• A Grammar Sketch of Tutelo-Saponi

      De Lima Silva, Wilson; Roberts, Corey; Zepeda, Ofelia; Fountain, Amy (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This is a sketch grammar of the Tutelo-Saponi language, a preliminary examination of the history, phonology, morphology, and syntax of the Southeastern Siouan language and its speakers. While previous works have presented the corpus’ data in the North American Phonetic Alphabet, this study presents data primarily in a combination of the International Phonetic Alphabet (for the phonology portion of the grammar) and the writing system currently being developed for the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation (a derivation of the orthography of the 19th-century philologist Horatio Hale). Included later in the sketch are methods currently being used to enrich the Tutelo-Saponi lexicon. Finally, this sketch presents a sample opening prayer in the language created in conjunction with an Occaneechi language consultant, as well as a land acknowledgment of the Tohono O’odham people created by Corey Roberts to open a linguistics presentation at the University of Arizona.
    • A Ground Based Optical Survey for GPS Solar Panel Arcing

      Hart, Michael; Walsh, Shane; Pearce, Eric; Guyon, Olivier (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In an attempt to confirm electrostatic discharge induced contamination as responsible for the excess power loss of GPS solar arrays, three GPS satellites were observed at the MMT using a sensitive Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with the aim of catching the microsecond optical emission of solar panel arcing. One of these satellites (NAVSTAR 48) was concurrently observed with the Arecibo radio telescope in the hopes that coincident optical and radio detections would all but confirm the hypothesis. Unfortunately, owing to ∼ 75% transmission losses, optical arc detections could not be conclusively confirmed or ruled out. Detections above the nominal threshold were present more frequently than expected from random fluctuations, but the lack of coincidence with Arecibo detections and the similar number of detections away from the satellite imply a cause other than arcs, most likely non-Gaussian noise behavior. One of the other satellites, NAVSTAR 65, yielded a promising candidate with a brightness consistent with a fully discharging arc of a Block II-F solar array. However, without external confirmation from satellite telemetry, the detection significance is not sufficient to unambiguously label this event as an arc. If the observations could be repeated with transmission losses of 30% or less, the 50% detection efficiency of arcs would improve from 200-photon arcs to 70-photons or better. This would make the difference between being sensitive to some full discharge arcs or most partial discharge arcs, although requiring substantial redesign of the observing strategy.
    • A Hierarchical Framework to Mitigate the Risk of Hazardous Material Transportation

      Fan, Neng; Masoud, Sara; An, Lingling; Niu, Yue (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      An integrated traffic control policy for hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation is devised based on dual toll pricing (DTP) and network design (ND) policies within a two stage simulation-based optimization framework to enhance public safety in a highway. This integrated policy is simultaneously able to restrict hazmat traffic from freeways in densely populated areas via ND and control both regular and hazmat vehicles in tollways via DTP. Moreover, the mixed integer progrmming is employed to find the optimum integrated policy, and linear-relaxation technique based on Kaush-Kahn-Tucker (KKT) conditions is adopted to reduce the search space of the optimization process. In the proposed framework, all suggested policies are evaluated by an agent-based simulation model, which is able to interpret complex interrelationship between road conditions and vehicles. In addition, supervised learning (i.e., random forest algorithm) has been implemented within the agant-based simulation model to predict the risk taking behavior of the drivers considering the drivers' race and gender and transportation network characterstics such as levelness and curviness of the roads. The proposed framework has been demonstrated with a real traffic data of San Antonio, Texas under AnyLogic® platform. The experimental results reveal that the proposed framework is able to efficiently find the optimum integrated policy which effectively reduces the risk of hazmat transportation in a highway.
    • A Hydrochemical Modeling Study to Evaluate Potential Regional and Local Flowpaths to Surface Water Base Flow in Lower Cienega Creek and Davidson Canyon, Southeastern Arizona

      McIntosh, Jennifer; Kirk, Alyssa; Meixner, Thomas; Condon, Laura (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Cienega Creek contains critical habitat for plants and wildlife including threatened and endangered species and has been designated as an “Outstanding Water” by the State of Arizona. With limited surface water and various demands for water in the region, the presence of perennial surface water may be impacted by reduced water in the watershed. Within the groundwater basin, potential impacts include reduced precipitation and increased evaporation related to climate change as well as increased groundwater pumping from development and/or related to potential mining activities. Understanding where surface water is sourced can help inform water management strategies. Potential sources include regional groundwater with longer flowpaths and residence times, and locally recharged groundwater, which is sustained by recent precipitation. This study uses water chemistry data from regional groundwater, alluvial groundwater, recent precipitation, and surface water base flow to model the geochemical evolution of potential source waters to the resulting surface water in perennial reaches in the Lower Cienega Creek and Davidson Canyon watersheds. Geochemical modeling, recently collected data, and previous studies indicate that perennial flow in Lower Cienega Creek is primarily sustained by deeper, older, regionally recharged groundwater (about 71-84%) with contributions from Davidson Canyon below the confluence (about 42%). Davidson Canyon surface flow is primarily sourced from shallow alluvial groundwater (about 55-92%) that has been more recently recharged by local precipitation, with some contribution (about 8-45%) from older, regional groundwater.
    • A Hydroclimate Reconstruction of the Southern Westerly Winds in the Last Glacial Maximum and Late Holocene

      Tierney, Jessica E.; Blumm, Aria; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Thirumalai, Kaustubh (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHW) are the dominant atmospheric circulation over the austral mid-latitudes. The SHW are sensitive to changes in global climate and have the potential to modulate the exchange of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Southern Ocean. However, past changes in the strength, position, and configuration of the SHW are poorly understood. Here, we reconstruct the location and intensity of the SHW during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and pre-industrial (PI) climates to determine the mechanisms driving changes in these winds. We use the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial leaf waxes from three ocean sediment cores off coastal Chile, which is sensitive to changes in moisture sources associated with the SHW, and paired this analysis with isotope enabled climate model output. Our results show a clear pattern of enhanced isotopic depletion during the LGM at progressively southern latitudes, indicating an intensification of the mid-latitude branch of the south Pacific jet. Analysis of single forcing simulations demonstrates that both ice sheets and greenhouse gases contribute to the intensification, the former by increasing the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient, and the latter by inducing a tropical wave pattern. Expansion of sea ice acts as a positive feedback on these initial drivers, further strengthening the SHW. Unlike previous work, we do not find any evidence of an equatorward shift in the SHW. This study provides key insight into understanding how external climate drivers affect the SHW.
    • "A Little Jest That Maybe We Could Try" — Playing with Myth in Supergiant Games' Hades (2020)

      Groves, Robert; Waddell, Philip; Morgan, Ian; McAllister, Ken (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Supergiant Games’ video game Hades (2020) tells the story of Zagreus, son of Hades and Persephone, as he repeatedly struggles to escape his father’s Underworld and, for the first time in his life, meet his mother upon the surface of Greece. While brief, this synopsis immediately speaks to some of the many ways in which Hades is a particularly fascinating work of classical reception. In this thesis, I will conduct case studies of certain “micro-receptions,” so to speak, within the game. I will begin with consideration of Zagreus, exploring what little is known about this mythological figure, and how Supergiant Games at once rejects and embraces contradictions in his extant myths. I will then devote a significant portion of time to considering the Infernal Arms, the weapons which Zagreus uses during his attempts to escape the Underworld. First, I will consider what the Arms tell us about the history of Hades’ storyworld. Second, I will elucidate how the Arms provide crucial context for the relationship between the Hades’ Greece and the rest of its storyworld. Third, examinations of each Arm individually will reveal yet more about Hades’ storyworld, while also speaking to the characters of some of the Arms’ wielders. Finally, I will show how the Infernal Arms are a gateway to understanding how Supergiant Games situated Hades within our world, focusing on its status as a product of gaming history, of the year 2020, and of the United States of America. Indeed, Supergiant Games navigates these contexts with thought and grace, producing an accessible, fun work of classical reception which, as a result, has effectively immersed its players in the classics, introducing newcomers to ancient Greece while setting the stage for countless classical receptions yet to come.
    • A Mechanistic and Functional Analysis of Highly Conserved Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA 00867

      Goyal, Ravi; Perez, Shaira; Nagy, Lisa; Bolger, Timothy (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      We studied the functional significance of the long intergenic noncoding RNA 00867 (linc00867), which is highly conserved in mammals. Linc00867 has a 90% identical DNA sequence in the human and mouse genome, and it is located near developmental genes. However, the functional significance of this highly conserved lincRNA is not known. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that linc00867 regulates mouse development. To achieve this, we first determined where the linc00867 expression occurs in mice. We downloaded publicly available RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) datasets to examine linc00867 expression in different organs and conducted quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on mice organs. To determine the functional role of linc00867, we constructed a transgenic knockout mouse utilizing the Cre-Lox system. We monitored the growth and phenotypic characteristics of the linc00867 knockout mouse model and control mice to determine its functional role. Our results demonstrate that lincRNA00867 is only expressed in testes. We also observed that floxed linc00867 homozygous mice are fertile and viable without any apparent phenotypic changes. Also, single allele deletion of linc00867 did not produce any apparent phenotype. We did not observe any changes in pregnancy weight or mouse growth trajectory following single allele deletion of linc00867 in heterozygous KO mice. Currently, we are in process of generating homozygous linc00867 KO mice, and findings will be published in the future.
    • A Method for Analyzing Microclimate Effect of Shaded Transitional Spaces on Outdoor Human Thermal Comfort and Building Performance in a Hot Arid Region

      Chalfoun, Nader; Horn, Patricia; Youssef, Omar; Moeller, Colby (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Spaces are usually classified as either being indoors – frequently private or public outdoor spaces. Transitional spaces are an important aspect to the built environment as they have great potential to modify the environmental conditions of both indoor and outdoor spaces. They are the connecting space between the outdoor and indoors, between the natural climate and controlled climate. They can aid to building efficiency and to outdoor human thermal comfort. Transitional spaces in a hot arid region are crucial to maintaining the comfort of a user while being outside. The purpose of this investigation is to prove that shaded outdoor transitional spaces can lead to outdoor human thermal comfort and building performance. The problem being addressed is the lack of attention on shaded transitional spaces in a hot arid climate. Being located in such a harsh climatic environment it is important to look into the relationship between the building and its outdoor spaces as well as users. They are used to create a comfortable microclimate while transitioning into the building. A 9 step method will be proposed to defend the idea that shaded transitional spaces can lead to outdoor human thermal comfort and building efficiency. Methods being used are eQUEST Simulations, micro-climate data collection, and calculating outdoor human thermal comfort. The results confirmed the notion that shaded transitional spaces can lead to outdoor human thermal comfort and building performance. The comfort of the user was defined and the performance of the building was established through energy modeling simulations.
    • A Methodology to Assess and Mitigate Daylight Discomfort Glare and Provide Views in Daylit Learning Environments

      Chalfoun, Nader; Alaqtum, Tasbeeh; Engineer, Altaf; Moeller, Colby (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Daylight Discomfort Glare (DDG) is a common problem in many learning environments. It has been the topic of a significant body of research, and many attempts have been made to develop a reliable method to assess and mitigate it. In learning environments, students often prefer to select seats with views to connect with the outdoor environment while performing tasks. However, providing views is contingent upon having glare-free windows. This issue is challenging due to the very dynamic changes of outdoor illuminations and the complicated nature of the glare phenomenon. In this thesis, the latest reliable factors affecting DDG are investigated and a “Glare-Free Design” methodology is proposed to ensure providing quality views. The study also includes multi-fold contributions. First, the Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric is analyzed by conducting an extensive study on understanding the factors contributing to DDG and their impacts on DGP. A summary with sketches and graphs is also provided for architects to allow them to easily understand DDG occurrence. Second, a methodology is established to assess and mitigate DDG in learning environments with a real-world example of the public study areas at University of Arizona Main Library. Third, “Glare-Reduction” design strategies are implemented to mitigate DDG to imperceptible levels and achieve visual comfort for more than 80% of space users. Additional strategies are applied to augment the illuminance intensities on the interior surfaces and further balance out the overall daylighting distribution. The thesis findings are supplemented by collecting data, carrying out field measurements, and creating a computer simulation model. The model is created using the software programs Rhino and DIVA. A correlation between the simulation results and the experiment is made and reveals low validation error for the methodology. Eventually, an advanced annual glare analysis is produced, and results are obtained to be used as the basis to propose multiple climate-based strategies at the iteration process. The iteration process is a feedback-loop-based process meaning that after implementing each strategy a check process on glare takes place. This overall methodology can be used for any other learning environment while considering climate and orientation.
    • A Multimedia, Multipathway Exposure Assessment for Arsenic on the Hopi Reservation

      O'Rourke, Mary K.; Carl, Adam; Harris, Robin; Burgess, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metalloid is associated with multiple diseases, including cardiovascular, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, and some cancers. Exceedances of the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Dose (RfD) of 0.30 µg/kg/day for As pose a disproportional health risk for rural and underserved communities across the United States including American Indian communities. The Hopi, an American Indian Tribe in Northeastern Arizona, struggle to meet the EPA regulatory limit of 10 µg/L for As in groundwater; actual As exposure data are limited for the Hopi. In the Hopi Environmental Health Project (HEHP), I measured As concentrations in multiple environmental media (air, water, and food) for each of the 76 Hopi participants and estimated average daily intake for each participant during the heating and non-heating seasons. To make the estimates specific for the Hopi, ultraviolet radiation exposure data from each participant were used to approximate the time spent indoors and outdoors. Separate exposure models revealed As intake via inhalation was significantly different (heating: p=0.002, non-heating: p=0.0001) when using exposure factors calculated specifically for Hopi versus exposure factors from the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook within seasons. Inhalation represented a small fraction of Hopi exposure and I found overall aggregate As exposure was not significantly different between heating and non-heating seasons (p=0.193). Although 30% of homes had piped water with As levels exceeding the EPA’s regulatory limit, dietary ingestion contributed the greatest proportion to the aggregate As exposure during both the heating and non-heating season. During the heating season, the average aggregate As exposure was 0.524±0.523 µg/kg/day (min: 0.0885 µg/kg/day, max: 3.72 µg/kg/day). During the non-heating season, the average aggregate As exposure was 0.548±0.452 µg/kg/day (min: 0.0921 µg/kg/day, max: 2.05 µg/kg/day). Both aggregate exposures exceeded the EPA’s reference dose (RfD) of 0.30 µg/kg/day. To reduce overall As exposure among the Hopi, the Tribe can increase education and awareness about the health hazards of using As contaminated water when cooking. Furthermore, teaching Tribal members about the variety of foods that contain higher concentrations of As will help reduce overall exposure.
    • A Multiplexed Hybrid Velocimeter

      Kost, Alan R.; Pena, Michael Thomas; Kieu, Khanh; Djordjevic, Ivan (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Optical velocimetry systems play a crucial role in studying the dynamic behavior of materials under extreme conditions. Two prominent systems used at the Nevada National Security Site are the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) and the photon Doppler velocimeter (PDV) system. Their ability to accurately measure surface motion ranging from 0 to >20km/s without interacting with material flow enables experimenters to construct thermodynamic equations of state for materials of interest. A number of modifications to VISAR and PDV have taken place over the past five decades, leading to improved performance, increased recording capacity, and a reduction in operational burden. Prior efforts to develop a hybrid velocimeter combining the advantages of both PDV and VISAR into a single diagnostic did not take into account progress in PDV technology or new optical components that had not been developed. This thesis describes the design and implementation of a multiplexed hybrid velocimeter (MHV) based on time-multiplexing techniques, an optical hybrid, and polarization-maintaining fiber and components. Data from experiments, compared with current velocity systems, serve to demonstrate the hybrid's performance.
    • A Nanometric View into Strengthening Mechanisms of Iron Incorporation in Graphene-Based Nanocomposites

      Muralidharan, Krishna; Rand, Matthew; Manga, Venkateswara; Potter, Barrett; Runge, Keith (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Recent advances in the ability to synthesize metal-ion coagulated graphene oxide (GO) colloidal dispersions have provided new avenues for fabrication of GO based thin films and membranes. Additionally, new fabrication techniques have recently emerged that enable the ability to intercalate and reduce metal halides in bulk graphite crystals, leading to metal-based graphite intercalated compounds (GICs). To this end, a fundamental study on the interplay between composition, atomic-scale structure and mechanical properties of metal-GO as well as metal-GIC composite materials was carried out employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, the transition metal iron (Fe) was considered in this study; MD investigations reveal that Fe ions act as strong cross-linkers between individual GO sheets, increasing elastic modulus as well as tensile strength of the Fe-GO composite. Investigations of Fe intercalated GIC (Fe-GIC) showed interesting trends in its mechanical properties due to bond formation between the intercalated Fe atoms and the ‘sandwiching’ graphene sheets. In particular, with increasing iron concentration, there is strengthening in the out-of-plane direction, while reduction in the in-plane direction of the Fe-GIC lattice. While the Fe-C bonding ensures out-of-plane strengthening, it is equally detrimental to the strength of the in-plane C-C bonds within the graphene sheets. Valuable lessons learned from this work provide important insights into the design and development of GO and GIC composites for targeted mechanical and chemical applications.
    • “A New Form, a New Shape, and a New History” Revolt and Reformation in Sixteenth Century Vienna, 1519–1524

      Lotz-Heumann, Ute; Plummer, Beth; Messinger, Dean; Milliman, Paul (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      In 1519, after the death of Emperor Maximilian, the citizens of Vienna revolted against the emperor’s regency government and seized control of the city. This uprising soon expanded to the aristocratic estates, who joined forces with the urban rebels to challenge the authority of the Habsburgs. At the same time, Reformation ideas, texts, and preachers were entering the city and it was during these years of tumult that the nascent evangelical community in Vienna was born. This thesis examines events in Vienna during a six-year period from 1519 to 1524, exploring the ways in which three distinct lines of conflict- urban, dynastic, and religious- unraveled and intersected during this time of revolt and reformation. Highlighting the fluctuating nature of conflict and negotiation, the polycentric social organization of the city, and the formation and dissolution of insurgent coalitions, this thesis demonstrates how the intensification of preexisting conflicts during this upheaval helped shape the courses and outcomes of these conflicts. Drawing on a variety of archival and published sources from in and around Vienna, I argue that this six-year period of revolt and reformation marks a distinct shift in the history of the city, witnessing a transformation of Vienna’s political, social, and spiritual landscapes. While the defeat of the Viennese revolt meant the abolition of the city’s medieval autonomy and greater monarchical oversight in the city, the fluid and unstable situation created by the revolt allowed for the early and enduring growth of an evangelical Vienna.
    • A New Way of Fabricating High-Porosity Parylene Membranes for High-Throughput Capturing of Viable Circulating and Exfoliated Tumor Cells from Large-Volume Bodily Fluids

      Gu, Jian; Rabadi, Inad S.; Zenhausern, Frederic; Sharma, Shalini (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      We report a simple method using just photolithography and reactive ion etching to fabricate high porosity Parylene-C porous membranes to process large volume of samples for liquid biopsy. A range of membranes have been fabricated with porosity ranging from 39 to 76 %. In comparison, track-etched polycarbonate membrane has a 5% porosity, and previously reported Parylene membrane had a ~ 45% porosity. A surprising vertical sidewall was observed in etched Parylene pores, which was contributed to the photoresist melting during high DC bias (420V) plasma etching. A circulating tumor cell (CTC) capture device was developed, and buffer sample processing rate up to 200 ml/min (limited by the device’s geometry) was obtained for membranes with porosity of > 47%. A low cell count method with ±1 cell accuracy was developed to characterize the spiked cell capture. The device showed high capture efficiency of 87 to 92% for low spiked cell numbers (< 50 cells). Preliminary results also showed over 90% viability for the captured cells. The simple Parylene etching process is promising for low cost fabrication of high porosity Parylene membranes for liquid biopsy applications.
    • A Nonparametric Multiple Imputation Approach For MNAR Mechanism Using the Sample Selection Model Framework

      Hsu, Paul; Jia, Ziyue; Bell, Melanie; Hu, Chengcheng (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Missing data is an unavoidable issue when performing data analysis. If the missing probability is related to unobserved variables, missingness is considered as missing not at random (MNAR). It is challenging to analyze data subject to MNAR. There are two ways to induce MNAR mechanism: sample selection model and pattern mixture model. Under the sample se-lection model framework, we develop a nonparametric multiple imputation (NNMI) method to estimate the marginal mean of an outcome subject to MNAR mechanism, where the sample se-lection model is only used as a working model to define the imputing set for each missing indi-vidual. We perform simulation studies to compare the performance of the proposed approach with a parametric multiple imputation approach, which directly uses the sample selection model to impute missing individuals. The results show that our method performs well for data subject to MNAR mechanism. Due to the limitations of current estimation method, we have not found solid proof to demonstrate the proposed method has better performance than parametric multi-ple imputation to handle MNAR when the sample selection model is misspecified. We also ap-ply the proposed approach to a real dataset to estimate the marginal mean of HbA1c level for carotid patients, whose HbA1c is subject to missingness.
    • A Nonparametric Test for Equality of Distributions

      Lin, Kevin; Dungan, Florence; Watkins, Joseph C.; Zhang, Hao Helen (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      A computationally inexpensive equality test for multivariate distributions is useful inmany applications. The goal of this work is to investigate a proposed such test, the projective KS test. It involves projecting the multivariate data onto random lines through the origin and performing one-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests on the resulting projections. The projective KS statistic is the maximum of the metrics obtained from those 1D tests. Two methods of implementation of the projective KS test were developed, one involving sub-sampling in the form of partitioning of the data, and the other using only the whole sample(s). The distribution of the projective KS statistics for both methods was investi- gated. For each method, numerical experiments were carried out to calculate the power of the tests for different sample and sub-sample sizes and different numbers of projections, for a range of normal distributions. Power characteristics for the two methods were compared to each other and to the performance of Z-tests. The proposed test (both methods) is less powerful than the Z-tests, but it has the advantage of being nonparametric. In addition, the projective KS test is potentially useful as a test of random variable independence.
    • A Novel Pain Pathway To Elucidate a Connection Between Chronic Pain and Opioid Use

      Vanderah, Todd W.; Crews, Cassidy; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Proffitt, James V. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The misuse and heavy reliance on effective opioid painkillers due to the many Americans suffering from chronic pain has added to the current opioid epidemic. Chronic pain is often associated with higher-order processing dysfunction such as anxiety, depression, difficulty with attention to detail, and forgetfulness. Therefore, it is highly likely that the Prelimbic Prefrontal Cortex (PL-PFC), primarily responsible for higher-order processing functionality, is directly neuronally connected with the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla (RVM), an area responsible for modulating pain. This is a major site of action for opioids, and a site of action to the Descending Pain Modulatory Pathway where endogenous opioids are released to act as a natural pain reliever and inhibit ascending pain signals. Preliminary data has shown a link to Kv7 channels in the prelimbic region of the brain and chronic pain. To probe Kv7 type channels in pain states, a specific Kv7 channel blocker, XE-991, was microinjected into PL-PFC to cause a similar state of hyperactivity in the region. Von Frey behavioral testing revealed lower paw withdrawal threshold compared to vehicle injections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), representing more pain with the channel blocker, and a good model to study chronic pain. In a subsequent experiment, lidocaine, a local anesthetic that will temporarily inhibit neuronal activity, was microinjected into the RVM just preceding the PL-PFC injection. If there is a direct connection from the PL-PFC to the RVM, the axon terminals of the projecting neurons and targets will be inhibited and pain will not be detected in behavior testing. Increased paw withdrawal threshold for mechanical allodynia was observed with lidocaine treatment, further adding to the claim that there exists a direct neuronal projection from the PL-PFC to the RVM (PL-RVM). In order to view these direct neuronal projections, fluorescent tract tracing was employed in a subsequent experiment by injecting both anterograde and retrograde neuronal tracers into the PL-PFC and RVM. Microscopic analysis showed areas of significant colocalization to further add evidence to support the hypothesis that there exists a direct projection pain pathway from the PL-PFC and the RVM. If this hypothesis is correct, it would expand our knowledge of the pathways in which pain synapses throughout the brain including parts of the brain that may play a role in an affective component of pain. This allows scientists and medical professionals to develop new, efficacious treatment options for chronic pain patients that may have added pain due to conditions of anxiety as well as depression, including those who suffer from unilateral treatments with opioids and the opioid epidemic.
    • A Novel Pathology Device for the Improvement of Intraoperative Breast-Cancer Tissue Gross Examination

      Arabyan, Ara; Kachur, Xenia; (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      The aim of this study was to design and test key aspects of a novel device, consisting of a polymer referencing enclosure (hardware) and a gel component, for the standardization of intraoperative gross pathology examination of excised breast cancer tissue. The proposed device improves the current practice of tissue preparation for radiographic and pathological examination without changing the existing process and without imposing retraining requirements on professional staff involved in the current process. To identify the optimal composition of the gel component to be used, 32 gel formulations were tested to determine setting times and maximum temperature reached during setting. The radiographic properties of 12 gel formulations and 15 plastic materials for potential use in the hardware were also tested. A negative correlation was found to exist between setting time and maximum temperature reached, narrowing down gel selections to those setting in <10 minutes with a temperature peak of <54 °C. The radiographic properties of the tested and downselected gels and plastics were found to be such that these materials are unlikely to interfere with lesion identification in radiological examinations. A completed tissue study for examination of gel effects on tissue properties revealed no effects, thereby clearing this device for potential clinical applications.
    • A Penetration and Safety Assay for Generic Ophthalmic Drugs

      Orsinger, Gabriel; (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      Generic topical ophthalmic medications are poorly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, resulting in an uncertainty of generics' efficacy and safety and unnecessarily placing patients at risk. In 1999, more than 200 documented cases of corneal damage as severe as corneal melting were linked to the use of a generic formulation of diclofenac, which was consequently pulled from the market. These devastating iatrogenic effects demonstrate the need for stricter testing of generic ophthalmic drugs prior to reaching the public. This report addresses this urgent need by proposing an in vitro model for simultaneously predicting corneal penetration and epithelial toxicity of topical ophthalmic formulations. Penetration and safety of ophthalmic medications have been studied separately, but until now, the development of an assay to accurately predict both penetration and safety in parallel has been overlooked. In this report, recent and ongoing research will be reviewed to (1) elucidate the complexities of corneal penetration and the effects of topical ophthalmic formulations on corneal penetration, and (2) identify important characteristics of existing models to incorporate in the proposed in vitro penetration and safety assay. Critical features of the model proposed here include a trephinated porcine cornea from tissue discards affixed in a Franz diffusion cell, permitting concurrent drug penetration and epithelial health monitoring. A robust, cost-effective penetration and safety assay such as this would provide drug companies with a valuable tool to eliminate chances of future iatrogenic effects due to topical ophthalmic drugs.
    • A Physically-Motivated Regression Approach to Forecasting Lake Powell Inflow

      Zeng, Xubin; Potteiger IV, Samuel Edwin; Troch, Peter A.; Gupta, Hoshin V. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The Colorado River provides water for a growing population in seven U.S. states and Mexico, making it undoubtedly one of the most important rivers in the entire world. Lake Powell is the second largest reservoir on the river and is responsible for much of the water which enters Lake Mead. Forecasts of the water supply to Lake Powell are relied upon immensely by water users for planning purposes. The UA model was developed in this study to take a physically-motivated regression approach to modelling Lake Powell Inflow. The UA model has two parts: the water year estimation method and the inflow model. The water year estimation method uses physical observations to make a binary forecast indicating if a given water year is a high-flow year or low-flow year based on the water year’s peak monthly inflow or April-July volumetric flow. The water year prediction is first made on December 1st and provides information for a seven-month forecast. This method was able to predict all high-flow years throughout the 1982-2016, whereas the official forecasting center’s January 1st forecast predicted less than half. Most flow comes to Lake Powell in the April-July period, and the operational forecast center releases a forecast for this period on April 1st. The UA model forecast made on April 1st has a 29% lower RMSE for the 1982-2016 period. Sensitivity tests indicate that the use of snow water equivalent in our model is an important reason for the UA model’s good performance. The UA model and the operational model do not have a statistically significant difference in performance in the 2013-2016 period at all lead times except for the 4-month lead time. The operational model has statistically significant better performance at the 4-month lead time during this period.