Now showing items 1-20 of 15771

    • Sertanejo Portuguese: Language Ideology & Creating Local Figures in the Sertão do Pajeú

      da Silva, Antônio José Bacelar; Suitts, Jacob; Bezerra, Katia; Brito, Dorothy (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The Brazilian sertão occupies a unique position within the historical, cultural, and linguistic fabric of Brazilian society. Located in the hinterlands of Brazil’s Northeast, the sertão is home to an endemic culture, unique history and variety of Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Despite common knowledge that BP is variable and heterogeneous, standard and monolingual language ideologies circulate that do not reflect the linguistic reality of the country, yet still have profound effects on the ways that Brazilians perceive and understand language use. These ideologies play a role in the ongoing construction of ‘correct’ language use and the validity of nonstandard language varieties. With this research, I examine the language ideologies of residents of the sertão do Pajeú, and how they both reflect and contest notions of how Portuguese should be spoken and used according to standard language ideology. I argue that, while sertanejos reproduce nationally entrenched and prescriptive language ideologies, they also “subversively” assign positive value to the local vernacular as a meaningful component of regional identification and self-expression. Furthermore, I suggest that the reproduction and subversion of standard language ideology by residents of the sertão is not exempt from dominant ideologies, but rather is variable and informed by excluding ideologies itself.
    • Septage Reuse as Class A Biosolids – A Circular Bioeconomy

      Tamimi, Akrum A.; Boyd, Haley Anne; Farrell-Poe, Kitt K.; Waller, Peter P. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      In the United States, the public uses 40 billion gallons of water daily (Moupin, 2015). Much of the water that is used domestically will remain in the centralized public water system and will require treatment at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). However, 20% of the US does not return the water directly to the centralized water system, instead utilizing onsite septic systems to treat and disperse their water (Septic Systems Fact Sheet, 2008). Disposal methods for septage, the waste pumped from the septic tanks, are more limited than wastewater disposal methods. Wastewater treatment plants often refuse septage haulers due to the variable and unknown nature of the septage contents. The septage accepted at WWTP faces the same disposal statistics as wastewater. Approximately half (45%) of wastewater is landfilled or incinerated and the other half (55%) is land applied (Shaddel et al., 2019). Each of these disposal methods poses a risk to the environment. Landfilling the septage decreases the life expectancy of the landfill site and increases the risk of polluting the soil and nearby water supplies. Incineration releases harmful gases and chemicals into the atmosphere, and land application increases the risk to human health via the movement of contamination and pollution.This study aimed to determine if treated septage is beneficial to crop growth and soil health when used as a fertilizer and irrigation source. Durum wheat was the crop that was chosen for this study. This crop was selected due to its dual-purpose uses. The seeds can be collected for seed production, and the rest of the crop can be used for fodder. Septage dispersal and treatment are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the same guidelines as sewage sludge and is referred to as biosolids when treated to reduce pathogen load. For this study, the septage was dewatered using a spiral filter press and then treated using a low-temperature dehumidification system to dry it to 90% total solids or higher to produce Class A septage that are then land applied. The dehumidification system operates at a temperature and time sufficient to result in Class A biosolids according to US Part 503 EPA Alternative 1 (EPA, 2018). The thermal treatment addresses the health concerns of direct land application. To reduce pathogen load, this experiment consisted of two parallel trials, each with eight treatments. Each trial included two different application rates of the Class A septage, one application of traditional chemical fertilizer, and a control that received no fertilizer treatment. These four treatments were the same across both trials. Trial 1 received canal water flood irrigation. The other half, trial 2, were flood irrigated with the filtrate removed during the dewatering stage that was aerated and treated using a bacterial blend specific to SludgeHammer, a water treatment company, and mixed with the condensate water collected during the thermal treatment process (SludgeHammer, 2023). The findings of the study show that Class A septage can be beneficially used as fertilizer to enhance plant growth and soil health. The application of the treated filtrate water, however, was found to improve plant growth but detrimentally impacted soil health. Due to elevated pathogen levels found in the soil after the experiment, using filtrate for irrigation is not recommended without further treatment. Further research is necessary to determine the optimal application rate of Class A septage and to assess the long-term effects of using septage-based fertilizers.
    • An Evaluation of the Grass-Cast Seasonal Rangeland Productivity Forecast for the Southwest U.S.

      Smith, William K.; Aguilar Cubilla, Emilio Daniel; Gornish, Elise; Moore, David (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Increasing precipitation variability and extremes driven by climate change are already having significant impacts on semi-arid rangelands of the Southwest US, with critical consequences for livestock grazing and wildlife. Monitoring and forecasting the seasonal productivity of these vulnerable agroecosystems is needed to support effective resource management and conservation efforts. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Grass-Cast rangeland productivity forecast tool was recently expanded to the Southwest U.S. (hereafter termed Grass-Cast Southwest) and provides short-term seasonal forecasts of rangeland productivity for Arizona and New Mexico starting two to three months in advance of the spring (April to June) and summer (June to October) growing season with the major objective of providing early decision support for rangeland managers. Here, we present an initial assessment of the 2020 to 2022 Grass-Cast Southwest rangeland forecasts for the spring and summer growing seasons. Importantly, this time period spans multiple anomalous wet and dry seasons and thus provides an opportunity to assess model performance during climatic extremes. We found that the Grass-Cast Southwest earliest spring forecasts produced in April were very accurate for all years evaluated (R = 0.6 to 0.9 ; RMSE = 106.6 to 5.5 lb/acre). Spring forecasts are accurate since in the Southwest rangeland productivity is driven by antecedent winter precipitation and relatively predictable increases in temperatures in the spring . By contrast, the earliest summer forecasts in produced in June were much less accurate (R = -0.5 to 0.7; RMSE = 81.3 to 315.7), since in the Southwest summer rangeland productivity depends on summer precipitation from the North America Monsoon (NAM), which is much more difficult to predict. As a next step we explore the relationship between Southwest rangeland productivity and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and we provide evidence that ENSO indices could improve Grass-cast forecasts the both the spring and summer growing season. We find a positive relationship between Southwest ANPP and ENSOJFM (January to March) for the spring season (R2 > 0.3; p < 0.001) and a negative linear relationship between ANPP and ENSOMAM (March to May) for the summer season (R2 > 0.1; p < 0.05). The ongoing improvement and advancement of ecological models, such as Grass-Cast, can play a crucial role in promoting the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in the Southwest.
    • Metamorphism in IOCG Systems: Contact Metamorphism in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre District, Chile

      Barton, Mark D.; Huggler, Sadie Meradyth Del; Rezeau, Herve; Mazdab, Frank (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Near Copiapó, Chile, volcanic-dominated rocks of the Early Cretaceous Punta del Cobre Formation host Fe-oxide(-Cu-Au) (“IOCG”) mineralization with varied development of metamorphic mineral assemblages. Western occurrences, such as the Candelaria deposit, lie within the metamorphic aureole of the composite Copiapó batholith (110-120 Ma), while other, more easterly deposits in the district lack evidence of high-grade metamorphism. This allows comparison of features seen at Candelaria, but not at the other deposits, that may have resulted from contact metamorphism. Petrography and scanning electron microscopy of Candelaria samples reveal early penetrative, planar fabrics overprinted by texturally and mineralogically recrystallized assemblages. High-temperature metamorphism of iron-enriched protoliths led to the development of biotite, garnet, (Mg,Fe,Mn) amphiboles, and cordierite-bearing assemblages in the Punta del Cobre formation. Metamorphic silicates overgrowing and crosscutting deformed, recrystallized ore minerals suggests that shear-zone deformation and contact metamorphism occurred during and after mainstage Cu-sulfide and Fe-oxide deposition. Peak greenschist to amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism occurred at P<4 kbar and 730-815±50℃. New U-Pb geochronology of garnets spans 115.8±3.7 Ma to 87.5±3.7 Ma and broadly coincides with magmatism and later alteration in the district. The contact metamorphosed mineralization at Candelaria resembles nominally syn-metamorphic mineralization elsewhere in the world, supporting post-mineralization metamorphic interpretations at these other locations.
    • Methods for Simulating and Analyzing Quantum Turbulence of BECs in a Rotating Frame

      Anderson, Brian P.; Foshee, Daniel Kyle; Bradley, Ashton; Wright, Ewan M. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The relationships between turbulence and interesting fluid structures like those near the poles of Jupiter and Saturn are still an open research topic. A minimal model for understanding fundamental behaviors is desirable for isolating the relevant parameter space with predictive power. Minimal models in liquids inspire us to look for a more minimal model in 2D Bose-Einstein Condensates. We have created a framework for quickly simulating and analyzing 2D Bose-Einstein Condensates in a rotating reference frame to test a wide range of parameter space via the MATLAB parallel computing toolbox, the utilization of a graphics processing unit, and the high-powered computing cluster available to us through the University of Arizona. In the development of these methods, we find that our novel application of qualitative analysis shows evidence that differential rotation leads to the observation of counter-rotating eddies consistent with the development of characteristic structures from turbulent fluid flow. This work sets up a platform for researching quantum turbulence in 2D Bose-Einstein condensates evolving under differential rotation in a rotating frame and gives direction for research that may have connection to classical phenomena seen in the atmospheres of the gas giants of our solar system and in liquid models here on Earth.
    • Stress Analysis in Optical Systems

      Kupinski, Meredith K.; Parkinson, Jeremy Craig; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Smith, Gregory A. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Structural failures can occur when loading conditions cause stress and strain within a material that exceeds the ultimate strength. Similarly, the performance of an optical system can be adversely affected by poorly characterized loading conditions and the resulting stress fields. Rigorous stress analysis is crucial to ensuring a specified performance can be achieved under varying environmental conditions. This work presents stress measurements and analysis for two projects: i) measurement of the stress-optic coefficient of N-Bk7, a glass commonly used for optical components, and ii) a payload design for a high-altitude ($\approx$ 30 [km]) balloon deployment of an Infrared Channeled Spectro-Polarimeter (IRCSP). The N-Bk7 stress analysis is functionally based on the relationship between stress and measured polarimetric response. Stress in optical systems induces birefringence, where the index of refraction is dependent on the polarization of the incident light. Measuring the retardance of a material can therefore help determine how the stress is affecting the index of refraction of the material. This effect is quantified by the stress optic coefficient. For this work, a Rotating Retarder Mueller Matrix Imaging Polarimeter (RRMIP) was used to measure the linear retardance of a diametrically loaded sample of N-Bk7 at a wavelength of 1550 [nm]. These retardance measurements were used to compute the N-Bk7 stress optic coefficient as compared to industry-reported values. Prior to the 2021 deployment of IRCSP on a high-altitude balloon, a fully autonomous system was developed to control the image acquisition, focal plane temperature, and humidity of the instrument. Operating this optical system at high altitudes required analysis of the varying environmental conditions to design an instrument enclosure that met both optical and safety specifications. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to show efficacy of the mechanical design under expected flight loads to earn flight approval from Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF). This enclosure has been apart of three successful balloon deployments of IRCSP. Additional work to design the electronics for a PID-controlled thermo-electric cooler in also included.
    • Detection and Isolation of Salivary Biomarkers Using a Novel Hybrid Size Exclusion - Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography Matrix

      Guzman, Roberto; Rodriguez, Christopher; Savagatrup, Suchol; Saez, Eduardo (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Biomarkers are a vital tool used in the diagnosis of multiple different diseases, from the presence of creatine kinase in blood indicating muscle damage, to the presence of glucose in urine signaling high blood sugar and possibly diabetes. One major limitation for biomarkers comes in the difficulty of isolating them from biological fluids (such as blood, urine, saliva, etc.). Another big problem is that biomarkers are usually found in low concentrations together with large amounts of proteins that makes the isolation of target biomarkers quite difficult. Isolating a desired biomarker from a patient sample requires multiple steps and these steps can vary depending on the bodily fluid being sampled.This work deals with novel separations of small molecular size compounds from large molecules. This technology combines, in the same separation medium, the characteristics and advantages of size exclusion and affinity adsorptive protein separations methods. The novel features involve the covalent attachment of permeation polymers to a matrix so that after modification preferentially "rejects" biomolecules of a certain size (large proteins, for example), and allows only compounds of appropriate size (small biomarkers, for example) to penetrate the "rejection" zone, thus allowing them to interact with affinity groups previously attached on the surface of the matrix. The main objective of this work was to develop a method to isolate specific biomarkers directly from saliva, a quite relevant biological fluid. The hybrid chromatographic matrix in this case consisted of size exclusion chromatographic matrices functionalized with specific affinity ligands (Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and Dipicolylamine (DPA) as chelators) and polymers (polyethylene glycol, PEG). In this approach, PEG acts as a blocking polymer that acts as a permeating barrier that allows only small proteins to permeate and interact with the chelator on the surface, larger proteins cannot penetrate permeating barrier. The method was used to isolate the small biomarkers, creatinine, spermine, choline and isethionate and the small protein myoglobin from synthetic saliva preparations. Myoglobin has been linked as a salivary biomarker for myocardial necrosis, creatinine has been linked to chronic kidney disease and spermine, choline and isethionate have been shown to be promising salivary biomarkers for breast cancer. The novel approach was effective at isolating and almost completely recovering most of the target biomarkers from the other components of the synthetic saliva used in the research.
    • When Political Precarity Meets Climate Vulnerability: A Case of Tibetan Refugee Pastoralists from Ladakh, Northern India

      Myadar, Orhon; Yangkey, Tenzin; Curley, Andrew; Smith, Sara; Gergan, Mabel (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Herding in the Ladakh region is a common yet dwindling practice as Ladakh faces changing political and socio-economic conditions. In the Changthang region of Ladakh, Changpa (Ladakhi) and Tibetan refugee pastoralists continue to practice herding and support their livelihood. However, in the last few decades, they are facing compound challenges to sustaining their traditional herding livelihoods due to urbanization, youth migration, and generational change. In this study, I look at how Tibetan refugee pastoralists in Changthang Samed (out of nine different locations) perceive climate change and its impact on their livelihood. Tibetan refugee pastoralists relocated to the region in the 1960s following the Chinese occupation of Tibet. By studying Tibetan pastoralists’ coping strategies that they use to meet the changing physical environment (as a constitution of political, and socioeconomic change in the background), I will explore how their political status affects their ability to employ specific coping strategies. Drawing from critical social science, political ecology of climate adaptation, and political geography literature, I situate the experience of Tibetan refugee pastoralists and their plight in the global climate conversation as well as the regional climate change dialogue. I do so by exploring the intersection of climate vulnerability and political precarity.
    • A Modeled Demonstration of Hydromechanical Coupling in an Active Open Pit Mine

      Ferré, P.A. Ty; Noonan, Gillian Erin; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Lorig, Loren (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Understanding the interaction of rock and water under stress is often a key factor in assessing slope stability in open-pit mining. Mining activity can increase or decrease the total stress acting on a rock mass, affecting the properties and behavior of the rock and water in the subsurface. In this research project, numerical modeling is used to demonstrate the concept of hydromechanical coupling based on an open-pit mining case study where coupled behavior due to slope excavation is observed in a piezometer monitoring sensor. The theory behind hydromechanical coupling and the physical parameters contributing to this behavior are discussed. Site monitoring data are analyzed, and their behavior are reproduced using the 2D numerical modeling software FLAC and a simplified coupled modeling process to produce mechanical- and flow-induced changes to a starting model developed based on the mine site conditions and mining activity. The work then assesses the sensitivity of contributing material parameters to modeled pore pressure responses and examines the range of important parameter values. This research aims to promote the understanding of hydrologic monitoring data behavior in pit slopes by producing a modeled hydromechanical explanation to provide improved knowledge for mine practitioners to use when planning mining activity, monitoring programs, and slope design. This work helps hydrogeologists interpret piezometer data and therefore make better decisions and models.
    • Mineralogical Controls on Cobalt Leaching From Mixed-Oxide Ore

      Barton, Isabel; Tillotson, Nicholas Lane; Wessman, Andrew; Zhang, Jinhong (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      In recent years, demand for cobalt—largely driven by demand for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and personal electronics—has grown faster than global cobalt production, necessitating a new look at the world’s cobalt resources and cobalt processing technologies. Oxide and oxyhydroxide ores constitute an important cobalt resource worldwide, and, if polymetallic seafloor nodules and crusts are included, make up the majority of global cobalt resources. The chief Co ore minerals in oxide ores are heterogenite (CoOOH or HCoO2) in stratiform sediment-hosted (SSH) Cu-Co ores, asbolane ((Ni, Co)xMn(O,OH)4∙nH2O) in Ni-Co laterite ores and some SSH deposits, and manganese oxide minerals such as vernadite (MnO2) in seafloor oxides, which are often also rich in Ni and Cu. Acid leaching is the cheapest and lowest-impact way to recover Co from oxide ores, but the precise mechanisms of cobalt-oxide leaching are not well characterized. In order to define major mineralogical factors in cobalt-oxide leaching performance, we leached Congolese SSH Cu-Co oxide ores and Pacific Ocean seafloor nodules in acid, then performed a comparative mineralogical study of leached and unleached samples using SEM-EDS and EPMA analyses. Both ores leached best under heat in a reducing environment, with maximum Co recoveries of 7% from our seafloor nodules and 99% from our SSH Cu-Co oxide ores. Recoveries of Ni and Cu from our seafloor nodules were as high as 40% and 33%, with a clear leaching gradient across our roughly 1 cm samples indicating that leaching was primarily limited by lixiviant access rather than by mineral leachability. We attribute the difference in Co recovery to the solubility of the host mineral’s lattice. Cobalt in SSH Cu-Co ores occurs in the relatively soluble Co-oxide lattice of heterogenite whereas Co in seafloor nodules substitutes for Mn in the relatively insoluble Mn-oxide lattice of vernadite, and consequently cannot be extracted with high recoveries without considerable, possibly prohibitive expense. Generalized to other ore types, the solubility of the mineral that hosts Co, as defined by the main structural metal, can be used as a broad guide to the leachability of Co in different oxide ores.
    • Crop Remix? Farmer's Crop Choice in Response to Covid-19 Evidence from Burkina Faso

      Josephson, Anna L.; Michler, Jeffrey D.; Rudin-Rush, Lorin Isaac; Bloem, Jeffrey R. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Half a billion households around the world are smallholder agricultural households. These households are at a unique risk to unexpected shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper looks at how planting behavior changes from before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We leverage household panel data from Burkina Faso where information on planting behavior was collected before the outbreak of the virus. Our main findings are that households who had the opportunity to change crops for the 2020 and 2021 growing seasons indeed changed crops. Additionally, households grew more cereal crops (especially maize) after the pandemic than before, while household use of agricultural inputs did not meaningfully change Further examination is needed to understand if the households resist changing crops due to effects from the pandemic or due to unrelated factors.
    • Into the Mire: A Floristic and Ecology Informed Field Guide of Stordalen Mire

      Saleska, Scott; Szetela, Jessica; Arnold, Betsy; Ferrierre, Regis (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Plant communities are often used as a basis for ecosystem studies, as they both greatly impact, and are greatly impacted by environmental interactions. Vegetation in the Arctic is particularly sensitive to disruptions in temperature and water regimes, altering vegetation and thus species diversity, composition, productivity, structure, and biomass. Species have differential responses to regime shifts due to unique tissue types, nutrient composition, plasticity, and production and growth strategies. Accounting for these traits and processes in vegetation may aid in understanding ecosystem level problems, especially when such studies are conducted in a cross-disciplinary framework. Stordalen Mire in Abisko, Sweden is impacted by climate-mediated permafrost thaw, driving shifts in soil moisture, nutrient availability, and the composition of plant and microbial communities. Due to the topographical and hydrological heterogeneity of Stordalen, the distribution of the species is influenced by patch dynamics creating a mosaic of ecological subsections across the landscape -- each with a differing composition of plants and their traits. This guide is motivated by the value brought by knowledge of individual plant taxa and their traits, and the ways their reactions to change will affect both vegetation and broader processes in ecosystem functioning. Additionally, it provides a resource for scientists conducting studies related to plants by including a species list compiled through the literature, and identification information for some of the most common and influential species on Stordalen Mire. Of the 43 species recorded at Stordalen Mire, 26 are vascular plants and 17 are bryophyte species. These species are members of 26 genera, representing 21 families. Recent studies have called for examining immediate, subsequent, and long-term effects of climate on vegetation shifts – both on individual species and species assemblages. Literature reviews of these species have revealed patterns in phenology, physiology, competition, nutrient cycling, carbon fluxes, microbiome interactions, etc., providing a plethora of future directions of research.
    • Effects of Flow Restoration, Vegetation Structure, and Bridges on Birds of the Lower Santa Cruz River

      Bogan, Michael T.; Rocha, Erasmo Pablo; Zylstra, Erin; Steidl, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Riparian areas in the arid Southwest are important refuges for many taxa that rely onthem for foraging, breeding, as corridors, and as a source of water. These areas are also disappearing though, and urbanization plays a major part in the degradation of these areas. As cities grow, natural vegetation is replaced with impermeable surfaces, resources are depleted, and aquifers are often drawn to support city growth. However, urbanization also has the potential to restore riparian areas. In this study, we focused on the use of effluent (treated wastewater) to restore riparian areas along the Santa Cruz River in Tucson, Arizona and how flow restoration affected bird assemblages. We identified and counted birds weekly at nine plots in each of four study reaches from February to April 2022. We measured environmental characteristics at each plot, including average flow of surface water, density of shrubs, amount of canopy cover, and distance to the nearest road bridge. Using these data, we set out to answer the following question: how do changes in stream flow, vegetation structure, and proximity to bridges affect bird communities overall and the population densities of individual species in an urban riparian system? We found that flow had a positive relationship with bird species richness, but no other measured environmental factor had a strong relationship with richness. Bird communities within each reach generally were distinct from one another, and changes in assemblage composition were correlated with flow, the density of shrubs, and canopy cover. Densities of five focal bird species varied among plots. Densities of two species were positively associated with stream flow while density of a third species was negatively associated with flow. Densities of other species varied with shrub density and canopy cover. Our results showcase how restoration of riparian areas using effluent has the potential to support unique species and assemblages of birds, and that a mosaic of different riparian areas support the highest diversity at a regional scale. We believe that collaborations between urban planners and ecologists when undertaking this type of project have the potential for significant positive impacts on riparian birds.
    • Evaluation of Insect Meal Amended Feeds on Fish and Plant Growth Rate in a Coupled Aquaponics System

      Fitzsimmons, Kevin M.; McCoy, Taylor Marie; Davidowitz, Goggy; McLain, Jean E.; Recestar, Matthew; Dontsova, Katerina M. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Overfishing for fishmeal (FM) and oil (FO) has decimated populations, limiting their availability, inflating costs of fishmeal for commercial fish feeds worldwide. Incorporating insects as a protein source alongside, or in place of FM or FO, has the potential to increase food security globally in the future. This study evaluated the impact of insect meal (IM) substituted feeds with Tenebrio molitor, mealworm, on the growth rates of both fish and plants. One 12-week trial and one 17-week trial were conducted using T. molitor to produce fish feeds with 0% IM (control), 15% IM, and 25% IM substituted feeds for both. Each trial was performed with 6 separate coupled aquaponics systems (CAS) and both trials reared Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first trial grew butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and the second trial grew Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata), Georgia Southern collard greens (Brassica oleracea), and chickpeas (Sierra kabuli). The CASs for these trials were designed with deep water culture (DWC) beds and floating rafts. The first trial revealed no significant differences in the change of fish biomass between treatments (p ≥ 0.05), and the second trial had a significant difference between the control and 25% IM (p ≤ 0.05). In the first trial the plant biomass increases of the control and the 15% IM treatments were significantly different than the 25% IM treatment (p ≤ 0.05). In the second trial there was no significant difference in collard green biomass between treatments, but there was a significant increase in Ethiopian kale biomass gain from the 25% IM treatment compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05). Lastly, there was a significant difference in chickpea production of viable seeds from tank 1, control, compared to all other CAS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, these results support the potential for IM substituted feeds in aquaponics, and more research needs to be conducted in the future.
    • Apuleius Parrots the Poets: Anti-Authoritarian Intertextuality in Florida 12

      McCallum, Sarah; McMath, Thomas Oliver; Friesen, Courtney; Groves, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      This thesis examines the rich, intertextual tradition behind Apuleius’ Florida 12, focusing on the passage’s relationships with Pliny’s Naturalis Historia 10.58, Ovid’s Amores 2.6, and Statius’ Silvae 2.4. The psittacus (parrot) of Florida 12 is compared to the psittaci of these three models in order to elucidate Apuleius’ employment of intertext and allusion to critique the control of artistic production. Through Plinian intertext, Apuleius presents this selection of his speech as an encyclopedic exposition of the parrot’s characteristics. Under the cover of scientific exposition, Apuleius then employs Ovidian and Statian intertext to develop an underlying critique of authority as it impacts artistic production. These intertextual comparanda were selected due to their similarity in content and themes, as well as due to the renown of the intertextual tradition of the parrot of Amores 2.6 and the parrot of Silvae 2.4, both of which reach back to Catullus’ passer (sparrow) in Cat. 2 and 3.In the introductory section, I provide the background for Apuleius and the Florida as a collection. In the second section, entitled “Pliny Naturalis 10.58,” I examine Naturalis Historia 10.58 in connection to Florida 12 in order to investigate the ostensibly scientific prose of Florida 12 and the extremely high degree of lexical and organizational similarity between the two passages. My analysis of Naturalis Historia 10.58 begins with a thorough breakdown of the passage, followed by three subsections comparing the criteria of the parrot’s physical attributes, habit and habitat, and human interaction between the model and Florida 12 respectively. The third section, entitled “Ovid Amores 2.6,” and the fourth section, entitled “Statius Silvae 2.4,” both follow the same format and subdivisions as section two. In section three, I examine Amores 2.6 in connection to Florida 12 in order to investigate possible elegiac echoes and to develop the analogue of parrot as poet. In section four, I examine Silvae 2.4 in connection to Florida 12 in order to investigate the further development of the parrot-poet analogue and explore the conjunction of elegiac and epic genres. I conclude with a synthetic analysis of all three major intertextual models, demonstrating Apuleius’ use of these intertexts to incorporate motifs of enslavement and exile which restrict the parrot and its poet analogue alike.
    • Evaluating Adaptive Management on Southwestern U.S. Forest Service Grazing Lands

      Lien, Aaron M.; Burleson, Cameron; Ruyle, George; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Adaptive management is a popular management approach in the field of natural resourcesand rangeland management. It is a method of decision-making that aims to reduce uncertainty in the face of environmental complexity to ultimately improve ecological, economic, and social outcomes. Despite the promise of this approach, adaptive management has been difficult for natural resource managers and researchers to define and analyze, making large-scale assessments of its effectiveness challenging. Our research attempts to fill this gap by analyzing a large-scale implementation of adaptive management by the United States Forest Service (USFS). In 2007, the USFS implemented a policy requiring the use of adaptive management for all grazing permits on grazing allotments in Region 3 (Arizona and New Mexico). There is little known about how this policy has been carried out in USFS Region 3 and how it has affected outcomes. We aimed to understand if and how adaptive management has been implemented on grazing allotments and how management has changed as a result by analyzing USFS compliance documents from 1996-2017. Allotment management plans and annual operating instructions (n=2,333) from nearly all Forests and selected districts in USFS Region 3 were coded to create a database including key management metrics that allowed for an analysis at the regional scale. Our data show that certain adaptive management indicators are observed in documents at increasing rates over time, especially after 2007. However, indicators of adaptive management did not necessarily correlate with physical changes in management observed in compliance documents, although some patterns were seen that could be attributed to adaptive management. Nevertheless, results from this study can help us understand both our interpretation of on-the-ground adaptive management, as well as improve future decision-making and policy implementation with the increased knowledge of how and where adaptive management is being carried out on Southwestern USFS rangelands.
    • Phase Defect Modeling and Testing

      Kim, Daewook; Thorne, Travis; Nofziger, Michael; Furenlid, Lars (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      An anomalous phase defect has been observed in a particular type of broadband coating which exhibits a dispersive effect on transmitted imagery, decreasing the perceived contrast at specific wavelengths. This paper provides an overview of coating methods and technology with potential sources of defects and outlines the development of a physical optics defect model based on observed spectral data. Model results are then used to investigate the impact of defect size and position on an image transmitted through the coating as a function of wavelength. Lastly, an overview of a proposed laboratory window screening method is provided, which will screen a coated spare window filter for the presence of defects.
    • Crop-emptying Rate and Nectar Resource Allocation in a Nectivorous Pollinator

      Davidowitz, Goggy; DeFino, Noah; Bronstein, Judith; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Buchmann, Stephen L. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      In nectivorous pollinators, timing and pattern of allocation of consumed nectar affects fitness traits and foraging behavior. Differences in male and female behaviors can influence these allocation strategies. These physiological patterns are not well studied in Lepidoptera, despite the fact that they are important pollinators. In this study we investigate crop-emptying rate and nectar allocation in Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), and how sex and activity influence these physiological patterns. After a single feeding event, moths were dissected at fixed time intervals to measure crop volume and analyze sugar allocation to flight muscle and fat body. Then we compared sedentary and flown moths to test how activity may alter these patterns. Sedentary males and females emptied their crops six hours after a feeding event. Both males and females preferentially allocated these consumed sugars to fat body over flight muscle. Moths began to allocate to the fat body during crop-emptying and retained these nutrients long-term (four and a half days after a feeding event). Males allocated consumed sugar to flight muscles sooner and retained these allocated nutrients in the flight muscle longer than females did. Flight instigated increased crop-emptying in females, but had no effect on males. Flight did not significantly affect allocation to flight muscle or fat body in either sex. This study showed that there are inherent differences in male and female nectar sugar allocation strategies, but that male and female differences in crop-emptying rate are context dependent. These differences in physiology may be linked to distinct ways males and females maximize their own fitness.
    • Combining Good Neighbor Agreements and Multimodel Analyses to Improve Decision-Support Modeling

      Ferre, Ty; Morales, David Eduardo; Gupta, Hoshin; Whitaker, Martha (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Hydrogeologists commonly inform decision makers by predicting the impacts of proposed activities on future water resources. In many cases, they are hired by one stakeholder to perform analyses that are most relevant to their decisions. This leaves other stakeholders to make decisions based on a model that is less well suited, or even inappropriate, to make the predictions that are needed in their decision context. One approach to address this is to build an ensemble of models that spans the range of plausible conditions and that are developed to provide different stakeholder-relevant predictions. This ensures that all stakeholders can make better-informed decisions; but, it raises a difficult practical question. How can all stakeholders come to consensus decisions based on multiple, possibly conflicting models? One path forward may be through Good Neighbor Agreements (GNAs). With these agreements, stakeholders can agree upon a course of action, possibly based on one model or a combination of models, with legally binding caveats that account for the predictions of other models in the ensemble. This allows all parties to make decisions based on the best available science with contingencies to address uncertainties. GNAs are relatively new, but they have been applied in many decision contexts. My work utilizes a simplified groundwater-flow model within well-defined parameter bounds to generate an ensemble of models and associated outcomes. With these predictions, we explore how the decision-support process can be recast as an ensemble of contingent actions matched with a subset of plausible decision-critical concerns structured within a GNA.
    • Administrative Support of Arizona School Based Agricultural Education Programs: An Exemplary Case Study Analysis

      Rice, Amber; Young, Cody; Torres, Robert; Molina, Quintin (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The United States is facing a teacher attrition issue. This is exacerbated within the agricultural educator community due to additional duties beyond what is expected of a typical classroom teacher, compensation for those duties, and lack of administrative support. Despite adjacent research on teacher attrition, there remains a gap in knowledge about specific and effective administrative supports that can be provided to retain agricultural educators. The purpose of this multi-case study was to identify successful cases of administrator-agricultural educator relationships and describe how these administrators support Arizona agricultural educators with intracurricular programming as a part of the three-component model of School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE). Seven exemplary cases of SBAE programs with the presence of administrative support were identified in Arizona. Agricultural educators, CTE directors, and principals from each case were interviewed individually to capture their perspective on the administrative support offered at their site. Four themes emerged from the data: 1) Administrator structure is the machine, agricultural educator communication is the oil; 2) Greater vision and priority alignment between all parties yields stronger support; 3) Administrators engage with programs across a continuum of involvement; and 4) Administrators empower agricultural educators to be the stewards of their program. The presence and importance of relationships grounded in trust was the common undercurrent within each theme. Administrators and agricultural educators alike should strive to build trusting relationships through regular communication and collaboration. Aligning program visions between each party and working together towards collective ends also creates a supportive environment and encourages trusting relationships.