeling software: Free Space EikPlate (FS Plate), VH Plate, Inductive Localized Non-Linear (ILN), and EMSPHERE. A low-power vertical-array system with a ten-turn square transmitter loop and receiver coils in the Bx, By, and Bz directions with ten turns, ten turns, and two turns, respectively, was designed and constructed for this thesis. Profiles were taken in either a lab setting, which provided more space, or a tank setting, which allowed for lower noise and modeling of a conductive host. A total of twenty-six profiles taken with ten targets are presented here together with their geometric configurations. Through comparison of the measured and the simulated data, the following conclusions are made: (1) The VH Plate and ILN algorithms produce less accurate simulations for small targets; this may be redressed by increasing the scale of the targets. (2) Every algorithm designed to account for galvanic responses, when otherwise operating within its constraints, does so effectively and corroborates the measured data. (3) FS Plate simulations reasonably approximate the measured responses of long sheet targets when the sheet center is distal to the receiver by more than one third the sheet length, but do not approximate the measured data as well when the center of the target is proximal to the receiver. (4) EMSPHERE, which is only supported for dipole sources, does not approximate a target with a loop source well when the target is directly beneath the transmitter, but it does approximate it well when the target is displaced from the transmitter; a sphere may be approximated for the ILN algorithm by a cube that fits flush within the sphere. (5) FS Plate peak responses tend to be smaller than the measured responses by a factor of two, but the side skirts match well; FS plate also appears to diverge from the Kramers-Kronig relations for induction numbers smaller than 2e-4. (6) VH Plate peak responses tend to be larger than the measured responses by a factor of roughly two, and the side skirts do not match well. (7) ILN breaks down for high conductivity contrasts, such as a graphite cube in air; this issue may be avoided by using a more resistive host for the model so long as inductive effects still dominate, which may be determined using LN.
    • A Comparison of the Effect of Heat Treating on the Microsegregation and Microstructure of WS-306 in End-Chill and Commercial Samples

      Poirier, David; Lenharth, Paul; Muralidharan, Krishna; Wessman, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Present commercial ball mill liners composed of WS-306 tend to crack before being worn-down. As part of an effort to increase the fracture toughness of WS-306, the microstructure and microsegregation of both commercial and end-chill castings of WS-306 were characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The effects of high temperature heat treatment on the microstructure and microsegregation were also characterized by EPMA. It was found that both commercial and end-chill samples experienced additional microsegregation upon heat treatment for some elements, as contrasted to the microsegregation in the pre-treated samples. Commercial casting samples had an aggregation of carbides during heat treatment, while end-chill samples precipitated secondary carbides. This suggests that high temperature heat treatment performed after current commercial heat treatment may improve fracture toughness.
    • A Cooperative Approach to Food Security and Food Sovereignty

      Vásquez-León, Marcela; Oliver, Stephen; Correia, Joel; Finan, Timothy (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Paraguayan agrarian sector is highly unequal. With one of the highest levels of land inequality in the world, 94 percent of arable land dedicated to commodity crop agriculture, and entrenched alliances between large-scale agriculture producers and landowners with the country’s political establishment, traditional campesino agriculture is rapidly diminishing across the country. Paraguay’s transition towards a large-scale agro-export model has a raft of implications for both the food security and food sovereignty of its smallholder producers. This research explores the sugarcane cooperative Manduvirá as an alternative model for community development in rural Paraguay. Manduvirá has over 900 members who produce on five to seven hectares of land, they built, own, and operate their own organic sugar mill, and directly export to over 25 countries. Moreover, through a democratic cooperative process, Manduvirá’s members have used their success in the export sugar sector to reinvest in a number of community-based initiatives to address the changing food security and food sovereignty landscape. This research examines the role that Manduvirá fulfills in addressing food security and food sovereignty in attempts to understand the broader role that smallholder agricultural cooperatives can play in the community development process.
    • A Dynamic Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Through Passive and Active Filtration Measures Applied to the Built Environment in a Residential Application

      Youssef, Omar; Heil, Robert Alan; Ida, Aletheia; Crosson, Courtney (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This highly dedicated empirical research was initially conceptualized, implemented and contained in a living active laboratory environment primarily designed to inform the audience on the negative health effects of indoor ambient air quality and the overexposure of three primary point source pollutants known as particle matter 2.5, particle matter 10, carbon dioxide, and formaldehyde infiltrating the current built environment’s inadequate architectural features. Moreover, this research thesis is intended to modestly illustrate a limited combination of passive and active filtration strategies in conjunction with specific architectural ventilation recommendations that are designed to offset and reduce the direct and indirect exposure of harmful contaminant volumes of acute particle matter and hidden carcinogenic gaseous in multi-unit dwelling conditions demonstrated throughout this indoor air quality (IAQ) research. Furthermore, concealed in the title and facilitated throughout the research, the dynamics of IAQ is designed to demonstrate which complex adaptive passive and active filtration strategies are most effective limited to the disturbance in the dynamics of the amplitude of the logarithmic data scales and volume concentrations depicted with the use of the latest micro sensor technologies provided by Brwissen, Seesii and Temtop laboratories. Subsequently, from the empirical data IAQ analysis, a simplistic, precise, and quantified decision can then be assessed for which strategies are considerably the most appropriate and efficient for the current conditions that the filtration systems will be applied to in addition to placement recommendations for interior mechanical ventilation systems. Lastly, this research thesis was endorsed for the University of Arizona, as an informative piece calculated for the audience to make a professional proactive decision on how to maintain the volumes of ambient air molecules and improve the overall IAQ throughout the multi verse of living spaces obtainable at home.
    • A Framework for Secure Data Management in Medical Devices

      Rozenblit, Jersy W.; Almazyad, Ibrahim; Adegbija, Tosiron; Ditzler, Gregory (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Data is considered as a valuable currency that our modern world thrives upon today. Individuals, groups and even nations work hand in hand to protect private data. When it comes to medical data, its protection is considerably more apparent and significant with guidelines such as HIPAA and FDA regulations in place. Data breaches on medical devices are known to have a significant impact on a patient’s wellbeing. Most of these data breach attacks occur during the transit state. With these attacks in mind, there is still a need for continuous feedback between a patient and a doctor based on data that is collected from such devices. In this thesis, we propose a methodology that develops an autonomous secure communication channel between doctors and patients. Through examining the data life cycle of software built within medical devices, we address various security measures. We propose Adaptive Mode Selection (AMS) to investigate threats amongst system functions. By leveraging this technique, we obtain access to a lifetime assessment for risk mitigation and communication mode selection within medical devices. A Priority-Queue Based (PQB) process is established to improve data management and data isolation within life-critical systems. Further, we propose Adaptive Protocol Selection (APS) to enhance data transmission over the most appropriate communication protocol based on risk values identified by AMS. These protocols include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Radio Frequency or more. The combination of AMS, PQB and APS contributes towards delivering better health services with continuous secured data feeds and reduction in time of medical intervention.
    • A Framework for the Jicarilla Apache Nation Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan

      Towner, Ronald; Larsen, Andrew; Mills, Barbara; Ferguson, T.J.; Blythe, Jeffery; Mundo, Cameron (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      When the Jicarilla Apache Nation established a Tribal Historic Preservation Officer program (THPO) in 2009, it took over historic preservation functions formerly carried out by the New Mexico State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). While the SHPO worked in good faith to manage the historic properties on tribal trust land, they lacked the adequate cultural knowledge and insight required to properly manage places of importance to the tribe. One of the required tasks after assuming historic preservation functions, is to develop a Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan. This plan specifically addresses the tribe’s goals and procedures for managing the range of historic properties located on Jicarilla Apache tribal trust land. The implementation of preservation activities on tribal trust land is ongoing; however, preparation of a formal preservation plan has been in progress since the inauguration of the THPO. The THPO’s planning responsibility entails the organization of preservation activities (identification, evaluation, registration, and treatment of historic properties) into a logical interrelated sequence so that effective and culturally appropriate decisions and recommendations can be made concerning preservation on tribal trust land. This framework for the Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan will be limited in scope and allow the THPO to explicate a well-rounded plan that includes public participation, meets tribal needs, and adheres to federal guidelines. The framework will be contextualized with an introduction, research focus, and methodology section.
    • A GIS Model of Shell Exchange between Coastal Southern California and Northern Arizona

      Mills, Barbara J.; Towner, Ronald H.; Luevano, Terrence Bradley; Christopherson, Gary L.; Vokes, Arthur W. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Shell was traded into the United States Southwest from various areas, one of which was coastal Southern California. Abalone shell, or Haliotis, is solely sourced from the Pacific coast and provides irrefutable evidence of this trade. This exchange likely involved many Indigenous groups between the sourcing area and the shell’s inevitable endpoints. Historical documentation of trails for facilitating exchange exists, but modeling a route in a spatial analysis program has not been attempted for this transregional exchange. Utilizing least cost path analysis in ArcGIS Pro provides a theoretically most efficient route of abalone shell from the Chumash and Gabrielino Indigenous groups to seven archaeological sites in Northern Arizona and one just across the Utah–Arizona border in Kanab, Utah. The results of the model are mixed. It partially matches with historic documentation in California but is more consistent with the U.S. Southwest trail documentation. Further model refinement is proposed to incorporate hydrographic data, a modified Tobler’s hiking function for more accuracy, incorporate more documented sites on the Southern California coast and further inland, and complete additional modeling between destination sites. Still, the model presented here is a first step to further evaluating Southern California–Southwest exchange and shell procurement.
    • A Grammar Sketch of Tutelo-Saponi

      De Lima Silva, Wilson; Roberts, Corey; Zepeda, Ofelia; Fountain, Amy (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This is a sketch grammar of the Tutelo-Saponi language, a preliminary examination of the history, phonology, morphology, and syntax of the Southeastern Siouan language and its speakers. While previous works have presented the corpus’ data in the North American Phonetic Alphabet, this study presents data primarily in a combination of the International Phonetic Alphabet (for the phonology portion of the grammar) and the writing system currently being developed for the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation (a derivation of the orthography of the 19th-century philologist Horatio Hale). Included later in the sketch are methods currently being used to enrich the Tutelo-Saponi lexicon. Finally, this sketch presents a sample opening prayer in the language created in conjunction with an Occaneechi language consultant, as well as a land acknowledgment of the Tohono O’odham people created by Corey Roberts to open a linguistics presentation at the University of Arizona.
    • A Ground Based Optical Survey for GPS Solar Panel Arcing

      Hart, Michael; Walsh, Shane; Pearce, Eric; Guyon, Olivier (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In an attempt to confirm electrostatic discharge induced contamination as responsible for the excess power loss of GPS solar arrays, three GPS satellites were observed at the MMT using a sensitive Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with the aim of catching the microsecond optical emission of solar panel arcing. One of these satellites (NAVSTAR 48) was concurrently observed with the Arecibo radio telescope in the hopes that coincident optical and radio detections would all but confirm the hypothesis. Unfortunately, owing to ∼ 75% transmission losses, optical arc detections could not be conclusively confirmed or ruled out. Detections above the nominal threshold were present more frequently than expected from random fluctuations, but the lack of coincidence with Arecibo detections and the similar number of detections away from the satellite imply a cause other than arcs, most likely non-Gaussian noise behavior. One of the other satellites, NAVSTAR 65, yielded a promising candidate with a brightness consistent with a fully discharging arc of a Block II-F solar array. However, without external confirmation from satellite telemetry, the detection significance is not sufficient to unambiguously label this event as an arc. If the observations could be repeated with transmission losses of 30% or less, the 50% detection efficiency of arcs would improve from 200-photon arcs to 70-photons or better. This would make the difference between being sensitive to some full discharge arcs or most partial discharge arcs, although requiring substantial redesign of the observing strategy.