Now showing items 3756-3775 of 14993

• #### Dreams in Homer, Heraclitus, and Plato

My thesis examines the connection between dreams, knowledge, and perception in the works of Homer, Heraclitus and Plato. Although the perception is not a topic thoroughly discussed in the Iliad and the Odyssey, Homeric view on dreams will serve as a basis for comparison with Heraclitus and Plato. In Homer, dreams are generally messages from a supernatural force imparting some divine knowledge to the sleeper in order to fulfill their own will. As a reaction to the traditionally accepted views of the epics, Heraclitus asserts that dreams, because they are created by specific individuals and are cut off from the shared world fire, are a poor source of the true logos, true knowledge. Furthermore, Plato expands upon Heraclitus’ idea by stating that dreaming is a form of perception that is too unstable to be able to provide true knowledge. By exploring how people perceive dreams while asleep, we can get a better understanding of the sort of knowledge that is obtained in dreams.

• #### "Drink and Eat, But Do Not Forget Your God": Digesting Propaganda During the Dutch Revolt

The purpose of this thesis is to address four roundel engravings created by Theodor de Bry (1528-1598) as ornament prints for the interior of metalwork drinking vessels: The Captain of Wisdom, The Captain of Folly, Pride and Folly, and Charity. The literature on these engravings is sparse, and this paper seeks to situate them in their visual context, as well as settle the question of whether they were marketed as a distinct set of prints, which includes a determination of their date of execution. To do so, I analyze the densely-packed imagery and text in terms of their biblical and classical sources and how they relate to the confessional divide and contemporary politics during the Dutch Revolt (1568-1648). In addition, I argue that the potency of the images—as didactic material and as Protestant propaganda—is amplified by their function as designs for domestic objects, by their intended audience’s sophisticated visual literacy, and by their association with one another as constituents of a coherent set.
• #### Drivers of Carbonate Accumulation in the Cordones Fanglomerate

The accumulation of pedogenic carbonates is important to understanding carbon cycling, to include carbon sequestration, in arid and semi-arid regions. Carbonate accumulation in southern Arizona displays significant spatial variation, particularly in alluvial deposits that dominate basins in the region. Improved understanding of the controls on pedogenic carbonate accumulation is needed. Here it is hypothesized that carbonate accumulation in alluvial fans is controlled significantly by parent material composition. To address this hypothesis, samples were taken from a chronosequence consisting of multiple buried horizons and carbonate accumulations. Parent materials include calcareous and non-calcareous meta-sedimentary rocks, diabase, granites and schist. Measurements included carbonate concentration using a traditional method of hydrochloric acid digestion. This was compared to results generated with an infrared spectral curves for calcium carbonate concentration. Bulk elemental content was obtained via X-ray fluorescence analysis for quantification of immobile element accumulation. Pedogenic iron contents extracted by both sodium dithionite and ammonium oxalate, were taken as indicators for changes in weathering. Results indicate that a mix of eolian material and calcareous rocks are the dominant sources of carbonate accumulations.
• #### Droits and Frontières: Sugar and the Edge of France, 1800-1860

In the 1700s, French colonies in the Caribbean produced massive amounts of sugar cane for shipment exclusively to France. The French Revolution of 1789 precipitated long years of economic conflict between England and France, during which French scientists and entrepreneurs worked to develop technology and capital investment to produce sugar on the French mainland from European-grown beets. Economic and agricultural viability of mass production of beet sugar was established by 1812 and used to promote French autarky (self-sufficiency) in emerging ideologies of economic nationalism. Beet sugar's equivalence to cane sugar meant direct competition with colonial cane, marking a period of "conjunction," when questions of colonial belonging and rights to participation in markets were actively contested in Paris as debates over tariff and bounty legislation. New forms of symbolic inclusion and exclusion of French colonies were produced—with important results for the cane sugar complex, colonial producers, and the system of French trade relations. Guyane Française (French Guiana) provides the prime illustrative case of colonial changes due to the sugar conjunction. A colony in northeastern South America, Guyane had been claimed by France since the early seventeenth century, but remained sparsely populated and experienced relatively weak development of the cane sugar complex. Thus, during and following the sugar conjunction, the French moved to make the colony a place for exile of state prisoners, rather than continue to develop it for cane cultivation and sugar production. The first shipment of convicts—stripped of their French citizenship before departure—arrived in Guyane in 1852 as the first prisoners in the penal colony that would be come to be known around the world as Devil's Island.

• #### Drosophila melanogaster: An alternative animal for the study of heavy-metal induced neurotoxicity

Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate, and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila was used because it has been extensively characterized genetically at the molecular level, and it allows hundreds of subjects to be used very easily in individual experiments. The larva LC50 $\pm$ standard error for triethyllead chloride, lead acetate, or cadmium chloride was found to be 0.090 $\pm$ 0.004 mM, 6.60 $\pm$ 0.64 mM, or 0.42 $\pm$ 0.04 mM, respectively. Each of the tested compounds produced a dose-related delay in development. In particular, they caused an increase in the time for larvae to develop into pupae. When larvae were reared on medium containing triethyllead chloride (0.06 mM), lead acetate (3.07 mM), or cadmium chloride (0.11 mM), phototaxis, locomotion, and learning in the resulting adults were not inhibited. Since significant neurobehavioral effects were not observed under the experimental conditions used, Drosophila does not appear to be an appropriate animal for the genetic dissection of the neurobehavioral toxic effects of heavy metals.

• #### Drug use and attitudes toward drug use among college church youth group members

A study of data from 85 undergraduate and graduate students involved in church youth groups revealed a significant relationship between degree of religious belief and drug using behavior and attitudes. Highly religious subjects disapproved of drinking alcoholic beverages and used cigarettes and alcohol less than subjects professing lower religiosity. Protestant subjects had more negative attitudes and less personal use of tobacco and alcohol than Catholics. Similar findings pertaining to drug using behavior and attitudes were reported between groups for all other substances.