Now showing items 5780-5799 of 15436

• #### Exploring the Relationship Between Accreditation and For-Profit Higher Education Institutions

This paper explores the relationship between for-profit higher education institutions and accreditation. Two sets of research questions are examined. The first set of research questions looks at the characteristics of for-profits regionally accredited versus nationally accredited. The second set of research questions looks at the characteristics of for-profits that keep accreditation versus those who lose accreditation. Analysis is conducted using panel longitudinal data that has been merged together from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the Office of Federal Student Aid, and the Postsecondary Education Participation System (PEPS). Both descriptive statistics and logistic regressions are used to explore the hypotheses in this paper. The findings contribute to the field’s understanding of for-profits and accreditation. This paper found in general for-profits are not losing accreditation. Regionally accreditors in particular are not revoking accreditation. Larger for-profits are more likely to be regionally accredited. Revenue, enrollment, and number of campuses, in particular seem to keep institutions from losing accreditation. Policy continues to be created (or reversed) to address concerns over for-profits but it has done so without enough statistical analysis to backup those decisions. The relationship between for-profits and accreditation is mutually beneficial and therefore needs to be further researched and addressed.
• #### Exploring the Role and Targeting of Nuclear EGFR in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Among breast cancer subtypes, triple-negative breast cancers overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have some of the most aggressive phenotypes and poorest prognoses. EGFR contributes to oncogenic signaling and in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been observed to traffic to the nucleus where it acts as a co-regulator of transcription among other activities. Targeting of EGFR via inhibition of its receptor tyrosine kinase activity or antibody therapies have proven ineffective in treating triple-negative breast cancers. An alternative method to target EGFR is by inhibiting its retrograde trafficking. Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) binds to EGFR at the early endosome and is implicated in retrograde trafficking given its membrane bending functions and its homologue in yeast’s role in the retromer complex. Our lab has developed a peptide that inhibits this interaction called cSNX1.3. Treatment with cSNX1.3 results in a regression of EGFR-driven tumors in mice and a loss of viability in TNBC cells. However, it also causes an induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and causes changes in the expression of keratin 14. I have performed chromatin immunoprecipitations to determine if EGFR is binding to the promoters of keratin 14 and IL-6 in response to ligand activation, and if this is inhibited following cSNX1.3 treatment. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and 5 (STAT3 and STAT5) binding were also evaluated, given that they are known to bind to EGFR and allow for its regulation of gene expression. These experiments have revealed an alternative pattern of STAT5 and EGFR binding. They also reveal that cSNX1.3 may act independently of ligand-activation of EGFR to regulate gene expression. Ultimately, however these findings confirmed that EGFR is binding to the promoters of keratin 14 and IL-6 following ligand-activation and retrograde trafficking to the nucleus. cSNX1.3 is able to decrease this binding substantially. Given that nuclear EGFR is related to poor prognoses, this reduction of nuclear EGFR activity following cSNX1.3 treatment points to targeting nuclear EGFR localization via inhibition of the SNX1-EGFR interaction as a novel and promising potential therapeutic considering its in vivo and in vitro effects.
• #### Exploring the Success and Defeat of Ronda Rousey: A Content Analysis of Twitter and Newspaper Coverage from 2014-2016

Scholarly research has analyzed how female athletes use their social media platforms and how they are represented in news media coverage. However, no scholarly literature has specifically looked at Ronda Rousey, an American mixed martial artist. The current study used a quantitative content analysis to examine how Rousey has utilized her Twitter account as well as how local and national newspapers in the United States framed coverage of Rousey between 2014 to 2016. For the tweets, content, referring to pictures that Rousey posted, was the most popular category; the second most prevalent category was promotional, referring to tweets that promoted upcoming events or sponsorships. Rousey mainly used her Twitter to post pictures of herself and promote her personal brand. For the newspaper articles, the most frequently used frames were agency, powerless, and goals and ambitions. Two new frames emerged from the current study – fame, referring to Rousey’s film career, and relations, referring to Rousey’s personal life and relationships. The newspapers were predominantly neutral in their coverage of Rousey throughout the three-year study period. This case study is important because it found that Rousey was framed in a way that differed from previous research. The findings in this study demonstrate that Rousey was not marginalized in newspaper coverage or portrayed in a negative manner, as other female athletes have been in the past. Rather than focusing on her appearance or sexuality, the news coverage highlighted Rousey’s success and athletic achievements.
• #### Exploring the Treatability of 1,4-dioxane and PFAS in Marana, Arizona Groundwater

Despite phasing out production decades ago, toxic pollutants such as per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and 1,4-dioxane persist in the environment and contaminate drinking water supplies across the United States. Tucson Water’s (TW) isolated Silverbell West water system has been shut down due to the increasing public health risk from the migrating groundwater plumes of these compounds. The groundwater wells were shut down due to violation of Tucson Water’s self-imposed regulatory limits for PFAS and 1,4-dioxane: 18 ppt and 0.35 ppb, respectively. To guide the decision-making process, rapid small scale column tests (RSSCT), point of use (POU) device bench studies, and ultra-violet/advanced oxidation process (UV/AOP) testing were conducted to determine the appropriate treatment solution for this site. The RSSCT experiments revealed that ion exchange (IX) media, Evoqua and Purofine, reduced contaminant concentrations below TW operations targets until nearly 100k bed volumes (BVs) of spiked groundwater passed through the column. When granulated activated carbon (GAC) was the adsorption media, PFAS broke through above TW’s target at nearly 50k BVs. POU bench tests supported commercial devices' claims in removing PFAS to at least their filtration cartridge life. However, the POU device selected for 1,4-dioxane removal failed to remove the compound past 10% of its expected cartridge life. For UV/AOP, it was determined that using chlorine as an oxidant may be a possible solution for degrading 1,4-dioxane to regulatory levels. Two treatment trains have been designed: 1) UV/AOP and GAC and 2) IX, UV/AOP, and GAC to remove the two compounds. The two treatment train costs were normalized to three years of operation or 21 million gallons of treated water produced. Treatment option 1 is the more suitable choice for Silverbell West remediation site, due to lower construction and operation and maintenance costs.
• #### Exploring the University Support Networks of First-Generation Undergraduate Students

The central research questions that guided this study were: how does the mentor/mentee relationship between academic advisors and first-generation college students develop within an academic success course; how does the mentor/mentee relationship between peer mentors and first-generation college students develop within an academic success course?This research was conducted utilizing a case-study approach with a single academic success course for students on academic probation serving as the case. Three academic advisors teaching the course, four peer mentors meeting with students outside of class, and three students taking the course were interviewed. The case was selected to explore in depth the complex system of support first generation college students receive at the university level. The two overarching themes that emerged from the data were: the process of developing an emotional connection to create a relationship and utilizing a holistic approach to support students. More specifically, finding common ground, being relatable to students, showing that you care for students as individuals, and fostering openness and informality in relationships were the components identified by participants to foster emotional connection. The data also revealed that peer mentors and advisors were initiating accountability with their students, making intentional referrals for students to other campus resources, and the underlying motivation to serve in these two roles came from an intrinsic desire to give back. Recommendations included directors of advising and student retention administrations defining the roles of advisors in regard to student emotional support, compensating them for their work, and increase training for all university staff and faculty on how to create these impactful relationships with students.
• #### Exploring the Use of Environmentally Friendly Fertilizers for Desert Vegetable Production

Field experiments were conducted from 2011 through 2017 to (1) evaluate the responses of vegetable crops to Crystal Green (CG) in comparison to conventional phosphorus (P) fertilizers and (2) to investigate alternative nitrogen management strategies for desert spinach production. The earlier experiments spanned from 2011 to 2016 and employed a novel P source (struvite), a granule-like based P fertilizer marketed as “Crystal Green®”. Responses of Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa), carrot (Daucus carota sativus), onions (Allium cepa) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) to struvite (CG), triple super phosphate (TSP), and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were compared. Our results revealed that CG compared favorably to TSP but not to MAP when applied as a sole P source. However, certain blends or co-granulated formulations of MAP and CG often provided superior yields than MAP alone. The later studies comprised of four experiments performed from 2016 to 2017. These studies employed various nitrogen (N) sources. The N sources included enhanced efficiency N fertilizers and conventional N products applied at 0,150, and 300 kg N/ha in 2015 and 0, 100, and 200 kg N/ha in 2016. We observed that spinach yields were often maximized at N rates less than 200 kg N/ha considerably below standard commercial practices. The data also revealed that the N source fused safe nitrate (FUSN), a product developed as a substitute for dry ammonium nitrate, generally produced favorable spinach responses relative to the other dry N sources such as ammonium sulfate (AS) and urea. The controlled release fertilizer (CRF) products were observed to be effective N sources for spinach production and are viable options for enhanced efficiency. Contrarily, the nitrification inhibitors caused ammonium damage and yield depression. Overall, the experiments proved that environmentally friendly N and P fertilizers are effective nutrient sources for vegetable production on desert soils.
• #### Exploring uncertainty in first pregnancy

A qualitative study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of uncertainty in women experiencing a first uncomplicated pregnancy. Ten subjects, three from each of the first two pregnancy trimesters and four from the third pregnancy trimester, comprised the sample. Subjects ranged in age from 19 years to 30 years and lived in a southwestern city. Interviews were conducted in the subjects' homes or in the researcher's office over a four month period. Constant comparative analysis of data permitted the researcher to elicit specific uncertainties by trimester and the meaning of uncertainty to women involved in a normal change process. Implications for nursing highlight the need to provide continuity of care from office to hospital and within the hospital environment itself. Providing support by functioning as a mediator between the physician and the patient, nurses could contribute to the pregnant woman's positive perception of her experience. In addition to traditional third trimester childbirth education, classes for first and second trimester women are recommended.
• #### Exposed Memory: Weathering of Regional Architecture

Weathering introduces a language of durability and change throughout time. Architecture and its materials are constituents of place, as is the way they weather and age. The intent of this research is to analyze regional weathering characteristics specific to the American Southwest as a reflection of a sense of belonging that evolves over time.
• #### Exposure to chlorpyrifos and use of pesticides in Arizona

This study of pesticide use and exposure in the Arizona NHEXAS sample explored demographic variation in pesticide use and the feasibility of predicting the subjects' urinary TCPY (a chlorpyrifos metabolite) using questionnaire data. A variety of demographic differences in pesticide use patterns such as frequency of personal application, use of professional exterminators, and frequency of use outside the home were found. In contrast, there were few demographic differences in TCPY, although mean TCPY was higher than in earlier epidemiological studies. Two mulitvariate (multiple regression) methods of predicting TCPY from questionnaire responses were tested. The first method combined pesticide use questions into a scale; the second method treated them separately. R2s were similar and below .25 using either method. Including only subjects reporting some pesticide use raised the R2 to .35. These results suggest that questionnaire responses cannot predict exposure accurately enough to be useful proxies for biological samples.
• #### Expression of a mammalian cytochrome P-450 in Nicotiana tabacum for bioremediation of PCB contaminated soils

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are resistant to metabolism in most animal species. The dog has the unique ability to metabolize and eliminate certain PCB congeners, as a result of the activity of the cytochrome P450 isozyme PBD-2. An expressible cDNA coding for PBD-2 has been introduced into the genome of tobacco plants. The PBD-2 cDNA coding sequence and a screenable marker gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II were introduced into tobacco leaf disks using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector system. Southern and Western blot analysis have confirmed chromosomal integration of the cDNA and expression of the PBD-2 polypeptide. Differential centrifugation and Western blot analyses have shown the PBD-2 protein to be associated with a membrane fraction in transgenic tobacco leaf homogenates. Measurements of marker enzymes from linear sucrose gradient fractions and Western blotting show the PBD-2 protein to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Our goal is to develop transgenic plants in which the PBD-2 protein metabolizes PCBs, thus providing a novel method for bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soils.
• #### Expression of Femininity through The Rusalka (Mermaid) Figure in Russian Cinema of the Twenty First Century: Patriarchal Norms and Feminist Responses

“I don’t believe in the betrothed one!” says Polina, one of the characters in Sviatoslav Podgaevskii’s horror film The Mermaid: Lake of the Dead (2018). The phrase may be shocking and troubling to the majority of Russian women, who grew up reading the tales about Ivanushka Tsarevich (Ivan the Prince). Fairy tales, according to some feminists, educate women to be passive, submissive and wait for their princes to rescue them from misery. However, some folkloric female personages disrupt patriarchal norms. One such character is the Slavic rusalka (mermaid). A charming culprit, she is notorious for her ability to seduce as well as to kill. Within sexualized, misogynistic frameworks, the alluring and unrestrained rusalka becomes a demon. Nevertheless, in the twenty-first century, the rusalka figure garners an alternative reading. From the perspective of Russian women directors, she is a secure, creative, independent woman and a subject of her definition, rather than an object of male conditioning. The current thesis analyzes the multiplex rusalka character through an interdisciplinary lens, and then examines the purpose of the rusalka figure in three contemporary Russian films. The analysis shows the connection between the rusalka and the mermaid, which supports the theory of the rusalka as a hypersexualized object for male satisfaction. Secondly, folkloric studies reveal the rusalka's uniqueness, which adds to the purposes of the character. The study of the three movies shows that the horror movie, filmed by a male director, invariably presents the rusalka as a vamp figure, or as a socially constructed other, while the films by the female directors attempt to show alternative femininities through the rusalka figure.

• #### Expressions of hsc/hsp70 cDNAs in bacteria and comparison with tissue-isolated proteins.

Rat hsc70 and human hsp70 have been expressed in bacteria using the T7 polymerase system. The recombinant proteins, which were the major proteins in E.coli, had the same molecular weights as the tissue-isolated proteins and were immunoactive with hsc70/hsp70 antibodies. ATP binding assay by equilibrium dialysis showed a K$\sb{\rm d}$ for ATP of 0.44 $\mu$M. At saturation, 0.4 mole of ATP was bound per mole of hsc70. Both recombinant and tissue-isolated hsc70/hsp70 have ATPase activities. The denatured substrate, reduced carboxyl methylated $\alpha$-lactalbumin (RCMLA), stimulated ATPase rates of bovine tissue-isolated hsc70/hsp70, but the ATPase rates of rat skeletal muscle and recombinant hsc70 were not changed upon the adding of RCMLA. The analysis of two-dimensional gels showed hsc70/hsp70 isolated from different sources had different isoform patterns. It is speculated that each isoform may have its own substrate specificity.
• #### An extended cavity, self focussing laser optical head

A feasibility study of an "Extended Cavity, Self Focussing Laser Optical Head" for optical data storage applications is presented. A general description of the proposed device is discussed followed by a prediction of its dynamic operation. This is verified by a one dimensional computer model, simulating dynamic laser head behavior. Transient laser phenomena such as longitudinal mode competition and laser frequency modulation are investigated as applicable to the device operation. The self-focussing concept is confirmed by the passive cavity experiment and a geometrical computer model of the cold cavity (i.e. no gain medium).
• #### Extended Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method for Dynamics in Ferrite Material

We present a broad overview of Maxwell's equations and the standard finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Furthermore, we develop and analyze a FDTD scheme for Maxwell's equations in ferrite material. We present basic results about Maxwell's equations, the FDTD method, and the governing equations for electromagnetic phenomenon in ferrite material. We insert the Landau-Lifshitz equation (which models the dynamics of the magnetization vector M in ferrite material) into the standard FDTD method. We place the M ield at cell centers and derive an explicit update for its field components. We show the scheme is stable for certain ferrite material parameters by using Von Neumann and eigenvalue stability analysis. Finally, we show our method, due to boundary conditions, loses the 2nd order convergence enjoyed by the standard FDTD method.
• #### Extending DEVS-Scheme for control of an oxygen production test bed

This thesis describes an implementation of real-time simulation and control in the DEVS-Scheme environment. The plant is described by discrete event models developed within the event-based control paradigm. A model of the controller is employed to validate its design against a model of the plant. The same model is then migrated over to actual operation by interfacing it to a programmable sensor/actuator interface unit. A system entity structure is employed to generate both the simulation and execution versions of the controller. This methodology is supported by extensions to the DEVS-Scheme simulation environment which facilitate its use for real-time control. As an example, an intelligent controller is developed to control temperature and pressure of an oxygen production prototype system which converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. Such a system is eventually intended to operate autonomously on Mars.

• #### Extension strategies important and feasible for the improvement of poultry production in Bangladesh

The study identified the "most important" and the "most feasible" poultry extension strategies for the improvement of poultry production in Bangladesh during the next five years. Eighty-two poultry Extension agents of the Bangladesh Department of Livestock assessed the importance of the poultry Extension strategies and 15 Extension administrators assessed the feasibility of the "most important" strategies as identified by the agents. The response rate was 82.4% for the extension agents and 100% for the administrators. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse their responses. The respondents identified 38 "most important" poultry Extension strategies and 12 of these strategies as being also "most feasible" for the improvement of poultry production in Bangladesh. In addition, using the Spearman rank order correlation (rs, the study found that there was no significant difference between poultry Extension agents who were Veterinary Science graduates and Animal Husbandry graduates in their ranking of the importance of the poultry extension strategies despite the differences in their educational preparation.
• #### La extensión de estar a través del tiempo y el espacio: Un estudio diacrónico de los siglos XIII-XX y sincrónico de Hermosillo, Sonora y el Sur de Arizona

Este estudio consiste en dos análisis: el primero es un análisis diacrónico que traza el avance de la cópula estar invadiendo al ámbito de ser en el español del siglo XIII al siglo XX basado en el Corpus del Español de Davis (2000-) y que discute el mecanismo diacrónico que promueve el avance, la gramaticalización; el segundo es un análisis sincrónico variacionista que compara la extensión de estar en contextos donde normativamente se espera ser en las variedades de español habladas en Hermosillo, Sonora, y en el Sur de Arizona. A través del análisis de 1,300 ocurrencias en 40 entrevistas, este estudio determina los factores sociales y lingüísticos que condicionan la realización de esta variable entre grupos bilingües y monolingües. Estudios variacionistas anteriores detectaron un uso de la variable en contextos monolingües (Gutiérrez 1992; Cortés-Torres 2004; Alfaraz 2012) y bilingües (Silva- Corvalán 1994; Ortiz-López 2000; Gutiérrez 2003; Lowther y Lindsey 2005; Salazar 2007), con una aceleración en su uso en algunas comunidades bilingües. Los factores significativos de los estudios anteriores incluyen: tipo de adjetivo (Gutiérrez 1992; Silva- Corvalán 1994; Cortés-Torres 2004; Alfaraz 2012), educación (Gutiérrez 1992; Cortés- Torres 2004), edad (Gutiérrez 1992; Silva-Corvalán 1994; Alfaraz 2012) y género (Gutiérrez 1992; Silva-Corvalán 1994). Los resultados del análisis diacrónico indican que desde el cambio del latín al español medieval, estar empezó a tomar el lugar de ser. A través de una discusión de las definiciones de la gramaticalización y los rasgos de procesos de este tipo, concluimos que la extensión de estar se caracteriza como un proceso de gramaticalización. Los resultados del análisis sincrónico muestran un uso innovador de estar de 16.2% en Hermosillo y 20.8% en el Sur de Arizona, porcentajes comparables a los estudios anteriores. La procedencia del hablante (Hermosillo/Sur de Arizona) no es estadísticamente significativa y la distribución de los factores es bastante parecida en las dos comunidades. Esto surgiere que el bilingüismo (español/inglés) no resulta en una aceleración del uso innovador en este corpus, lo cual concuerda con Ortiz-López (2000) y Lowther y Lindsey (2005) y difiere de Silva-Corvalán (1994) y Salazar (2007). Los factores de tipo de adjetivo (edad, tamaño), grado de menos atención y nivel académico más bajo favorecen el estar innovador. Los resultados de este estudio concuerdan con estudios anteriores en cuanto a los factores que favorecen el uso innovador, los tipos de adjetivo (Gutiérrez 1992; Silva-Corvalán 1994; Cortés-Torres 2004) y nivel académico (Gutiérrez 1992; Cortés-Torres 2004). Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de la variable en general y provee evidencia que no hay una tendencia general de una aceleración del uso innovador como resultado del bilingüismo (español/inglés).