• Pedal the Old Pueblo: A Naturalistic Study on Bicycling in Tucson, AZ

      Woodhouse, Connie A.; Keith, Ladd; Iuliano, Joseph Edward; Plane, David (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      City investments in bicycle infrastructure can improve residents' health and wellness, lower pollution, fight climate change, and reduce congestion. While transportation geography and planning have long focused on looking at how vehicles, goods, and services move across a region, there is a growing body of research focused on the movement of people through a city. This dissertation uses both the City of Tucson and Pima County, Arizona–– a region of low-density development, traditionally focused on the car and now trying to improve cycling rates––to explore how cyclists interact with other road users and the built environment and how we can use that information for better bicycle infrastructure planning. The original research presented in this dissertation answers this question through three interconnected papers that explore the history of cycling planning and the opportunities and barriers to bicycle planning in the region (Appendix A), factors that influence route choice (Appendix B), and an analysis of the lived experiences of cycling in the region (Appendix C). This dissertation helps advance bicycle planning by expanding on how multiple types of riders––people who commute via bicycle, who ride for leisure, or who ride for sport––move through and interact with the built environment to design and plan better infrastructure. The dissertation highlights opportunities to continue to expand on the use of video to understand cyclist behavior and interactions in the built environment to identify gaps in the infrastructure. Additionally, the dissertation demonstrates opportunities for planning scholars and university outreach departments to collaborate with practitioners to put research into practice.
    • Doing Less with More: The Irrigation Efficiency Paradox and Water Conservation Policies in Western U.S. Agriculture

      Schlager, Edella; Pieper, Leah; Bakkensen, Laura; Baldwin, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This dissertation explores why water conservation occurs in agriculture in the Western U.S. under prior appropriation governing institutions and leads to changes in water usage patterns. The prior appropriation doctrine has long been criticized for failing to incentivize water conservation and efficiency in the application and allocation of water. Some states have attempted to correct this misfit between prior appropriation institutions and present needs for flexibility in water management by enacting conserved water statutes to further define and protect the water rights of those who implement conservation measures. However, an apparent side effect of one common form of water conservation, using more efficient irrigation technologies and techniques, is increased consumptive use of water in irrigated agriculture—what is referred to as the irrigation efficiency paradox (Grafton et al. 2018). I suggest that the “irrigation efficiency paradox” is not an unexpected result, especially in states with conserved water statutes, as increases in consumptive usage should be expected when property rights to water exist. I explore and analyze the motivations for enacting conserved water statutes, demonstrating that the lack of institutional incentives, the involvement of multiple types of stakeholders, and the degree of problem severity were critical factors in motivating consideration and adoption of a statute. I provide a direct empirical test of the effects of conserved water statutes on agricultural water usage, finding that conserved water statutes are associated in some cases with higher usage of efficient irrigation technology, but the statutes more often appear to have a negative effect on consumptive water usage, contrary to expectations from the irrigation efficiency paradox. I also analyze the role of conserved water statutes in encouraging conservation through participation in environmental water transactions, showing that while the financial incentives offered by the transactions was more likely to encourage participation, conserved water statutes did not make these effects more likely or contribute to water conservation and allocation goals. The overall findings of this dissertation indicate that conserved water statutes are likely not very effective or appropriate for incentivizing water conservation in agriculture, especially when the goals of policymakers and stakeholders are to increase allocative efficiency in water management, rather than simply increase technical efficiency for individual water users. This dissertation contributes to the literature on water management and common pool resource governance by offering a comprehensive examination of conserved water statutes and the impacts of the institutional incentive structure for water usage and conservation in irrigated agriculture in the West.
    • Essays in Platform and Network Economics

      Xiao, Mo; Liu, Xinyuan; Langer, Ashley; Galvao, Antonio (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This dissertation studies competition, market structure and pricing mechanics in marketsthat feature network economics and platform economics. The first chapter studies the network structure of small cell deployment within a city, by estimating and comparing the network effect of a carrier’s existing small cells and the competition effect of rivals’ small cell network. Using a fixed-effects model as well as an IV model where cost instruments are used for a firm’s small cell deployment decision, the paper finds strong network effect outweighing the competition effect in carriers’ entry decisions, with network effect contributing to 70-90% of the variation in small cells. While small in magnitude, competition effect shapes the dominance of a carrier in a very local region, for example in the downtown area. Policy simulations based on the model estimates suggest a government subsidy targeted at the neighboring area of current network centers to be most effective in accelerating small cell deployment. Subsidy targeted at high cost low density areas do not lead to enough private investment to further deploy. In the second chapter, we document how online lenders exploit a flawed, new pricing mechanism in a peer-to-peer lending platform: Prosper.com. Switching from auctions to a posted-price mechanism in December 2010, Prosper assigned loan listings with different estimated loss rates into seven distinctive rating grades and adopted a single price for all listings with the same rating grade. We show that lenders adjusted their investment portfolios towards listings at the low end of the risk spectrum of each Prosper rating grade. We find heterogeneity in the speed of adjustment by lender experience, investment size, and diversification strategies. It took about 16 – 17 months for an average lender to take full advantage of the “cherry-picking” opportunity under the single-price regime, which is roughly when Prosper switched to a more flexible pricing mechanism. The third chapter is based on the observation that previous literature of consumer online rating has focused on information aggregation and the effect of ratings on own demand. The chapter seeks to find evidence on the demand effect of online ratings across local businesses. There are two competing mechanisms through which ratings of neighboring businesses could affect the performance of one local business. On one hand, the spillover effect predicts that a highly rated business would not only increase its own performance, but also the performance of surrounding businesses. On the other hand, the effect could be in the other direction: higher ratings drive more consumers to one business while lowering sales of neighboring businesses. This project is aimed at identifying these effects by exploiting the variation in neighborhood structure, geographic proximity of local businesses. The results show evidence on both competition effects and spillover effects of neighborhood business online reputation. Both these effects would decrease as I consider a neighborhood that is more distantly located from the center restaurant.
    • Lost in Translation: Variations in WNT Signaling and Other Translational Changes in a Drosophila Model of ALS

      Zarnescu, Daniela C.; Lehmkuhl, Erik; Bolger, Timothy A.; Capaldi, Andrew; Schwartz, Jacob (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease inwhich 97% of patients exhibit cytoplasmic aggregates containing the RNA binding protein TDP- 43, referred to as TDP-43 pathology. My project focused on understanding how TDP-43 pathology modifies translation. Using tagged ribosome affinity purifications in Drosophila models of TDP- 43 proteinopathy, we identified TDP-43 dependent translational alterations in motor neurons impacting the spliceosome, pentose phosphate and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. A subset of the mRNAs with altered translation are also enriched in TDP-43 complexes suggesting that they may be direct targets. Among these, dlp mRNA, which encodes the glypican Dally like protein (Dlp)/GPC6, a wingless (Wg/Wnt) signaling regulator is insolubilized both in flies and patient tissues with TDP-43 pathology. While Dlp/GPC6 forms puncta in the Drosophila neuropil and ALS spinal cords, it is reduced at the neuromuscular synapse in flies suggesting compartment specific effects of TDP-43 proteinopathy. These findings together with genetic interaction data show that Dlp/GPC6 is a novel, physiologically relevant target of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Recent further investigation suggests that Dlp puncta represent defunct endomembrane compartments and that TDP-43-Dlp dynamics persist outside of motor neurons.
    • The Creation and Application of Bioinformatic Techniques to Improve Therapeutic Options for Cancer Patients

      Padi, Megha; Grant, Adam; Ellis, Nathan; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Heimark, Ron; Romanoski, Casey (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Tumors commonly exhibit high levels of both inter- and intra- heterogeneity. For this reason, the optimal therapeutic approach for cancer patients would ideally be a regimen that is catered toward their individual tumor. Unfortunately, rather than receiving a treatment based on the molecular profile of their tumor, most cancer patients receive a generalized therapeutic treatment based on the past performance of tumors at the same stage and location. These non-specific treatments often cause adverse side effects and may have only a slight impact on life expectancy of a patient. The limited treatment options for cancer patients are mainly because of the lack of knowledge of which prerequisites are required for a tumor to respond to an anti-cancer drug. Fortunately, with the advancement of next generation sequencing technologies, we can globally interrogate the molecular characteristics of individual tumors. Here, I present four ways to improve therapeutic options for cancer patients by utilizing and developing computational tools that analyze next generation sequencing data: 1) combining machine learning with Bayesian network structure learning to identify tissue specific mechanisms of drug response, 2) subtyping colorectal cancers to identify molecular mechanisms associated with early-onset colorectal cancer, 3) combining exome and RNA sequencing data to better identify influential tumor mutations, and 4) identifying breast cancer patients who are particularly susceptible to bone metastasis. The results from all four projects suggest that, although tumors from the same tissue typically exploit similar pathways to progress their tumor phenotype, the specific mechanisms they use to dysregulate the pathway often vary. Moreover, common genomic alterations that occur across multiple tumor types activate different tissue-specific mechanisms, which can dramatically alter the response of tumors to the same anti-cancer drug. Elucidating how tissue- and tumor-specific molecular dysregulation drives tumor phenotypes is an essential prerequisite to providing the optimal therapeutic for a cancer patient. By using the approaches and workflows I developed during my PhD, we can better suggest anti-cancer drugs that will elicit a response in cancer patients by identifying the biological pathways that are critical for tumor development in specific tissues and which molecular dysregulations may potentiate that pathway.
    • World Englishes and the Teaching of English as an International Language: Indonesian Teachers’ Perspectives and Professional Development Experiences

      Short, Kathy; Juwariyah, Siti; Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye; Reinhardt, Jonathon; Matsuda, Aya (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This study examined teachers’ perspectives and professional development experiences about the teaching of English as an International language (TEIL) in relation to World Englishes (WE) at junior high school levels in Indonesia. Considering the growth of the number of English speakers around the world, it has been argued that WE-based TEIL is more realistic and relevant (Kachru & Nelson, 2006; Kirkpatrick, 2007; Matsuda, 2002, 2018). Accordingly, efforts have been done to challenge the standard English hegemony such as through teacher education programs. However, previous research focused primarily on pre-service teachers through teacher preparation programs at higher education levels. There were limited studies investigating in-service teachers’ professional development experiences, especially in relation to World Englishes and at junior high school levels in Indonesia. Meanwhile, professional development has been deemed important for in-service teachers as the content in pre-service education is usually limited and there are educational as well as pedagogical changes that in-service teachers need to constantly respond over time (Richards & Farrell, 2005). Considering how relevant and significant WE-based TEIL is, it is also crucial to update in-service teachers with such knowledge. Hence, this study was aimed at exploring and understanding teachers’ views on WE-based TEIL including their professional development experiences and use of social media in its implementation at Indonesian junior high schools. A mixed methods research design, in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases of study (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2017), was used to answer three research questions: 1) What are teachers’ perspectives on incorporating World Englishes into the teaching of English as an international language at the junior high school level in Indonesia?, 2) How have teachers used social media as potential resources to incorporate World Englishes into the teaching of English as an international language at the junior high school level in Indonesia?, and 3) How have teachers experienced professional development in relation to English teaching in general and the incorporation of World Englishes in particular? 64 teachers joining a local English teacher forum participated in the online survey in the first phase, and 6 focal teachers were selected for the second phase, in which observations, focus group discussion, and interviews were used to collect the data. The quantitative data from the survey were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The qualitative data from the survey, observations, focus group discussion, and interviews were triangulated and coded to identify themes and patterns in the data. The findings show that English language teaching at Indonesian junior high school levels was quite complex. While teachers acknowledged the importance of WE-based TEIL, they did not find it urgent to prioritize because they did not feel knowledgeable enough about WE and also because they were facing other problems as English teachers. In addition, even though teachers benefitted from using social media especially in locating WE materials, they could not really maximize it due to the insufficient institutional and technological support. Furthermore, the professional development that they have experienced has never focused on World Englishes. In fact, teachers’ professional development experiences did not address some of their problems and challenges in English teaching in general. Hence, the findings of this study generate some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research in hopes to improve teacher professional development experiences about English teaching in general and in relation to WE in particular as well as to understand the issues in a broader scope in Indonesian contexts.
    • The Promise of Fantasy: Countering Heteronormative Storylines and Envisioning New(er) Latinx Imaginaries in Contemporary Media

      Bezerra, Katia; Carter, Bryan; Nazario, Claudia; Bolton, Jason C.; Hayward, Eva (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Drawing from interdisciplinary ideologies, I discuss written, audio, and visual storylines that center women and/or queer Latinxs while challenging heteronormative and ethnocentric tenets in mainstream media. My analysis focuses on the ways the media represent intersectional Latinx identities; I pay special attention to the complex interplay of ethnicity, race, gender, and sexuality. The purpose of this study is to explore how critical storytelling combats ethnocentric, racist, sexist, and homophobic norms promoted in the media. To that end, I compare critical retellings against their traditional versions by closely reading the former to analyze how Latinx representation is impacted by the complex ways a person’s identity categories act upon each other. To demonstrate the ubiquity of racist, sexist, ethnocentric, and homophobic storytelling in both classical and critical narratives, this dissertation analyzes different media (i.e. children’s literature, Television programming, and music) by content creators from three geographic locations (i.e. Cuba, Brazil, and the U.S.) using English, Spanglish, Spanish and /or Portuguese. Chapter I provides an overview of the socializing functions of children’s literature, and a discussion of Había una vez a Spanish-language Cuban fairy tale series written with a multiethnic and feminist perspective. From my analysis, I determine that inserting marginalized individuals into dominant narratives results in stereotypical or prejudicial representations that justify dominant cultures and Eurocentric ideologies established during colonialism. Chapter II focuses on an examination of gender variance in Brazilian telenovelas and eletrofunk music that are broadcasted in Portuguese. The discussion in this chapter demonstrates that reworked storylines or retellings do not transcend biases in mainstream narratives when marginalized characters substitute standard or dominant protagonists. Instead, these types of substitutions communicate to audiences that power is attainable through assimilation to heteronormative and ethnocentric constructs—validating binary gender, compulsory heterosexuality, and European beauty standards. In Chapter III, I discuss the representation of U.S. Latinxs in U.S. media and focus on the five Latinx-focused television series of 2018, particularly on the show Vida’s ability to transcend ethnic and gender biases. I use Vida’s storytelling advances and limitations to delineate three praxes for critical storytelling designed to navigate narratives away from oppressive social norms and the type of storytelling they seek to challenge. I argue for critical storytelling to undertake all of the following three praxes: (1) have groups represented in numerical parity in all aspects of storytelling, (2) present narratives that deconstruct the social logic of oppressive norms, and (3) create new social imaginaries transcending oppressive storytelling and social norms. In other words, I argue for critical narratives written for, by, and about the groups being depicted to counter prejudices, homogenizing troupes, and stereotypes that are employed by traditional storytelling. Secondly, I propose that narratives directly challenge prejudicial ideologies and highlight power inequalities woven into dominant cultures and the media. Lastly, I argue that narratives provide new possible futures for marginalized groups by creating new imaginaries or looking to those of marginalized groups as viable alternatives. Thus, critical retellings can be realized by tapping into the promise of fantasy, an ever-present creative potential and the genre’s driving characteristic—creating the yet unknown.
    • Synthetically Diverse Triazabutadienes and Their Applications Towards Biological Systems

      Jewett, John; Wondrak, Georg; Shepard, Abigail J.; Hulme, Christopher; Sun, Daekyu (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Small molecule tools for interrogating biological systems are important for studying the inner workings of the cell, from protein-protein interactions to understanding protein fluctuations and dynamics in different disease states. Aryl diazonium ions have been found to be a useful tool for studying proteins, capable of labeling tyrosine residues on a proteins surface. To prevent this electrophile from labeling everything in sight affording nonspecific reactions, a protecting group can be invoked. Once such example is the triazabutadiene, a nitrogen rich structural motif capable of falling apart upon protonation or in the presence of light. Previous studies have focused on characterizing deprotection kinetics at a physiological pH, and aryl diazonium ion adducts have been characterized on single proteins using a fluorophore conjugate. To further the understanding of the triazabutadiene system for both synthetic and biological applications, more complex probes must be designed, synthesized, and characterized to move towards in cellulo experiments. A triazabutadiene was designed bearing an alkyne handle on the sacrificial imidazole ring, which can be functionalized using copper-click chemistry to add on cell targeting moieties such as vitamins for active transport or small molecule signals for a specific organelle of interest. The development of such probes adds layers of synthetic complexity to the system as an acid and base sensitive functional group have been installed. Difficulties associated with methyl ester deprotection led to the explorative synthesis of less stable alkyl and silyl functional groups. While informative on general reactivity, all efforts were futile, either due to azide instability, triazabutadiene instability, or unsuccessful ester deprotection. Synthetic efforts for triazabutadiene functionalization have traditionally stayed away from the use of heat, due to the possibility of thermal intramolecular rearrangements, and metal catalysts, due to the chelating potential of the nitrogen rich scaffold. Previous findings have shown the triazabutadiene scaffold is compatible with copper-click chemistry conditions. These findings inspired the work of optimizing a Suzuki-coupling method for facile attachment of aryl rings to the triazabutadiene scaffold. Although there is a lack of support from literature, it was determined the scaffold is compatible with palladium-ferrocene complexes and can withstand temperatures of 95 °C for up to one hour. The biphenyl triazabutadienes, a novel synthetic class of compounds, are capable of deprotecting at physiological pH and labeling proteins, as determined using native mass spectrometry. An interesting nitrobenzoxadiazole triazabutadiene probe was discovered which displays a turn-on fluorescence profile upon protein labeling, with the intact triazabutadiene being non-fluorogenic. The aryl diazonium ion released upon deprotection was synthesized by an alternate route and tested on proteins to confirm these findings. A triazabutadiene containing a mitochondria targeting small molecule, a triphenylphosphonium ion, and a bromobenzene ring for mass spectrometry identification was synthesized and evaluated on proteins. The bromobenzene azo-adduct was found to label proteins, as confirmed using native mass spectrometry, and the adduct also remained intact during tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry allowing for easy identification of labeled protein residues. The triazabutadiene was found to fall apart at pH 7 with the help of ultraviolet light, giving support for moving this system into a cellular setting for protein identification. In conclusion, this dissertation highlights the synthetic explorations of functionalizing triazabutadienes using novel synthetic plans, and the development of more complex probes with unexpected characteristics which will certainly find a use in the field of biological chemistry.
    • Derivation and Properties of a Modified Relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation for Late Time Evolution of Complex Scalar Fields in the Vicinity of Schwarzschild and Near-Extremal Reissner-Nordström Black Holes

      Brio, Moysey; Plackowski, Nikki; Venkataramani, Shankar; Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This dissertation has provided a framework for black hole perturbation theory, aimed at the study of the stability of black holes. We consider linear perturbations of the Einstein Field Equations and have derived a modified relativistic Klein-Gordon model in observable spacetime coordinates in the presence of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström geometries. The second order partial differential equation for complex fields is dispersive hyperbolic, with its characteristics identical to the null geodesics of the standard ingoing Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates. The equation preserves several important features of the original system such as decaying tail and quasi-normal ringing in the presence of a nonlinear potential introduced due to self-interaction. The dispersion relation for the frozen coefficient equation further exhibits amplification/damping and the origin of the tail. Additionally, it displays convergence to the standard wave equation as waves move further away from the event horizon. The reversal of the sign in the group velocity, near the event horizon, explains the long tail present in the linear case. We have applied both finite differences and finite element methods (of arbitrary spatial polynomial order) to study effects of the charge for fully complex fields as well as effects of the nonlinear self-interaction. A transparent boundary condition was utilized with an experimentally determined advection velocity.We have validated the codes using the method of manufactured solutions and provided a rigorous framework for convergence in the finite element contents. Finally, we have developed an open-source body of code via the DEAL.II software package, which is released on Github at https://github.com/nholtzerresearch/SCRN_Code.
    • Henri Dutilleux's Sonate pour piano, Op. 1 (1947–1948): External Influences on His Idiosyncratic Musical Style

      Woods, Rex; Pan, Shuo; Gibson, Tannis; Rosenblatt, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The purpose of this study is to explain French composer Henri Dutilleux’s (1916-2013) idiosyncratic musical style through the analysis of form, melody, harmony, texture, rhythm, pianistic techniques, and other features of his transitional work Sonate pour piano Op. 1. Comparison of features of the Sonate proceed with salient excerpts from the Romantic era and from French impressionist composers — Claude Debussy (1862-1918), Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), and Gabriel Fauré (1845-1924) — illustrate Dutilleux’s assimilation of historical styles. Comparison with contemporaneous piano works by Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992), Maurice Ohana (1913-1992), Witold Lutoslawski (1913-1994), and György Ligeti (1923-2006), suggest that Dutilleux may have intentionally fused historical styles with contemporary musical elements into his personal musical discourse. The textural timbres inspired by carillon sonorities, Dutilleux’s preoccupation with the visual appearance of the music, and progressive thematic transformation inspired by French literature illustrate non-pianistic influences.
    • Deconstructing the Dangerous Dead: An Archaeothanatological Approach to Atypical Burial

      Watson, James; Stiner, Mary; Wilson, Jordan A.; Soren, David; Anderson, Bruce; Titelbaum, Anne (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This dissertation explores the funerary taphonomy of non-normative burials across multiple contexts. Past research has demonstrated that mortuary contexts can offer specific insights into the social identity of the deceased, as well as the beliefs, hopes, and anxieties of the community that buried them. This insight is of special significance when an individual has not been provided the typical burial rites specific to their culture, including unique mortuary treatment or its complete absence. Such non-normative treatment can potentially indicate that the deceased held a special or unusual role in their society, that they had experienced marginalization during life, or that their death was perceived as untimely or unusual. These atypical or “deviant” burials have been documented as indicating periods of environmental stress, social upheaval, or a combination of these. This dissertation uses the archaeothanatological approach as a lens through which to consider how past intentional mortuary behavior can be separated from environmental alteration. As this dissertation demonstrates, the archaeothanatological method contains significant limitations, including a heavy reliance on experiments using nonhuman animal remains to construct the theory, a lack of studies exploring non-Western burial practices (such as exposure or excarnation), and limited consideration of how the approach may need to be modified based on local environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it can be a useful framework for bioarchaeologists to identify unusual treatment of the body and other ephemeral traces of mortuary ritual. The first study focuses on modern, unburied remains recovered from the Sonoran Desert and tests articulation relationships between joints in a specific environmental context. Results demonstrated that postmortem joint integrity is largely dependent not only on anatomical structure and function in life, but the impact of environmental factors such as weathering, temperature, ambient humidity, and most significantly, scavenger activity. The second study examines a burial population from the same geographic and environmental area (the Sonoran Desert) but dating to the Early Agricultural period (ca. 2100 BC to AD 50) and examines the non-normative burials of 21 individuals, with an emphasis on the burials of young females. These burials can be interpreted as a form of sexually antagonistic social signaling and may suggest the community was experiencing a period of significant stress involving resources scarcity, environmental change, or social transition. The final study examines a burial population of neonates and young children from a rural agricultural community in Late Antique (ca. 450 CE) Umbria, Italy. Results of my analysis suggest atypical mortuary treatment may be associated with necrophobia related to the untimely death of the infants, distress possibly heightened by a season of higher than usual infant mortality. More surprisingly, this analysis also indicates acts of mourning and a desire for remembrance, possibly enacted in secret, as such behavior would have been in conflict with cultural expectations regarding infant loss. My findings offer insight into a rural community’s shared stress surrounding sickness, child loss, and unique vernacular belief system in a time of significant cultural and social transition. The results of these studies demonstrate that the archaeothanatological method is limited in its applicability, as skeletal disarticulation, along with the effects of taphonomic processes, varies depending on the specific environmental conditions, and the degree to which the body is exposed to these. However, this research demonstrates how taphonomy can be used to better understand the application of social theory within bioarchaeology. Ultimately, this enables a more detailed analysis of individuals whose complex, reduced, or ambiguous social status—or potentially, the cause and manner of their death—may have precluded their access to normative and culturally appropriate funerary rites.
    • Wellness Among Diné Women Who Reside in a Navajo Nation Bordertown

      Kahn-John, Michelle; McEwen, Marylyn; Stuefen, Cristina; Gonzalez, Patrisia; Stauber, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose. This study engaged Diné women in describing wellness and how they maintain wellness utilizing a qualitative descriptive methodology and application of the culturally valued process of relational accountability. A Diné Cultural Advisory Committee provided guidance for analysis. Background. Indigenous peoples, including Diné, experience health inequities often addressed via deficit-based approaches. Wellness as a concept and strength-based mechanism to enhance health is pertinent for Indigenous Peoples. Post-colonial feminist theory, Indigenous feminisms, resilience theory, and historical trauma theory add relevant theoretical foundations for the robust description of wellness by Diné women residing in a Navajo Nation bordertown. Methods. The study design was qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Diné women via Zoom. The culturally relevant process of relational accountability was applied alongside the qualitative research process. Analysis was conducted in a culturally informed and inductive manner. Results. Discoveries on how Diné women perceive and maintain wellness resulted in an overarching theme of “It [Wellness] lays a foundation of who you are,” supported by four domains: “A concept of balance,” “I take this all with me no matter where I am,” “Things just became natural,” and “Diné Asdzání” (Navajo Woman). Domains 1 and 2 corresponded to research questions 1) “How is wellness described?” and 2) “How is wellness maintained?” and Domains 3 and 4 were unexpected and emergent, providing rich, relevant and critical contextual information. Findings support known data on Indigenous wellness: wellness as holistic, collective, inclusive of the living world, and specific to the Diné, inclusion of the concept of Hózhó as congruent to, or complementary to, wellness. Study findings reveal the integral aspect of relational wellness, and describe the diverse and complex manners in which Diné women maintain wellness, learn about wellness, and highlights personal attributes and values of these Diné women leaders. This study is an exemplar of the application of relational accountability when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Future research with Indigenous communities should integrate Indigenous methodologies and apply relational accountability. Further exploration of wellness with other Diné subpopulations is recommended as well as is inclusion of Indigenous feminisms as a theoretical foundation.
    • Examination of Pharmacy Accessibility in Two Racially Diverse Metropolitan Areas: Development of a Pharmacy Access Model Using Multiple Discriminant Analysis

      Warholak, Terri; Mollon, Lea E.; Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Axon, Rhys; Slack, Marion (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Prior research has shown disparities in pharmacy access related to race/ethnicity, income, and other sociodemographic factors. There is currently no consistent definition of low pharmacy access and there is no federal designation for areas underserved by pharmacies. The purpose of this study was to expand on prior pharmacy accessibility research and develop a conceptual model of pharmacy access in selected racially diverse urban areas of the United States. Through the application of geographic information software (GIS) mapping, the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) methodology, and multiple discriminant analysis, the pharmacy landscape and relative pharmacy access were qualitatively and quantitatively described for the study areas. Models of pharmacy access based on distance and travel time were also derived. Pharmacy access varied by racial composition. Factors most influential to pharmacy access included socioeconomic position, transportation use, and population vulnerability.
    • Martian Upper Atmospheric Thermal Structure, Composition, and Water and their Significance for Atmospheric Escape and Evolution

      Yelle, Roger; Stone, Shane Wesley; Griffith, Caitlin; Matsuyama, Isamu; Swindle, Timothy; Zega, Tom (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Mars has lost the majority of its atmosphere to space over the last 4 billion years, leaving the planet cold, dry, and oxidized. The NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft arrived at Mars in 2014 to investigate the Mars-near space environment and the processes leading to atmospheric escape today, with the goal of understanding the evolution of Mars' atmosphere and climate through time. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer onboard MAVEN which directly measures the neutral and ionic composition of the Martian upper atmosphere as MAVEN flies through it. Using data obtained from NGIMS between 2014 and 2020, we investigate the thermal structure and neutral composition of this region. In addition, we report on the discovery of water in the upper atmosphere. Each of these three research efforts provides insight into the escape of the Martian atmosphere to space. The thermal structure of the Martian upper atmosphere is important for the determination of atmospheric escape rates because temperature is a measure of the distribution of velocities of the atoms that can escape to space and it determines the rate of many chemical reactions which alter the composition of the upper atmosphere. Using NGIMS measurements of Ar, N$_2$, and CO$_2$ densities, we calculate vertical profiles of temperature by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and using the ideal gas law. We find the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere is highly variable, with large diurnal variations, and is consistent with a 1D energy balance model which includes solar ultraviolet and near infrared heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling by the CO$_2$ ν$_2$ 15 µm band. Determination of the composition of the upper atmosphere of Mars is necessary to understand the chemistry and energy balance in this region and ultimately what species escape to space. NGIMS measures the abundances of CO$_2$, Ar, N$_2$, O, He, and H$_2$. These data are the first vertical profiles of H$_2$, an important source of escaping H, in the Martian upper atmosphere. We investigate variations in the composition of the upper atmosphere with latitude, local time, and season. Transport-driven polar and nightside enhancements are identified in the ratios to CO$_2$ of N$_2$, O, He, and H$_2$. We also observe seasonal variations in the Ar mixing ratio associated with the seasonal deposition and sublimation of CO$_2$ at the polar ice caps. The discovery of water in the upper atmosphere of Mars has a direct impact on the desiccation of the Martian atmosphere and surface, because H$_2$O transported high into the upper atmosphere is rapidly destroyed by ions to ultimately produce H and O atoms which escape to space. We use NGIMS measurements of water-related ions, namely H$_2$O$^+$ and H$_3$O$^+$, to determine the water abundance in the upper atmosphere. The H$_2$O abundance varies with season, peaking in southern summer when Mars is closest to the Sun. Regional and global dust storms lead to a sudden splash of additional water into the upper atmosphere. We demonstrate that the proportion of escaping H atoms produced from H$_2$O is comparable to that from H$_2$, the classical source of escaping H, during most of the Martian year. H$_2$O becomes the dominant source of escaping H during global dust storms.
    • A Study of Teacher Agency: Forms, Pathways, and Impacts for Novice, Mid-Career, and Veteran Teachers

      Anders, Patty; Short, Kathy; Spink, Joseph Kevin; Carter, Katherine; Garcia, Jeremy; Wyman, Leisy (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This investigation of teacher agency addresses the dual concerns of reduced teacher agency in an era of accountability tied to high stakes testing and a reduced conception of the professional role of teachers to that of an instrumentalist, restricting teachers' decisions regarding curriculum and instruction . This study has three goals: the primary goal is to understand the dynamics associated with the development of professional teacher agency; a secondary goal is to understand benefits and the detriments resulting from the exercise or denial of teacher agency; and a third goal is to describe teacher agency as it is practiced across a career span. This study answers questions about the forms of, conducive conditions for, challenges to, and impacts from the assertion or denial of teacher agency. The participants are twenty teachers, ten veteran retired teachers and ten practicing teachers. The participants include a diverse ethnic and gender demographic of both elementary and secondary teachers. The veteran teacher cohort participants' use of agency was investigated through phenomenological methods (Husserl, 1931). The practicing teacher cohort was studied through grounded theory methods from a constructivist perspectivist (Charmaz, 2014), and included a participant action research (PAR) component. Data sources for both cohorts included interviews and a survey. The practicing teachers also participated in observations and related discussions. A critical theory lens was used as an aspect of the data analysis. The findings and implications reveal teacher agency to be a developmental process. Teacher agency is linked to teacher identity formation and sense of professional ownership. Forms of agency are reflective of teachers' teleological sense of purpose, vis-à-vis individual student autonomy and democratic and social justice visions. Implications for pre-service teacher education, teacher learning, and future research possibilities are discussed.
    • Investigating the Effects of Viewing/Solar Geometry and Precipitable Water Vapor on Passive Radiometeric Cloud Detection and Property Retrievals

      Dong, Xiquan; McHardy, Theodore Mitchell; Xi, Baike; Arellano, Avelino; Behrangi, Ali (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Clouds are well established as a major source of uncertainty in climate and are the dominant modulators of radiation both at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Their impact on the Earth’s radiation budget mainly depends on the bulk cloud properties, such as cloud amount, height, and microphysical/optical characteristics. Large-scale satellite data are needed to both verify and improve general circulation model (GCM) parameterizations of clouds and radiation for climate prediction. For reliable application of satellite datasets in cloud processes and climate models, it is important to have a reasonable estimate of the bias and uncertainty in the derived cloud properties. Ideally, the calibration and evaluation of passive radiometric-based cloud products should be done via in-situ aircraft. This is often impractical; thus, satellite retrievals are often validated with long-term ground-based or space-borne active remote sensing instruments. This dissertation makes use of both types of platforms for validating passive radiometric-based cloud products. In the first study, the daytime single-layered low-level cloud properties retrieved by instruments onboard GOES are compared with ground-based observations and retrievals over the DOE ARM SCF from June 1998 through December 2006. Comparisons are made for monthly means, diurnal means, and one-to-one GOES and ARM collocated pairs. GOES cloud effective temperature (Teff) is highly correlated with ARM cloud-top temperature (Ttop), having an R2 value of 0.75, though GOES exhibits a cold bias. GOES retrieved cloud optical depth (τ) and liquid water path (LWP) have very good agreement with ARM retrievals with R2s of 0.45 and 0.47, while GOES retrieved cloud-droplet effective radius (re), on average, is about 2 µm greater than ARM re. An examination of solar and viewing geometry has shown that GOES retrieved mean re and τ values are impacted by solar zenith angle (SZA) and especially scattering angle (SCA). In the second study, a quantitative evaluation of maritime transparent cirrus cloud detection, which is based on GOES-16 data and developed with collocated CALIOP profiling, is performed. First, the relationships between the clear-sky 1.378 µm radiance, viewing/solar geometry, and precipitable water vapor (PWV) are characterized. Next, detection thresholds are computed using the Ch. 4 radiance (λ= 1.378 µm) as a function of viewing/solar geometry. In addition to bulk statistics, an example application and case study are shown for validation. The algorithm detects nearly 50% of sub-visual cirrus (COD or τ < 0.03), 80% of transparent cirrus (0.03 < COD < 0.3), and 90% of opaque cirrus (COD > 0.3). This study lays the groundwork for a more complex, operational algorithm to detect GOES transparent cirrus clouds. In the third and final study, this algorithm is modified and applied for detecting transparent cirrus clouds over land for removing some potential false-alarm pixels. Clear-sky false alarm rates over land are examined as a function of PWV, and a threshold for pixel-rejection is determined. Then, thresholds for removing pixels with low- and mid-level clouds underneath are devised by integrating the water vapor mixing ratio between the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and a specific altitude. The total-column and layer PWV thresholds are applied to the full over-land sample to determine their effectiveness in reducing the number of false alarms. This study suggests that for cirrus applications, lower-tropospheric clouds are a much more significant source of contamination than the land surface, due to the difficulty of removing them without the addition of downstream or level-2 products.
    • Effects of Mindfulness on Anesthesia Provider Burnout

      Reel, Sally J.; Aquino, Jamie; Herring, Christopher; Elam, Charles R. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Background: Anesthesia provider burnout levels are rising across the United States. Evidence shows mindfulness-based interventions reduce stress among healthcare providers, which can aid in decreasing burnout levels. A burnout survey was distributed among anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists) to determine level of burnout prior and following an evidence-based mindfulness intervention.Objective: The purpose of this project is to determine how the use of an online, self-administered mindfulness-based intervention affects anesthesia provider burnout. Design: This is a quality improvement that evaluated the efficacy of a mindfulness based intervention. The project assessed anesthesia provider burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) survey and then evaluated effects of an intervention consisting of an educational Microsoft PowerPoint and supplemental handout provided to participants. A follow up MBI survey performed one month after intervention was used to assess impact on provider burnout. Participants: The recruitment pool consisted of 78 anesthesiologists and CRNAs from a two-site local health care facility in Tucson, Arizona. Measurements: The MBI survey was administered anonymously to assess three dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. An online, asynchronous, evidenced-based educational mindfulness Microsoft PowerPoint and supplemental handout was disseminated through email for anesthesia providers to administer at their convenience. After a four-week period, the same follow-up MBI survey was administered. Results of surveys were automatically transferred to Qualtrics, maintained anonymity and linked pre- and post-surveys. All data was anonymous, and no demographic data was collected to ensure anonymity. Results: Four providers completed the pre-intervention burnout survey. The results demonstrate composite MBI emotional exhaustion score of 13.8 +/- 10.4, depersonalization score of 0.8+/- 1.0, and personal accomplishment score of 32.8 +/- 7.4, indicating low burnout among those completing this survey. Zero providers completed post-intervention survey. The efficacy of this intervention could not be determined due to no post-intervention survey participants. Conclusion: Only four participants completed pre-intervention burnout survey, with no follow up after the intervention. As no participants completed post-intervention survey, effectiveness of this intervention could not be evaluated. Multiple factors may play a role in the limited participation and are discussed with recommendations to improve future participation.
    • Stock Inhaler Administration Practices Among School Personnel in Pima County, Arizona

      Gerald, Lynn B.; Lowe, Ashley Anne; Gerald, Joe K.; Clemens, Conrad (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Medication administration often takes place at school. These tasks are performed by either a licensed school nurse or unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) who has been delegated the task of medication administration by a licensed provider. One of the most commonly administered medications by school personnel is albuterol sulfate, a rescue medication that relieves the symptoms of respiratory distress. While all asthmatic children should have access to this life-saving drug, <15% of children have a rescue inhaler at school. Access is even more disparate among low-income minority children. By implementing a Stock Inhaler Program, schools can increase access to albuterol for students. Stock inhalers are a single, albuterol inhaler with a supply of valved-holding chambers that can be used by multiple students. After passage of HB 2208, “Stock Inhaler for Schools”, a Stock Inhaler Program was implemented in in Pima County, Arizona during 2017-2018. Schools were provided with a stock inhaler and materials to assist them with documenting each event.In this dissertation, a systematic review and meta-synthesis provided an in-depth understanding of medication administration tasks in United States’ schools, for both daily medications for chronic conditions and rescue medications for acute, emergency conditions. This review illuminated the numerous barriers school personnel experience when administering medications to students, namely, during health emergencies where a licensed school nurses is not physically present on campus. Next, data from the program was used to examine the relationship between stock inhaler usage and Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and between protocol compliance and administrator experience (nurse, nurse-supervised or UAP). Overall, 228 schools with an ADI value were examined. The low-moderate ADI quartile predicted whether a school ever used the stock inhaler and whether the school reported any use. Middle schools were 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) times more likely to use a stock inhaler than elementary schools. Private/parochial schools used the stock inhaler 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-0.9) times as frequently as public schools. We then examined the relationship between protocol compliance to a standardized protocol for medication administration and administrator experience. Stock inhaler events were dichotomized into compliant or non-compliant events using the total number of puffs reported by school personnel (=4 or 8 puffs or ≠4 or 8 puffs). A protocol compliance score was calculated using the total number of compliant events divided by the total number of events for each school. Nine-hundred ninety-nine stock inhaler events were examined for compliance to the protocol. Results indicated that 28% of events were compliant to the protocol and 72% were non-compliant to the protocol. After controlling for school organizational type (public schools or charter/private/parochial schools), grades served (elementary, middle, high and multi-grade), and school size (student enrollment), administrator experience was not predictive of protocol compliance. These findings suggest that succinct and consistent policies within and across US states aimed at increasing access to emergency medications in schools remain necessary. While Stock Inhaler Programs ensure equitable access to rescue medication, they further allow children to remain in their learning environment. However, the presence of a licensed nurse did not predict compliance to the standardized protocol for stock inhaler medication administration in Pima County schools.
    • Inspiratory Muscle Strength Training: Acute Effects, Dynamic Improvements and Clinical Significance

      Bailey, E. Fiona; DeLucia, Claire M.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Fregosi, Ralph F.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.; Seals, Douglas R. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) is a form of resistive breathing training traditionally used to strengthen respiratory muscles. In our hands, we have reported significant reductions in blood pressure following six weeks of daily IMST that are driven in part by reductions in systemic vascular resistance. The work set forth in this dissertation addresses outstanding questions resulting from our previous work. Study 1 characterizes the acute cardiovascular and sympathetic response(s) to a single bout of IMST in healthy young adults. We show that IMST acutely increases heart rate with concomitant reductions in sympathetic nervous system outflow. Study 2 assesses the potential for six weeks IMST to alter the cardiovascular response to respiratory muscle fatigue in college-aged adults. The results of this study suggest IMST improves respiratory muscle endurance and as a result, blunts the blood pressure and heart rate responses to respiratory muscle fatigue. Finally, Study 3 documents the effects of six weeks IMST on overnight blood pressure and mediators of systemic vascular resistance in older adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. In a population that exhibits elevated blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity, we show that IMST significantly lowers daytime blood pressure, nighttime systolic blood pressure and resting sympathetic nervous system activity. These studies are the first to characterize the acute cardiovascular effects of IMST and to explore the effects of IMST on mediators of systemic vascular resistance in both healthy and patient populations.
    • Artificial Protein Design to Mimic Protein Nano-Mechanics at the Macroscale for Cardiovascular Biomaterial Applications

      Kim, Minkyu; Knoff, David Storms; Uhlmann, Donald; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Laksari, Kaveh (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Natural materials can serve as great inspirational sources to develop next-generation biomaterials, attributed to their exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties. To mimic the superior properties of natural materials, the concepts of block copolymer and polymer networks are utilized to develop well-characterized functional proteins that can be engineered into artificial protein polymers. However, current artificial protein designs are limited in their ability to translate protein nano-mechanics to macroscale material properties because of topological defects, inefficient crosslinking density, and unspecific or unstable cross-linkers. In this project, we systematically investigated protein cross-linkers and strands to determine the optimal design components for producing biopolymer networks with ideal material properties. With the goal of mimicking the reversible deformability of red blood cells to develop functional biomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering and drug delivery applications; ankyrin, a red blood cell cytoskeleton protein, and streptavidin, a strong physical cross-linker, were designed into artificial protein building blocks for fabricating polymer networks with reduced topological defects and improved network homogeneity. These improvements progress efforts toward producing ideal polymer-network materials that translate single molecule protein nano-mechanics to macroscale functional biomaterials.