Now showing items 7157-7176 of 15079

    • HYDROGEOLOGY AND PALEOHYDROGEOLOGY OF THE KOONGARRA NATURAL ANALOGUE, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA

      Ekwurzel, Brenda; Braumiller, Sue; Ekwurzel, Brenda (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      The Koongarra site is one of the most extensively studied natural analogues in the world. Data for the Koongarra site are re-examined to develop a hydrogeological and paleohydrogeological conceptual model of the natural analogue as a basis for simulating the development of the dispersion fan. Geological, geophysical, hydrologic, and paleoclimatic data are interpreted to determine present-day conditions on the boundaries of host schist and the hydrogeological structure of the host formation. The configuration of groundwater flow through host schist is inferred from the structure of the formation and boundary conditions. Groundwater level measurements and data describing the di stribution of aqueous uranium and other aqueous species and parameters are consistent with the proposed hydrogeological model. Information about the geochronology of the site and paleoclimate of the region are considered to show that sources of recharge to host schist, factors determining the hydrogeological structure of the host formation , and the configuration of groundwater flow through the site are essentially unchanged for the last two million years or more. The proposed flow field descended through the No. 1 orebody with the erosion (lowering) of the land surface and advance of the weathered profile to form the Koongarra dispersion fan. Data describing the three-dimensional distribution of uranium minerals comprising the dispersion fan are consistent with the proposed paleohydrogeological model. Paleoclimatic records and an estimate of the present rate of advance of the weathering front are used to approximate the age and rate of development of the fan, initiated two million years ago.
    • Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water and surface-water flow in Pinal Creek Basin, Gila County, Arizona

      Neaville, Chris C. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      Acidic water with elevated concentrations of metals has contaminated a stream and alluvial aquifer in a mining district near Globe, Arizona. The contaminated aquifer is a narrow layer of unconsolidated alluvium along Miami Wash and Final Creek. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogeology of this area and to simulate the surface- and ground-water flow. The alluvium overlies basin fill which extends throughout most of Final Creek basin. Together, the alluvium and basin fill comprise the primary aquifer in the basin. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities have been estimated to be about 200 m/day in the alluvium, and average linear, ground-water flow velocities are on the order of 5 m/day. Flow was simulated by a three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model that maintains a streamflow water budget. Steady-state simulations were performed and adjusted to represent average annual water budget conditions. The transient simulation period covers September 1984 to April 1989, for which considerable data were available for model calibration.
    • Hydrogeology and water resources of Middle Kirkland Creek basin, Yavapai county, Arizona.

      Randall, Jeffrey Hunt.; Harshbarger, John W.; Wilson, Gray; DeCook, Jim (The University of Arizona., 1974)
      Middle Kirkland Creek basin lies at the northern edge of the Basin and Range province 20 miles southwest of Prescott, Arizona. The hydrogeologic system of the basin includes two major aquifers: alluvial sediments and basaltic volcanics. The alluvial sediments are a series of granitic pebble conglomerates intercalated with basalt flows in some areas overlaid by finegrained lacustrine sediments that grade laterally into a pebble conglomerate. Overlying these units is a thin narrow deposit of unconsolidated sands, gravels, and silts representing the flood-plain alluvium of Kirkland Creek. The estimated transmissitivities of the alluvial sediments are as follows: Lower Kirkland Valley - 75,000 to 100,000 gpd/ft Thompsons Valley - 30,000 to 60 , 000 gpd/ft Well yields in Lower Kirkland Valley range from 500 to 1200 gpm and those from Thompsons Valley 200 to 500 gpm. The decreased yields in Thompsons Valley result from the finer texture of the flood-plain alluvium in this area. The basalt aquifer consists of a series of more than 1000 feet of fractured basalt flows interbedded with cinder and conglomeratic layers. The transmissivity of this unit is estimated to range from 50,000 to 200,000 gpd/ft. Wells drilled in this unit could yield 200 to 1000 gpm depending on the nature of the fracturing.
    • Hydrogeology of a contaminated industrial site on filled land

      Feldman, Peter Roy,1957-; Simpson, Eugene S.; Wilson; Yeh (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      A detailed hydrologic investigation was conducted at a wood preservative treatment plant to determine the extent of soil and groundwater contamination and to define the rate at which preservative compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols) are migrating to an adjacent saltwater body. Contamination appears restricted to the uppermost aquifer, which occurs in a sequence of fill deposits comprising the land surface at the site. Groundwater flow and contaminant distribution are likely controlled by heterogeneities within the fill deposits, which are a result of placement history and other factors such as buried shorelines, bulkheads, and filled channels. Calculations of total contaminant flux from the groundwater system to the adjacent saltwater body range from 143 to 191 pounds per year.
    • Hydrogeology of a portion of the Santa Catalina Mountains.

      Belan, Rick Allen,1947-; Matlock, William G. (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      The hydrogeology of a portion of the Santa Catalina Mountains just north of Tucson, Arizona was studied. Groundwater level contour maps for 1930 and 1972 were made by establishing a well net, use of well logs and field observations. Water levels were measured in March, 1972. Water level records and well logs provided water level information for 1930. The resulting maps showed hydraulic gradients ranging from 400 feet per mile to 60 feet per mile, and seven possible groundwater recharge channels to the Tucson Basin aquifer. Comparing the 1930 and 1972 water level maps showed that the greatest water level change of about 60 feet has occurred along Rillito Creek because of heavier aquifer development. Less change in water levels has occurred in the foothills. Chemical quality analysis and temperature measurements were used to further define three local aquifers. Groundwater was generally of good quality, except in one mine well that had high salt concentrations because of ore deposits. A flow net analysis was used to estimate recharge moving to the lower lying Tucson Basin. Recharge of 382 acre feet per year was obtained, which represents about 50 acre feet per mile of mountain front per year.
    • Hydrogeology of Butler Valley, Arizona : an artificial recharge and ground-water storage prefeasibility study

      Herndon, Roy Lee.; Wilson, L. G.; Simpson, E. S. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      A USGS finite-difference computer program was used to assess possible artificial recharge and recovery scenarios as part of a technical prefeasibility study of Butler Valley, Arizona. Available hydrogeologic data were compiled and analyzed to build a numerical groundwater flow model of the valley. Input data for the model were gathered from previous work as well as from field studies, including seismic refraction and gravity surveys and aquifer-pump tests performed as part of this investigation. The results of the computer simulations indicate that aquifer storage capacity increases in the upper portion of the basin due to a confined system in the lower portion. The computer model and available geologic data were used to identify potential locations in Butler Valley for artificial recharge operations. The areas along Cunningham Wash and the basin margins appear to be the most favorable for surficial water spreading. Artificial recharge using injection wells, though expensive, appears to be feasible from a hydrogeological standpoint, but chemical interactions between recharge water and native ground water could create undesireable well-screen clogging. Gravity and seismic refraction data collected at the outlet of Butler Valley indicate that ground-water outflow during recharge operations would be minimal because of a shallow subsurface bedrock aquiclude.
    • Hydrogeology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona

      Pool, Donald Robert,1955-; Simpson, Eugene S. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      The hydrogeology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona, was investigated using geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data and a numerical model of the ground-water system. Geologic information and gravity modeling indicate that the main structure of McMullen Valley is a syncline. Basin fill that accumulated in the structural depression is the main aquifer and is divided into upper and lower units. A fine-grained facies in separates the aquifer into shallow and deep systems. A numerical model was used to analyze the ground-water system for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state model aided in evaluating the distribution of hydraulic properties. The transient model was used to analyze system response to pumping stress. Water-level declines are controlled by the distribution of pumpage, specific-yield, and the fine-grained facies of lower basin fill. Significant water-level declines may extend to aquifer boundaries in most of the basin.
    • Hydrogeology of the Bird's Nest Aquifer, Uintah County, Utah

      Phillips, Fred M.(Fred Melville); Davis, Stanley N. (The University of Arizona., 1979)
      The Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah contains a large portion of the United States' oil-shale reserves. Two tracts on the eastern side of the basin, designated U-a and U-b, have been leased by the federal government for oil-shale development. The Bird's Nest Aquifer is the principal water-bearing zone in the area. At the tracts aquifer permeability is principally due to solution of nahcolite crystals, while to the west primary porosity of sandstone and tuffs is more important. In the vicinity of the Oil Shale Lease Tracts the aquifer is recharged by a perennial stream, Evacuation Creek, and by another source, probably upward leakage from deeper aquifers. The Evacuation Creek recharge water contains above 3,000/1 dissolved solids and has a sodium-sulfate composition. The water derived from the other recharge source contains less than 2,000 mg/1 dissolved solids and has a sodium-bicarbonate composition. Ultimate discharge of the aquifer is to the Green River. Percolation of water through retorted oil shale residue produces leachate with very high dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, strontium, selenium, fluoride, and potentially carcinogenic organic compounds, but low permeability rocks above the aquifer reduce the danger of aquifer contamination by leachate originating from surface spent-shale disposal dumps.
    • Hydrogeology of the Bird's Nest Aquifer, Uintah County, Utah

      Phillips, Fred M. (Fred Melville) (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • Hydrogeology of the Carefree Ranch area, Maricopa County, Arizona

      Boyer, Jeffrey Alan, 1950- (The University of Arizona., 1974)
    • Hydrogeology of the Catalina area, near Tucson, Arizona

      Onyskow, Lawrence Paul,1948-; Evans, Daniel D. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This thesis sets forth aquifer conditions in the Catalina Basin, north of Tucson, Arizona. Historically, this area has not experienced significant urban development and no serious attempt has been made to determine either the extent of local groundwater reserves or the potential yield of the Catalina aquifer system. To address these issues, the geology of the basin fill units was defined through the construction and lithologic logging of two test holes, each 1200-feet deep. In addition, test data from three local wells were analyzed to determine that the local aquifer has a transmissivity averaging 50,000 gpd/ft and a specific yield of 15 percent. With this information, the USGS computer program MODFLOW was used to construct a transient state model of the Catalina aquifer system. The model was then employed to compute the expected drawdown throughout the area which would result from full urbanization.
    • Hydrogeology of the Chinle Wash Watershed, Navajo Nation Arizona, Utah and New Mexico

      Roessel, Raymond J.; Kreitler, Charles; Davis, Don (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      A general hydrogeological study of the Chinle Wash Watershed is presented. Field collection of water chemistry and water level data is used in addition to historical data to further define and characterize the ground-water conditions of the study area. Computer-generated maps depicting the ground-water conditions of the major aquifers are presented. Ground water occurs in two major regional multiple aquifer systems and locally in the alluvium along the major drainages of the area. The N-aquifer yields the greatest amount of ground water. Water quality tends to decrease along the flow path. Domestic and municipal water use are the primary usage of the ground water. The most heavily utilized aquifer regionally is the N-aquifer system. The alluvium near Chinle is used extensively where it is hydraulically connected to the underlying C-aquifer.
    • Hydrogeology of the Gillette area, Wyoming

      Hulburt, Margery Ann.; Davis, Stanley N. (The University of Arizona., 1979)
      Gillette, Wyoming is the center of growth associated with coal development in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin of Wyoming. Rapid growth in the area is resulting in a three-way competition for limited ground-water supplies among the city, the subdivisions just outside of the city limits, and coal strip mines. Major aquifers in the Gillette area are, in order of depth, the Wasatch, Fort Union, and Fox Hills Formations. Study of geologic and hydrologic data indicates that water in the Wasatch aquifer occurs in ancient stream channels trending to the northwest. Although mining is expected to have little affect on the municipal well field, a potential for pollutant movement from the city landfill to the well field area exists. Possible alternatives for ground-water development to meet increased demand include greater pumpage from the Wasatch and Fort Union aquifers, further exploration and development of the Fox Hills aquifer, and importation of water. Before the Gillette area can arrive at a solution to its water problems that is environmentally and economically sound, the mining companies, the City of Gillette, and the surrounding subdivisions must begin working as a group instead of in competition with one another.
    • The hydrogeology of the northwestern bajada region of the Sultanate of Oman

      Aubel, James William.; Simpson, Eugene S. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      The Northwestern Bajada of the Sultanate of Oman is an arid region which relies solely on ground water. Present abstraction, which accounts for about 70 percent of the fresh water entering the aquifer system, is almost entirely by aflaj (qanats) located near the mountain front. The results of 38 exploration boreholes drilled at 30 sites from 1982 to 1983 were analyzed along with field reconnaissance data. P110-Pleistocene sediments comprise the aquifer system which is highly heterogeneous with lithologies ranging from marine carbonates to well-sorted continental alluvium. Transmissivities range from 10 m²/d to over 2,000 m²/d. Ground-water quality is controlled by recharge, and conductivities range from less than 1,000 to over 100,000 micromhos. The predominant water type is sodium chloride, owing to the mainly marine deposition of the aquifer sediments. Fresh ground water occurs as shoe-string aquifers paralleling the active wadi channels which traverse the bajada. Intrusion of poor quality water will limit ground-water development.
    • Hydrogeology of the Pine Lake Research Basin, Alberta, Canada

      Garven, Grant.; Davis, Stanley N. (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      The Pine Lake research basin occupies a 90-square-mile (230 km²) parkland environment in south-central Alberta. Various types of existing and field-generated geologic, geophysical and hydrologic data were employed to fully evaluate the hydrogeology of the research basin. The study area is underlain by permeable sandstones, mudstones and coals of the thick Paskapoo Formation. Major sandstone aquifers are present at shallow depths where their hydraulic conductivity is estimated to average between 10 and 50 igpd/ft² (0.5 to 2.5 m/day). Surficial geology is characterized by a thin mantle of glacial drift. The water-table configuration is a subdued replica of the topography. Groundwater flow is from broad recharge areas on the main divides to discharge areas in the valley bottom. Sodium-bicarbonate groundwater dominates the basin and has evolved primarily via carbonate dissolution and cation exchange processes. Correlation between hydrochemical facies and groundwater flow patterns is poor. The groundwater regime in the research basin is most appropriately treated as a steadystate, regionally unconfined system in a heterogeneous and anisotropic rock media. Recommendations for instrumentation and future hydrologic studies in the Pine Lake area include installation of a piezometer network, further aquifer testing and numerical modeling of the watershed.
    • Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs area, La Abra Plain, and the Rio Sonoyta Valley, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

      Sully, Michael; Goodman, Brian Scott, 1958- (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      A hydrogeological study was performed on the cross-boundary valley between Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona and the Rio Sonoyta Valley, west of Sonoyta, Mexico. The study was carried out to evaluate present hydrologic conditions in the valley and to assess the impact of irrigation ground-water withdrawals in Sonora on water resources in the Monument and in particular the spring system in the Quitobaquito Hills. Through evaluation of available hydrogeologic data, three main aquifers were identified in the north half of the valley. These are the alluvial basin fill and fan system of La Abra Plain, the fractured crystalline rock system of the pediments of the Quitobaquito Hills, and the fluvial aquifer associated with the active channel of the Rio Sonoyta. A detailed evaluation of the location, discharge, and radioisotope composition of the springs in the Quitobaquito Hills was made to characterize the ground-water flow system supplying the springs and to evaluate the possible effects of irrigation withdrawals in Sonora on their discharge. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
    • Hydrogeology of the San Xavier Mining Laboratory and Geophysics Test Site and surrounding area

      Bohannon, Stacy Jo,1965-; Sully, Michael (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      Water level, permeability, and water quality data indicate that the aquifer beneath the San Xavier Mining Laboratory is unconfined, high permeability, and isolated from the adjacent, upgradient aquifer. The aquifer at San Xavier has been dewatered considerably due to past pumping at the mine and at nearby open-pit mines. Water levels have not recovered due to the low permeability of the upgradient aquifer, and the restriction of the flow of ground water across the thrust fault separating the upgradient and San Xavier aquifers. The Mining Laboratory is in full compliance with the Aquifer Protection Permit issued to the facility by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. The ground water at the mine meets all state and federal primary drinking water standards. The future use of the aquifer does not appear to be threatened by research being conducted at the mine.
    • Hydrogeology of the Sells area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona.

      Matis, John Radley,1945-; Wright, Jerome J.; Bull, William B.; Simpson, Eugene S. (The University of Arizona., 1970)
      The community of Sells is located in Pima County, Arizona, on the Papago Indian Reservation. The present study was undertaken to determine the water development possibilities of the area. The geology of the Sells area is composed of four basic units: intrusive rock, volcanic rock, cemented Tertiary(?) gravel, and valley fill alluvium. The intrusive rock is essentially dry; the volcanic rock yields small amounts of water to wells; the cemented Tertiary(?) gravel yields small amounts of water to wells (locally saline); and the valley fill alluvium yields from 10 gpm to greater than 200 gpm, depending on local thickness and permeability. Data from geophysical investigations indicate that Sells probably sets on a volcanic plateau, terminated east and west by boundary faults in the basement rocks. The valley fill alluvium is thickest and most permeable in the Baboquivari and Quijotoa valleys east and west of Sells, respectively. Well yields in the thick valley fill alluvium to the west generally exceed 200 gpm, and transmissivity values range from 50,000 to 200,000 gpd/ft. A similar situation probably exists east of Sells; however, more subsurface and pump-test data are needed to evaluate accurately the alluvial aquifer there.
    • Hydrogeology of the Sutter Basin, Sacramento Valley, California

      Curtin, George, 1920-; Wright, Jerome J. (The University of Arizona., 1971)
      A mound of saline water exists in continental sediments between two fresh water rivers in the Sutter Basin of the Sacramento Valley, California. This saline water has moved from the marine sediments, at depth, upward along the Sutter Basin Fault and then through 2,000 feet of alluvium. The hydraulic head required to move the connate water is supplied by the high topographic position of the Cretaceous sediments carried up by the Sutter Buttes intrusives and exposed at the surface some 250 to 400 feet above the valley floor. Around the Buttes the marine sediments have been flushed with fresh water to depths of over 2,000 feet. The displaced saline connate water has moved south where it intercepts the Sutter Basin Fault. The geologic section consists of about 5,500 feet of Cretaceous and Eocene marine sediments which have been deposited atop the basement complex (the western extension of the Sierra Nevada fault block) and capped by 2,000 feet of post-Eocene alluvium. Chemical analyses of the ground water indicate sodium chloride water is being introduced from depth, and as the rising connate water moves northerly into the orchard area it changes to a calcium-magnesium chloride type water.
    • Hydrogeology of the Tapeats Amphitheater and Deer Basin, Grand Canyon, Arizona: a study in karst hydrology.

      Huntoon, Peter W.; Harshbarger, John W.; Wright, Jerome J.; Evans, Daniel D.; Mayo, Evans B. (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      North of the Grand Canyon, water from precipitation infiltrates into the permeable Kaibab Formation which outcrops over the Kaibab and Kanab Plateaus. Water moves vertically downward through a karst drainage network in the Kaibab and Toroweap Formations until it reaches semi-permeable clastic sediments. A portion of the water is perched above these beds and flows toward the west under a gradient imposed on the system by the gentle westward regional dip of the strata. Some of the westward flowing water discharges directly into Tapeats Amphitheater from seeps and small springs but most of it drains into the north-south trending West Kaibab Fault Zone. In the Fault zone, the water encounters large vertical rock permeabilities and readily circulates downward through the otherwise semi-permeable clastic strata to the lower limestone units. At depth, the water is conducted southward to the Grand Canyon in solution tubes which have been dissolved along the fault zone. Within a few miles of the Tapeats Amphitheater, the water is pirated from the Muav Fault of the West Kaibab Fault Zone and moves toward the southwest through solution tubes developed along minor faults in the limestones to discharge points OOO feet below the plateaus in Tapeats Canyon. To the west, a similar but smaller karst system discharges water into Deer Canyon.