Now showing items 1-20 of 15325

    • Partner Support as a Buffer between Parental Depressive Symptoms and Parental Engagement

      Barnett, Melissa A.; Vasquez, Maria Belinda; Curran, Melissa A.; Speirs, Katherine (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The risks and economic pressures experienced by low-income families can lead to psychological distress such as depressive symptoms (Masarik & Conger, 2017), which can impact parenting behaviors. The present study addressed how parental depressive symptoms might be a risk associated to parent-child relationships, especially positive parental engagement. Using a risk and resilience framework, the current study is the first to explore three forms of partner support (emotional support, financial support, and emergency child-care support) as potential protective factors that buffer the association between depressive symptoms and parental engagement among N = 3,165 mothers and fathers of three-year-olds. Participants were predominantly unmarried and from diverse minority ethnic backgrounds (Hispanic= 24%, Black Non-Hispanic=57%, White Non-Hispanic=17%, and other race=2%). Results indicated that parental depressive symptoms are negatively associated with positive parental engagement. The more depressive symptoms a parent is experiencing, the less likely they are to participate in positive parental engagement activities (e.g., singing, playing). Findings also suggested that emergency child-care partner support was a protective factor only for fathers. Emotional partner support and financial partner support were not a significant buffer for mothers or fathers. Findings highlight the need to address mental health needs in low-income families and explore complex associations between parenting practices and potential protective factors that promote resilience.
    • Renal Cell Carcinoma: American Indians, Metabolism, Metastasis, and Treatment

      Badger, Terry; Cordova-Marks, Felina; Lybarger, Lonnie; Briehl, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Renal cell cancer disproportionately affects American Indians/Alaskan Natives. This same population is also not included in published clinical trials and not reported on in published renal cancer clinical trials. Renal cancer treatment is needed that not only implements targeting new pathways or combinations of pathways that have not been targeted prior and integrating with traditional health. Almost 2/3 of American Indian’s report utilizing traditional medicine and cancer patients from this population report seeking traditional healers. New potential interventions should be created that combine traditional health with western medicine focused on metabolic pathways. Blocking in one treatment HIF1 and SIRT2; a separate treatment blocking VEGF and production of interleukins 6 and 8; and increasing BPTES to decrease glutamine; as well as adding in traditional aspects of health such as sweat ceremonies and usage of sage for example. Combining both western medicine and traditional health could increase the quality of life and outcomes for this population.
    • The Gale Transform

      Izosimov, Anton; Dirdak, Abigayle Lynn; Pickrell, Doug; Ercolani, Nick (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The Gale transform is a map between collections of points in projective spaces. Historically the Gale transform has been defined in several different ways. In this paper I compile three of these definitions to show that they are well defined and that they are equivalent as maps.
    • Ground Penetrating Radar Optimization in Southern Arizona Soils

      Sternberg, Ben; Tuten, Thomas Derwin; Johnson, Roy; Rucker, Dale (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Ground Penetrating Radar is an effective, non-destructive subsurface imaging system that has gained popularity since its inception. However, the efficacy of this method is significantly dampened when used in conductive, high-loss environments such as those commonly found in the clay rich alluvium of southern Arizona. In this thesis different survey parameters are tested to optimize the depth of investigation of GPR in these conditions, as well as determining what parameters should be used to calculate both GPR wave velocity and attenuation. To calculate velocity and attenuation the conductivity and dielectric permittivity must be known. Data from soil samples in southern Arizona indicate that, at common GPR frequencies, conductivity is a complex term, and this complex value must be used for calculations. Using the complex conductivity values in these calculations yield accurate velocities, and therefore are assumed to produce accurate attenuation values. Additionally, it is shown that areas with similar geologic features which have similar DC resistivity values will have similar complex conductivity values. In test sites located geologically close to mountain ranges, i.e. relatively shallow portions of valleys, it is shown that frequencies 200MHz and below are able to resolve a 3m deep aluminum sheet target across a variety of system if appropriate numbers of stacks are used. Higher frequencies may be able to resolve these targets depending on site conditions. Further away from mountains, i.e. deeper portions of valleys, GPR systems struggle to resolve targets even at low frequency and high numbers of stacks. As technology improves and systems are capable of even more numbers of stacks, this may change. Additionally, while collecting data in a 3D grid may slightly reduce the number of stacks needed to resolve a target, 3D data still significantly benefits from increased numbers of stacks. Comparing the Average Trace Amplitudes of datasets containing GPR lines of different stacks, approximate depths of investigation can be calculated for any number of stacks. This method is useable even if a target cannot be resolved with a system as the overall characteristics of each line are compared to one another. This is useful in high-loss environments as depths of investigation with different antennas can be estimated without knowledge of the electrical properties of the site without the requirement of a known target to estimate these properties.
    • Healing Waters: The Natural Mineral Springs of Roman Italy, their Curative Properties and Associated Deities

      Soren, David; Barcarolo, Monica; Blake, Emma; Romano, David (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Bodies of water, be it lakes, streams, or rivers, have long been a focus of ancient worship,with some even having been thought to have had some degree of divine connection. The natural curative mineral springs scattered across the Italian peninsula are no exception to this practice. This study attempts to understand if a correlation exists between the deity, or deities, attached to a particular spring and the health benefits attested and the treatments practiced there. I focus on five spring sites, which I have chosen based on John F. Donahue’s classification of a Roman healing spa sanctuary (i.e., a place where a visitor could take the waters for various therapeutic and medicinal purposes) and the amount of information available on the following: a) their water’s properties, b) their architectural layout, and c) the evidence for the presence of divinities and cult worship/activity. Additionally, ancient literary sources consulted regarding the various ancient medicinal practices prescribed at mineral springs. I conclude that there is a lack of a direct correlation between the deity worshipped and the health benefits and treatments attributed to the waters, as the same deity could be present at multiple springs that have differing curative benefits and therapeutic treatments. Rather, it is the mineral composition of the waters that has the strongest influence over the treatments available, while the gods were a secondary focus of the sanctuary.
    • En-Face Preparations of the Medial Hypothalamus and Cilia-Driven Flow Across its Ventricular Wall

      Mirzadeh, Zaman; Cabrales, Elaine Flores; Mehta, Shwetal; Hammer, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The posterior basal third ventricle is situated in the midline, between the cerebral hemispheres, adjacent to hypothalamic nuclei pertinent to metabolic homeostasis. The neuroepithelium lining the ventricle in this region is composed of ependymal cells and tanycytes. Ependymal (E1) cells extend multiple motile cilia from their apical surface, while tanycytes extend two motile cilia (E2) or a single non-motile cilium (E3) from their apical surface. This unique arrangement of neuronal nuclei lined by a mixed neuroepithelium in contact with the ventricle is suggested to provide neurons in this region with privileged access to signaling factors and other molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, CSF flow in this region has not been studied. Here, we characterized motile cilia-generated flow along the walls of the posterior basal third ventricle and found an unexpected asymmetry between the left and right sides. Flow generated by E1 cells on the left hemisphere was directed anterior and ventral, away from the tanycyte domain, while flow on the right hemisphere was directed posterior and ventral, towards the tanycyte domain. To explore cellular planar polarity—that is, polarity orthogonal to the apical-basal axis of an epithelium—that may underlie this difference in flow between the two hemispheres, we quantified “translational” planar polarity in E1 cells of this region. Interestingly, E1 translational polarity reflected the flow of CSF across the epithelium in the right hemisphere, but not in the left hemisphere. Altogether, this work provides a framework for understanding how CSF flow in this ventricular region regulates the exposure of CSF-circulating factors to the adjacent brain.
    • Multichannel Transcranial Acoustoelectric Brain Imaging in a Human Head Model

      Witte, Russell S.; Perkins, Charles Brigham; Chen, Nan-kuei; Utzinger, Urs (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects more than 50 million individualsworldwide. About 1/6 of these are non-responsive to drug treatment and are candidates for resective surgery for treatment. Present methods for localization of neuronal activity for individuals requiring resective surgery have either poor temporal or spatial resolution or are invasive. Transcranial Acoustoelectric Brain Imaging(tABI) is a novel imaging technique with the potential to non-invasively image neuronal activity with millimeter resolution. Prior developments have shown the feasibility of acoustoelectric imaging for 4D in-vivo heart and human head phantoms. In this thesis, multichannel acquisition of the acoustoelectric signal in a human head model is demonstrated as a steppingstone towards a new electrical brain imaging modality for humans. Challenges with acoustoelectric signal levels, signal-to-noise ratios, hardware configurations, and phantom fidelity are addressed. Sensitivities of 4 μV/(mA∙MPa) to injected current are reported for the multichannel measurement with 12 channels on a human head model. Insights gained from this thesis for hardware designs and setups may improve the sensitivity in the human head model by 20dB or more. The results demonstrate the improvement of acoustoelectric imaging techniques and the potential feasibility of tABI as a revolutionary imaging modality of neuronal activity.
    • It is a Dry Heat: Econometric Model of Historic Fires

      Frisvold, George; Dew, Taylor J.; Thompson, Gary; Scheitrum, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Several studies have applied regression analysis to measure factors contributing to larger wildfire suppression costs. They often include acres burned, variables that are functions of acres burned, or both. This can create problems of simultaneity bias. While it is common for studies to use instrumental variable methods to address simultaneity, they in general do not evaluate the strength or weakness of their instruments. Another drawback of using acres burned as an explanatory variable is that regression models have limited value in forecasting suppression costs ahead of time, because suppression and burning occur at the same time. This study takes a different approach, relying on variables that can be used as soon as fire starts. It attempts to answer the question, given that a fire has started, what accounts for it having higher suppression costs and more burned acres? Data from the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) reports are combined with other geo-coded variables to examine wildfires in Arizona’s national forests from 2002-2019. Regressions were run for three different variables: (a) natural log of suppression costs, (b) natural log of acres burned, and (c) a binary variable that equaled one if the fire was greater than 30,000 acres and zero otherwise. The regression results suggest that Arizona wildfires that start in May and June are positively associated with higher suppression costs and more acres burned. This suggests benefits of increased vigilance of fire managers during these months. This variable was less able to predict the occurrence of the very largest fires, however. The amount of land in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) was negatively associated with fire suppression costs and not a significant predictor of fire size. Past empirical results regarding the WUI have been mixed. Average relative humidity was a significant (negative) predictor of both suppression costs and of very large fires. This variable has not been much used in previous studies and may become important if aridity in Arizona increases with climate change.
    • The Efficacy of Translocation as a Tool to Augment Populations of Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii)

      Koprowski, John L.; Nelson, Cherie Jacqueline; Heffelfinger, James R.; Mannan, Robert W. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Translocation is a valuable management strategy that can be used to augment and reestablish populations or increase the range of a species by establishing new populations. Gambel’s quail (Callipepla gambelii) are an iconic species enjoyed by all and are the only native upland game bird in many desert areas of the American Southwest. Drought may be a driver in the population decline of Gambel’s quail; however, quail in urban environments, such as golf courses, can remain abundant due to more reliable sources of food, water, and cover. We hypothesized that translocation of urban quail following a wet winter, when resources are plentiful in their native habitat, might allow us to increase the rate at which extant populations are able to recover following drought by capitalizing on the high reproductive capacity of quail. To assess translocation as a management tool for the augmentation of populations of Gambel’s quail, we translocated 370 quail to augment 2 sites in the Altar Valley, Arizona: King’s Anvil Ranch (KA) and Santa Margarita Ranch (SM). We fitted 155 female quail with VHF radio-transmitting collars and released them on 2 study areas (KA: n = 77, SM: n = 78). Release site had the most impact on demographic rates. KA quail had higher survival to 200 days post-release (63.4% - 70.9%) than SM quail (19.3% - 33.1%); however, SM quail had higher nesting effort and success (nest effort = 63%, nest success = 50%) than KA (nest effort = 33%, nest success: 0%) in the first year. Although this study showed that urban quail can survive and reproduce following translocation, neither site showed both high survival and high reproductive success. Furthermore, although augmentation may have had some short-term benefits in reproductive activity, we are not able to conclude from these data that it led to a measurable increase in quail abundance. Given the low annual adult survival rates of Gambel’s quail, high spring-summer survival alone will not be enough to boost wild populations in a measurable way the following year. Therefore, the ability of translocation to augment extant populations may be limited by low and variable reproductive success.
    • Urbanization and Grazing Impact on Mesquite Phyllosphere and Soil Microbial Communities

      Barberán, Albert; Cleavenger, Sydney Paige; Blankinship, Joseph; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Dryland degradation driven by human activities, particularly associated with urban and grazing land use types, has been shown to result in an overall loss of biodiversity above and below the soil surface. The modification of microbial community dynamics by these degrading processes can result in ecosystem changes that could potentially lead to the proliferation of invasive species, changes in biogeochemical cycling, and injury soil and plant health. This study attempts to investigate the impacts of urban and grazing land use types on the soil and phyllosphere microbiome associated with velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina). The goal of this research was to analyze differences in the above and belowground microbiomes that are specific to urban or grazing land use types to potentially identify microbial trends associated with land degrading processes. Soil and phyllosphere samples were collected from three land use types including natural, urban, and grazing (light and heavy pressures). Soil bacterial/archaeal communities did not demonstrate significant differences across locations, but soil fungal richness and diversity was significantly lower in urban locations. However, urban phyllosphere exhibited greater average microbial richness and Shannon diversity than natural or grazing locations. Heavy grazing pressure resulted in lower soil fungal diversity, but fungal richness was not significantly different between grazing pressures. Inferred microbial functional group proportions showed that urban soils had the lowest average proportion of nitrogen fixers and cellulolytic microorganisms, but the greatest average proportion of fungal plant pathogens. Light grazing pressure exhibited a significantly greater proportion of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The phyllosphere of urban locations had the greatest average proportion of nitrogen fixers and locations with heavy grazing pressure demonstrated the greatest proportion of phyllosphere fungal plant pathogens and cellulolytic microorganisms.
    • Hypoxia-Induced Centrosome Loss in Epithelial Cells

      Rogers, Gregory C.; Loertscher, Emily; Cress, Anne E.; Ellis, Nathan (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Centrosome loss has recently been reported as a phenotype of prostate cancer. Hypoxia, an environmental condition seen commonly in prostate cancer, can cause centrosome loss in the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line, RWPE1. Little is known about hypoxia-induced centrosome loss, including how commonly it occurs in other cell types and the mechanism behind centrosome loss. This thesis further characterizes hypoxia-induced centrosome loss as seen in RWPE1 cells as well as in two other epithelial cell lines, MCF10A and HaCaT. Hypoxia-induced centrosome loss is affected by cell density and is reversible upon return to oxygen in some cell lines. Disassembly of centrosomes in hypoxia may happen through a two-step process, first with the removal of pericentriolar material and then this the disassembly of centrioles.
    • Arterial Spin Labeling MRI To Determine Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients Diagnosed With Mild Cognitive Impairment

      Chen, Nan-kuei; Bracamonte, Sierra Varina; Chou, Ying-hui; Trouard, Ted (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a term used to describe adults who have not crossed the threshold into being diagnosed with progressive dementia, typically Alzheimer’s, but show obvious signs of cognitive impairment1. Recent studies have determined that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) has effects on the pathophysiology of Alzheimer Disease (AD)2 and can be one of the early symptoms before any obvious signs of cognitive impairment, but the study of hyper/hypoperfusion patterns in AD are still controversial with many differing opinions and not enough research. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been an important tool used as a therapeutic device for cognitive disorders, like depression, and has begun to be used as a treatment for other cognitive impairments, like MCI or AD. TMS has also been known to have the ability to affect perfusion (increasing or decreasing it) based on the style of TMS and the strength of the applied magnetic field. To determine the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cerebral blood flow, perfusion changes can be detected using arterial spin labeling (ASL), a type of MRI modality. In this study, 11 subjects underwent testing for MCI and were split into groups of those diagnosed as having MCI and those who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN). All subjects completed sessions of transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy. ASL MRI images were obtained before and after the sessions and region of interest statistical analyses were carried out to determine if TMS affects CBF differently in patients diagnosed with MCI. Subjects with MCI showed statistically significant differences in CBF in certain regions compared to the CN group and suggest that TMS may alter CBF in areas affected by hypoperfusion in patients diagnosed with MCI and AD.
    • The New Absurdists: Elements of the Absurd in New Russian Drama

      Lucey, Colleen; Bedoy, Andrew Martin; Leafgren, John; Jens, Ben (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This thesis examines the importance of the absurd in Russia's New Drama movement. Three different plays are analyzed: Russian National Postal Service (1998) by Oleg Bogaev, Vodka, Fucking, and Television (2006) by Maksim Kurochkin, and Man from Podolsk (2017) by Dimitrii Danilov. Each work is used to examine a different aspect of the absurd in the Russian context. Using these plays, which are some of the more prominent works of New Drama, the thesis demonstrates how the socio-political circumstances affected playwriting in the post-Soviet period. The goal is to show how upheaval, confusion, and changing circumstances bore out in the theater scene through a push towards Absurdism in playwriting. The three plays are analyzed through in-depth close reading that connects New Drama to the Theater of the Absurd and Albert Camus' philosophical writings. Ultimately, the thesis shows that what ties New Drama together is not an overemphasis on documentary style (as many scholars have argued), but a distinct reworking of Absurdism to express Russian reality.
    • Evaluating Gill Net Standardization and Electrofishing Boat Operation Techniques in Arizona Reservoirs

      Bonar, Scott A.; Grant, Joshua; Bogan, Michael; Reinthal, Peter (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      I conducted a paired-gear comparison study in large standing warmwater reservoirs in Arizona during fall 2020 and spring 2021 between Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZGFD) standard gill net (Arizona net) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard gill net (AFS net). The Arizona net and AFS net share the same height, hanging ratio, and twine sizes but differ in length, number of panels, and panel bar-mesh sizes. Adopting a national standard gear like the AFS gill net would allow AZGFD to use a uniform net methodology across the state, give the ability to compare data with other states that use the AFS standards, and allow for larger scale analyses. In five large lakes (Alamo, Apache, Bartlett, Pleasant, and Roosevelt) I investigated how each net was different or similar with regards to species diversity, pick and pull times, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and length structure. I also set out to create conversion factors to allow AZGFD to convert data from the Arizona net to be compared with the AFS net. I found that the AFS net caught the same species as the Arizona net, however, the Arizona net caught three additional species than the AFS net. The AFS net averaged about six and a half minutes faster to pick and pull per net than the Arizona net. For CPUE, the AFS net was higher for some species while the Arizona net was higher for others. Overall the Arizona net CPUE was greater than the AFS net. In both cases, the difference in fish caught per net was often minimal. For length frequencies, each net caught the same length ranges but had some differences in proportions of fish sizes. Lastly, I successfully developed CPUE conversion factors, although, fit of the model differed by species. Fisheries managers should recognize that each net does have biases with regards to using one net over the other for management goals. Further paired-gear testing between Arizona and AFS gill nets will add useful information to reliably help AZGFD convert to the AFS standard.Coincidingly in the spring of 2021, I conducted a boat electrofishing study comparing three boat maneuvers and pedal operations for completing transect surveys. In the same five large reservoirs, I sampled using a continuous 600 s pedal-down transect parallel to shore (continuous parallel); an intermittent 10 s on 10 s off 600 s pedal-down transect parallel to shore (intermittent parallel); and 600 s pedal down transect with multiple arcs applying power only when incoming to shore/cover (arc intermittent) and compared their total time and distance per transect, CPUE of fish per hour and per m, and length frequencies. I found on average, continuous parallel took the least amount of time while arc intermittent took the least amount of distance to complete a 600 s pedal-down transect. For CPUE (fish/hr) there was evidence of differences for three species being higher in arc intermittent than in the other methods, which were similar, but no differences among any of the methods for five other species. For CPUE (fish/m) there was strong evidence for differences among multiple methods being higher than others for all species but two. Lastly, I found that each method caught the same size ranges of fish, however, some differences in proportions of sizes in some species were evident. Overall, each of the three electrofishing approaches tested should work well for documenting reservoir fish populations in general, but certain species and sizes may be best quantified using just one of the three approaches.
    • Whether the Different Learning Environments Influence Students’ Learning Motivation

      Pope, Elizabeth; Yang, Junzhe; Marx, Ronald; Tullis, Jonathan (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      University students’ courses transitioned from in-person learning to online learning during COVID-19 in 2020. In 2021, many universities offered online courses and in-person courses for students. This study aimed to explore whether students’ learning motivation was related to their different learning environments (online learning and in-person learning) and whether students in these two kinds of learning types had different degrees of learning motivation. Thus, the present study examined students’ intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in two different learning environments (online learning and in-person learning). The data were collected from 141 undergraduate students. The findings exhibited that university students’ learning motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation) was not related to learning environment (online learning and in-person learning) during COVID-19. Furthermore, this study presented some suggestions for improving students’ learning motivation.
    • High Speed Grating Shear Interferometry for Fast Steering Mirror Characterization

      Hart, Michael; Colon, Nicolas Iokepa; Kim, Daewook; Milster, Thomas D. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Several terrestrial and aerospace applications require the ability to track a Fast-Steering Mirror’s (FSM) high velocity slew rates with microradian positional resolution. Using theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, the Fast Linescan Grating Shear Interferometer (FLGSI) was designed to meet this demand with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The primary goal of this thesis was to demonstrate that the calibrated FLGSI could constantly track the relative FSM position while the FSM was driven with sinusoidal and square electrical waveforms. The angular magnification, the grating period, and the source wavelength affected the measurement resolution of the FLGSI. The FLGSI design had better than -0.5 waves of coma and less than 0.75 waves of spherical aberration (at 632.8 nm) for the ±4 mrad system FOV. With a photon noise model corrected by measured results, the FLGSI propagated uncertainty was less than 9.5 µrad when measuring the FSM angular position with FSM velocities below 1.5 rad/s, and when measuring a stationary FSM, the FLGSI could measure FSM movements as small as 49.22 nrad (twice the FLGSI measurement uncertainty). The OIM 202 was modeled to estimate the mirror velocity, and design experiments to test the FLGSI measurement capabilities. The secondary goal of this thesis was to measure the OIM 202 movement properties with the FLGSI and compare them with the modeled and manufacturer reported properties. The FLGSI, with a framerate faster than 40 kHz, accurately tracked the FSM position when the FSM was moving at rates slower than 1.1761 ± 0.58 rad/s. The FLGSI measured the FSM X-axis settle time to be 9.98 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±1.38 µrad and the FSM Y axis settle time to be 6.69 ms with a pointing accuracy of ±0.94 µrad. The settle time was slightly slower, and the pointing accuracy was slightly worse than quoted manufacturing specifications.
    • The Phonology and Morphology of Siriano A Grammar Sketch

      de Lima Silva, Wilson; Ni, Tianyi; Harley, Heidi; Henderson, Robert; Wedel, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This thesis presents a linguistic description of the phonology and morphology of SIRIANO, an endangered Amazonian language traditionally spoken in the Vaupés River region of northwest Amazon, in Brazil and Colombia. There is little extant documentation of Siriano; therefore, the description is primarily based on the data gathered by the thesis chair Dr. Wilson de Lima Silva.Siriano is a typical Eastern Tukanoan language in terms of its typological characteristics. It has a relatively small phonemic inventory, and most of the phonemes, both vowels, and consonants have nasalized counterparts. The syllable structure is very simple. The glottal stop and fricative are phonetically realized in a careful speech to modify the syllable structure. Siriano has a two-tone system, with high and low tones. They can be lexical tones, but some of them are not and change accordingly with the morphological processes. Stress is also shown to interact with tone patterns. Nasal spreading is very commonly seen, but the oral inherent morphemes block this phonological process. It has plentiful nominal categories and noun-related suffixes, with simple morphological processes. Verbs require tense, aspect, modality, and evidential marking in the form of suffix attachment. Overt evidential marking is used to distinguish the present and distant past tense.
    • Regulation of the Endogenous Blood-Brain Barrier Transporter Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A4 (Oatp1a4) by Testosterone in an Immortalized Mouse Brain Endothelial Cell Line (bEnd.3)

      Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Nava, Raul; Falk, Torsten; Lynch, Ronald M. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The biochemical and physical properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are known to regulate drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), making it incredibly challenging to treat neurological diseases. A viable strategy may be to target organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents), transporters that facilitate blood-to-brain drug uptake. Over the past several years, our laboratory has studied the involvement of OATPs/Oatps in the BBB transport of drugs that are effective in treatment of neurological pathologies such as cerebral hypoxia/reoxygenation stress and ischemic stroke. Using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, we have shown that Oatp1a4, the primary drug transporting Oatp isoform at the rodent BBB, is critical for brain delivery of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). More recently, we have shown that Oatp1a4 functional expression is higher at the BBB in female Sprague-Dawley rats as compared to their male counterparts. Interestingly, this work also showed that Oatp1a4 protein expression and transport activity in brain micro-vessels from castrated male rats was the same as in female control rats or in ovariectomized females. This observation pointed towards a role for male gonadal sex hormones in the regulation of Oatp1a4 at the BBB. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of testosterone on Oatp1a4 protein expression using a mouse brain micro-vessel endothelial cell line (bEND.3). Specifically, we studied the effect of testosterone in normoxic cells and in cells subjected to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro condition relevant to ischemic stroke. In normoxic (i.e., control) bEND.3 cultures, testosterone increased Oatp1a4 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, testosterone reduced Oatp1a4 protein expression in bEND.3 cells subjected to 8 h OGD but had no effect in these cultured mouse brain endothelial cells after 8 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation (i.e., OGD/R). Interestingly, testosterone treatment increased expression of the androgen receptor under both OGD and OGD/R conditions. Overall, these data provide the first evidence for differential regulation of Oatp1a4 protein expression by testosterone under normoxic, OGD, and OGD/R conditions. Further studies are required to evaluate the implications of these findings on transport of Oatp1a4 substrates (i.e., statins) and to determine the molecular machinery involved in altered Oatp1a4 expression in endothelial cells following exposure to testosterone.
    • Enemies and Brothers: Nationalism in Russian Official Discourse Regarding Crimea

      Klimanova, Liudmila; Donahoe, Maria; Leafgren, John; Willerton, John P. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This study focuses on nationalist language in Russian official discourse (political and media discourse) regarding Crimea. The discourse reveals two major trends: anti-Ukrainian sentiment and pro-Russian sentiment. While several studies outline the official narrative and document examples of nationalist language, no study analyzes this language through the lens of nationalist theory. This study aims to 1) outline the language and sentiments in Russian official discourse, 2) place this language within its social/historical context, and 3) explain the emotive power of such language through nationalist theory and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The researcher used Eric Hobsbawm’s instrumentalist theory of nationalism and Anthony Smith’s ethno-symbolist theory of nationalism, as well as Norman Fairclough’s and Teun van Dijk’s frameworks of CDA. The research suggests that through ideologically contested language, the discourse presents a narrative of the Ukrainian regime as a threat to Russians in Crimea and highlights Russia’s duty to defend its historic homeland.
    • Printing Clay: Design Optimization for 3D Printing Sustainable and High-Performance Housing

      Ida, Aletheia; Puppos, Andrew; Dickinson, Susannah; Musters, Paulus (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The changing climate, a precarious economy, and political turmoil have left countless people homeless throughout the world. As more people are displaced by climate change and other issues, the number of people who lack adequate housing in the world will continue to grow. Due to the enormous impact of architecture and construction on the environment, a method for housing these people that is climate-conscious must be developed. Whether housing is needed for migrants and refugees arriving at international borders, or for citizens displaced within their own homelands by climate disasters, the key to housing these people is creating an adaptable method of quickly constructing shelter. 3D printing offers a fast and efficient solution which can utilize responsive design to minimize the environmental impact, while keeping costs low for unhoused people who are struggling financially. Utilizing parametric design techniques can lead to design strategies that optimize a house for the local climate conditions and reduce both the energy used to keep occupants comfortable and the resources extracted from the local environment. 3D printing can also begin to move from using concrete materials with a high carbon footprint to locally source materials like adobe made from soil extracted from the site, to achieve the lowest possible environmental impact. This research begins by analyzing the thermal performance of 3D printed samples with varying infill values to determine the best print parameters for good thermal performance in hot climates. Building on this, a strategy for creating responsive home designs that use this knowledge to modify the geometry of a structure according to its local climate conditions. These buildings are algorithmically optimized for the climates where they are needed to address housing needs, and moving forward, will be tested at larger scales with local clay materials.