Now showing items 15900-15919 of 19641

    • S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine induced cellular injury in rabbit renal cortical slices

      Gandolfi, A. Jay; Brendel, Klaus; Wolfgang, Grushenka Hope Isabella. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The proximal tubule of the kidney is a target for a wide variety of chemical agents, both inorganic and organic. An in vitro model to investigate the site-specific toxicity of organic nephrotoxins was developed and validated using biochemical, functional, and histological parameters. The in vitro toxicity of cephaloridine, gentamicin, hexachloro-butadiene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) was investigated and the histopathological lesions induced in vitro were compared to those observed in vivo. All four organic nephrotoxins induced a proximal tubular lesion similar to that observed in vivo. DCVC was chosen for additional study. After determining the progression of cellular events resulting from DCVC exposure, the transport, metabolism and localization of DCVC was investigated. DCVC was found to be transported into the proximal tubule via an amino acid system rather than the postulated organic anion system. Aminooxyacetic acid (an inhibitor of β-lyase activity) partially inhibited the covalent binding and toxicity of DCVC indicating that metabolism of DCVC by β-lyase to a reactive thiol is partially responsible for the toxicity. A second enzyme system (L-amino acid oxidase) may play a role in the resulting nephrotoxicity. DCVC is localized to the proximal tubule and mitochondria appear to be the subcellular targets. The site-specific S₃ lesion produced by DCVC may be attributed to innate susceptibility of the S₃ region. The chemical form of a toxin may affect the transport and metabolism of that compound. The N-acetylated derivative of DCVC is an anion and was shown to be transported by the organic anion system. Probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transport, almost completely inhibited the toxicity of N-acetyl-DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC produced a lesion similar to that produced by DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC is not metabolized by β-lyase and thus must be deacetylated to DCVC prior to being metabolized and producing toxicity. The optical isomer of DCVC, D-DCVC, proved to be less toxic yet exhibited the same selectivity of injury as DCVC. This research demonstrates that an in vitro model which reflects the in vivo toxicity of a compound can be utilized to study the mechanisms (transpoart, metabolism and localization) of selective injury.
    • S-C Complications in Nineteenth-Century Sonata Movements

      Pomeroy, David Boyd; Jenkins, Kyle Joseph; Pomeroy, David Boyd; Rosenblatt, Jay; Traut, Donald (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Many have noted nineteenth-century composers' tendency to undermine crucial formal boundaries normally found in eighteenth-century sonata forms. This dissertation examines phenomena that undermine the demarcation between the expositional secondary theme and closing section. In this document I refer to such events as "S-C Complications." In their Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (2006), James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy argued that this point of articulation plays a much more crucial role than that of merely forming a boundary between S- and C-space. Rather, it serves as the goal for the entire expositional trajectory, a goal whose presence is felt from the very outset of the movement. The authors refer to this moment as "essential expositional closure," or EEC. In this dissertation I attempt to show what role EEC in Hepokoski and Darcy's sense plays in nineteenth-century movements featuring S-C Complications. I conclude that nineteenth-century composers were very likely aware of the EEC's genre-defining status since they consistently and systematically undermined it. Further, whereas in the late-eighteenth-century repertoire S-C complications were rarely employed, in the nineteenth century they became more normative, and thus non-deformational. In addition to discussing the phenomena's dialogic relationship with eighteenth-century norms, I also address their effect on tonal structure and formal syntax, concluding that S-C Complications frequently have the effect of expanding closure beyond the scope of one cadence. For practical reasons I have limited the scope of this study to non-concerto movements written primarily by Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms.
    • S-parameter VLSI transmission line analysis.

      Prince, John L.; Cooke, Bradly James.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Cangellaris, Andreas; McCullen, John D. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This dissertation investigates the implementation of S-parameter based network techniques for the analysis of multiconductor, high speed VLSI integrated circuit and packaging interconnects. The S-parameters can be derived from three categories of input parameters: (1) lossy quasi-static R,L,C and G, (2) lossy frequency dependent (dispersive) R,L,C,G and (3) the propagation constants, Γ, the characteristic impedance, Z(c) and the conductor eigencurrents, I, derived from full wave analysis. The S-parameter network techniques developed allow for: the analysis of periodic waveform excitation, the incorporation of externally measured or calculated scattering parameter data and large system analysis through macro decomposition. The inclusion of non-linear terminations has also been developed.
    • "Sadness is a Great Pain for the Body": The Emotional Trauma and Embodied Impacts of Migration from Mexico to Tucson, Arizona

      Sheridan, Thomas E.; Crocker, Rebecca; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Pike, Ivy; Gonzales, Patrisia; Shaw, Susan (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      A considerable body of evidence links social and economic inequities to poor health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This thesis is a historically contextualized study of how migration from Mexico to southern Arizona is experienced at the site of the body. In this dissertation, I outline the ethno-historical background of traditional medicinal usage and concepts of health and healing in northern Mexico, the primary sending region to southern Arizona. This historical grounding enables a richer exploration of how Mexicans understand migration to effect their physical and mental health. I then examine migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and report on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Finally, I use the illness narratives of my participants to move more deeply into the connections between these experiences of emotional suffering and physical health. Here I employ immigrants' own words to draw a link between group level epidemiological data on health declines in the immigrant community and established research in biological anthropology and neurobiology that identifies individual emotional hardship as a biological pathway to disease. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security has had on well-being, this thesis argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community.
    • THE SAINT'S PLAY IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

      Del Villar, Mary, 1917- (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • The Salado culture in southwestern prehistory

      Thompson, Raymond H.; Young, Jon Nathan, 1938-; Longacre, William A.; Culbert, T. Patrick (The University of Arizona., 1967)
    • Salespeople's Selling Orientation: Reconceptualization, Measurement and Validity Assessment

      Lusch, Robert F.; Wessels, Gunter Frederik; Ganesan, Shankar; Rhosh, Mrinal; Lusch, Robert F. (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      A study of Elite Salespeople (ES), those salespeople who maintain and sustain consistent high performance in the sales task was completed to discover and understand elite salesperson behavior. Analysis of participants' responses to structured depth interview questions led to the emergence of a construct called a Selling Orientation (SO). SO is made up of behaviors that guide salespeople to build, maintain, and monitor their personal credibility both with customers and industry members, as well as within the company. A number of field pre-tests were performed to derive a measurement scale for SO. This process was followed by a field survey that measured SO in a sales force. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the measurement scale and results support internal consistency and construct validity of a short 9 item scale for SO. This study advances the understanding of sales performance related theory by illuminating attributes of ES's. Additionally, this study introduces the concept of a Selling Orientation that is associated with high sales performance and key account management. Finally, the study introduces a measurement scale useful in the study of salespeople's selling orientation.
    • Salient role-identity, attitude, and self-presentation: Self-monitoring and situation as moderators.

      Snow, David A.; Choi, Eun-Jung.; Snow, David A.; Shockey, James; McAdam, Douglas; Greenberg, Jeff; Ittelson, William H. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The concept of self-presentation plays a critical role in much sociological and psychological theorizing about human behavior. Although a number of experimental studies of self-presentation have been conducted, until recently theorizing about self-presentation has not been translated into testable hypotheses. This paper attempts to fill this void with an empirical examination of self-presentation as it applies to religious verbal self-presentation related to salient religious role-identity and religious attitude. This research on self-presentation was guided by two major theories: structural symbolic interactionism and trait psychology. The data, obtained from a sample of undergraduates to a questionnaire, provide an examination of the relationship between salient role-identity, attitude, and self-presentation taking into account individual differences in self-monitoring and situation. Two causal models were estimated with weighted least square (WLS) method using the program LISREL 7. The most important findings are that salient role-identity is more strongly associated with self-presentation for high self-monitors than for low self-monitors in both formal and informal situations; attitude is more strongly associated with self-presentation for low self-monitors than for high self-monitors in both types of situations; and situation and self-monitoring interact, so that the stronger association between attitude and self-presentation occurs for low self-monitors in formal situations, and the stronger association between salient role-identity and self-presentation exists for high self-monitors in informal situations. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
    • Salinity Effects on Guayule Leaf Anatomy and Physiology

      Ray, Dennis T.; Biel, Karl Y.; Poscher, Elisabeth; Ray, Dennis T.; Biel, Karl Y.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Yensen, Nicholas P. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Salinity usually reduces plant growth in terms of height and biomass, but can increase secondary metabolite production. This frequently reported observation in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray, Asteraceae) was investigated for possible mechanisms.Osmotic and specific ion effects of four chloride salts (CaCl2, MgCl2, KCl, and NaCl) on leaf anatomical and plant physiological parameters were studied. One-year-old plants of guayule line AZ 2 were grown under two salt concentrations (750 ppm and 1500 ppm) for each salt type (plus a control) in sand culture (semi-hydroponic) for eight weeks under controlled greenhouse conditions in Tucson, Arizona.Growth in height decreased with increasing salt concentration. Shoot dry weight, rubber, and resin contents, however, showed no significant differences between treatments, indicating no effect from either salt concentration or salt type. There was a trend for increasing rubber content with increasing salt concentration, although not statistically significant. At the same time, net CO2 gas exchange rates decreased significantly with increasing salinity.With increasing salt concentration, guayule showed osmotic effects in terms of height, indicating a lower hydraulic conductivity. Although plants of higher salt concentrations utilized significantly less water, they had the same shoot dry weights, rubber, and resin contents. Salt-stressed plants therefore achieved higher water use efficiencies. The diurnal net CO2 gas exchange rates were significantly reduced with increasing salinity; the nocturnal net CO2 gas exchange rates showed no significant difference between the treatments.Anatomically, it was found that the stomata were raised or elevated above the epidermis, and supported by upwardly curving cells. When guayule was grown under salt treatments, the trichomes were found to include deposits of material. Trichomes might act as a detoxification repository for excess ions. Although the physiological significance of raised stomata is unknown, it is hypothesized that the unique combination of raised stomata, indumentum, and multiple layers of palisade parenchyma allows for an overall high photosynthetic capacity and performance. During stress conditions such as salinity or drought, guayule might activate an internal CO2 concentrating mechanism, i.e., bicarbonate/CO2 pump, internal CO2 recycling, or PEP carboxylation activity.
    • Salinity-fertility interaction with macro and micronutrients in maize (Zea mays) plants.

      Stroehlein, Jack L.; Helmy, Magdi Mourad Mohammed.; Tucker, T. C.; Bohn, H. L.; Briggs, R. E.; Bartels, P. G. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      In two greenhouse experiments, the response of maize plants (Zea mays L.) to macro and micronutrient fertilizers was studied. The first experiment was conducted in Cairo, Egypt in which maize plants were grown on saline soils with ECₑ values of 1.42, 6.12 and 12.1 dSm⁻¹ and fertilized with N, P, K alone and in combination. It was found that maize plants produced the highest dry matter when NP fertilizers were added in the Ca-form compared to the other fertilizer treatments, and this positive response decreased with increasing salinity level. Also, it was found that application of P and K fertilizers either alone or together as PK augmented the adverse effect of salinity on dry matter and nutrients uptake. In addition, the concentration and uptake of Na⁺ ions in the shoot tissues decreased with increasing salinity level up to ECₑ 12 dSm⁻¹. This could be due to Na+ exclusion or accumulation in root tissues. However, application of N and P fertilizers tended to decrease plant content of micronutrients, particularly Fe as well as Zn at high salt levels. The second experiment was conducted in a University of Arizona campus greenhouse. A Pima soil from the Marana area was artificially salinized with NaCl, Na₂SO₄, CaCl₂, and Mg₂SO₄ salts almost to the salinity levels mentioned above. Maize plants were grown and fertilized with NP fertilizer as a basic dressing. Chelated forms of Zn, Fe, and Mn were added with two different methods; soil and foliar spray application. Two pH values of spray nutrient solutions were used; pH 6 and pH 8. Data obtained showed increased dry matter and nutrient uptake in response to spraying maize plants with Zn + Fe or Zn+ Fe + Mn at pH value of 8 at the medium salt level relative to the other treatments. However, maize plants also showed high dry matter and nutrient uptake in response to Zn + Fe + Mn soil application at the high salt level, although Zn-pH 8 gave unexpectedly high dry matter production. It seems probable that this high dry matter obtained could be due to the effect of high pH spray treatment on increasing the activity of some enzymes, e.g. PEP-carboxylase and/or ribulose 1,5 diphosphate carboxylase, as well as the increase in rate of translocating the photosynthates and this effect was augmented by the nutrient(s) applied. Also, it was found that Na uptake decreased while total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content increased with increasing salinity level. The increase in the chlorophyll content could be due to either Na exclusion by the plants and/or the decrease plant growth due high salts.
    • Salmonella in an Oyster Production and Small Feedlot Environment, Use of Novel Proteins Expressed by an Attenuated Salmonella Vector for the Reduction of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens

      Joens, Lynn A.; Armstrong, Alexandra Edwards; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Lightner, Donald; Law, Bibiana; Joens, Lynn A. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      The CDC estimates that 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths annually are attributable to foodborne illnesses, making their impact significant in terms of both human health and economic losses (3). Estimates vary, but it is frequently stated that Campylobacter species affect 2.4 million people annually (28). Among bacterial foodborne pathogens it is second in the US only to Salmonella, which in recent years has consistently been the most frequently reported, most likely to cause hospitalization, and deadliest foodborne bacterial illness in the US (3, 106).In order to reduce the burden of illness caused by these pathogens and improve the safety of our food supply, continued investigation of the epidemiology, transmission and interactions of these organisms with their environments is necessary. Additionally, prevention of colonization within natural reservoirs of these bacteria which contribute to contamination of foods is an important step in the reduction of the burden of foodborne illness. This work examines the relationship of Salmonella to oysters and the aquatic environment in which they are raised, the interactions of Salmonella in a small feedlot environment, and the reduction of colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni through vaccination with recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors into which novel Campylobacter genes had been cloned. It was found that while Salmonella is still sporadically present on the West Coast of the US, an area where oysters were previously found to be positive for the organism, the strain which predominated in the last study of that area is reduced in prevalence. Additionally, it was found that that strain does not possess special fitness in oysters or the aquatic environments in which they are raised, though Salmonella survives in oysters and water samples longer than a representative coliform. Salmonella is also present in the small feedlot environment sampled, and animal stress appears to play a role in the shedding of the organism in that environment, leading to the potential contamination of beef carcasses during processing. Reduction of colonization by C. jejuni in broilers was achieved in the case of both vaccines, with a maximum reduction of four logs as compared to controls.
    • SALT AND SODIUM AFFECTED SOILS IN RELATION TO NITROGEN UTILIZATION BY WHEAT

      Hummadi, Khalid Bader, 1950- (The University of Arizona., 1977)
    • Salt and water movement in soils following heavy applications of feedlot waste

      Amoozegar-Fard, Azizolah.; Fuller, Wallace H.; Warrick, Arthur W.; Matlock, W. G.; Lomen, D. O.; Greenlee, W. M. (The University of Arizona., 1977)
      The movement of salts in soils following application of feedlot wastes was studied experimentally and theoretically. The objectives of the study were (1) to evaluate the movement of salts in the soil following heavy application of animal wastes as related to the aggregate sizes of manure and water management practices and (2) to develop a mathematical model to predict the movement of salts within the soil and manure mixture. In the experimental study, air dried manure was formed into three distinct sizes, small (to pass 40 mesh sieve), medium (0.9 am in diameter, 1.2 cm in length), and large (1.8 cm in diameter, 1.8 cm in length). Soil columns of 15 cm inside diameter were packed with 30 cm of a soil-manure mixture over a 10 cm depth of soil. The manure application rate was equivalent to 100 metric tons/ha calculated on the basis of the cross-sectional area of the column. A total of five pore volumes of water was passed through the soil under continuous and intermittent water applications. The leachates were collected in 1/2 pore volume increments and the volume, EC, and pH determined immediately. Within 48 hours of the sampling, the leachates were analyzed for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and five trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni). The EC of the leachate for the first 1/2 pore volume was significantly (1% level) highest for the small-sized aggregates and the lowest for the large aggregate treatments under both moisture regimes. During the second increment, the order was reversed. In the later water applications, the EC for small aggregates was higher than the other sizes. There were no significant differences between the EC of the leachate from medium and large aggregate treatments during the later periods under either water treatments. Under both moisture regimes, the amount of Na removed from small aggregates decreased more rapidly than the other sizes. More than 90% of the total Na added to the system by manure was removed from the small aggregate treatment. In contrast, the highest amount of K removed (895 mg from small-sized aggregates under continuous leaching' represents about 35% of the total amount present In the manure applied. More Ca was removed from the small-sized aggregate treatments under both moisture regimes than was added by manure application. As for Mg the pattern of the removal was similar to that of Ca. No Cl was detected in the leachate after the fifth 1/2 pore volume was displaced. A mathematical model was developed to predict the movement of readily soluble ions such as Na, K, and Cl from different aggregate sizes of manure. The theoretical curves were compared with earlier experimental data and the parameters appearing in the mathematical equation were estimated. The results for Cl, Na, and K are presented graphically, and the estimated parameters as well as the values of the square roots of the sum of the squares between the theoretical and experimental values as percentage of the sum of the experimental values (SSR) are reported. From the low value of SSR's, it is evident that the model can predict the movement of the readily soluble ions from different aggregate sizes of manure quite accurately. A discussion on the suitability of the model for different sizes of manure aggregates and also a comparison between two different procedures to fit the model to the experimental data are given. In addition, a three phase theoretical model was developed to describe the movement of readily soluble ions from a soil-manure-water system. Experimental data were used in testing the model. The results for Na, K, and Cl are presented graphically. Estimated parameters for the experimental system and the values of SSR are presented. This model also can predict the movement of readily soluble ions from a soil-manure-water system.
    • The Salt River Project of Arizona: its organization and integration with the community.

      Smith, Courtland L.; Padfield, Harland (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      The Salt River Project is a large Southwestern water and power project created under the National Irrigation Act of 1902, This is a study of the adaptation of the Salt River Project to rapid urbanization. The population within the Salt River Reservoir District, which includes most of Phoenix, Arizona and eight other municipalities, has increased from 175,000 in 1940 to over 800,000 in 1967. This report discusses the laws and conventions embodied in the reclamation principle, which provides for the allocation of power revenues to reduce the cost of water to landowners. The magnithde of this transfer has been increasing with increased numbers of electric customers, increased electric customer usage and improved operating efficiency of the power system. For the water system the revenues from the power system have been adequate to make up for the increased cost of producing surface and ground water so that the water charges to water users have not followed the postwar price spiral, but have decreased. The changes which have occurred in the transfer of water from farm to urban uses are enumerated. This transfer has meant less use of Project water per acre and a lesser percentage of total potential water users using irrigation water in the urban situation, However, farm water use per acre has been increasing arid the net effect has been no change in the total Project water requirement. The Project has tended to accept the requirements of water users while adjusting its technical, economic, legal and social ability in order to continue the distribution of an adequate supply of low cost water, With the impact of increased numbers of urban residents since World War II, the Project has developed programs to educate and inform the urban public about its activities and objectives. The Project is faced with the decision as to what role the urban public is to take in the decision making process. A linked set of hypotheses has been developed to explain the Projects adaptation to urbanization. These hypotheses relate the variables distribution, need and position; advantage and technical, economic, legal and social ability; the change in position with increased numbers of participants in a social organization and homogeneity, personalization, disorganization, secularization and individualization. These hypotheses have been derived from Lenskits Power and Privilege, Weberts The Theory of Social and Economic Organization and "Class, Status and Party" in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Wirth's "Urbanism as a Way of Life" and Redfield's The Folk Culture of Yucatan. From this linked set of hypotheses the effect of different degrees of disorganization, secularization and inclividualization can be assessed in relation to the change in the distribution of water with respect to position and the change in position in a social orgaiization with increased numbers of participants. The methods for the study derive from the suggestions of Redfield in The Little Community and the systems concept. A social system is delineated by components which are statuses, aggregates or groups, and their relation to one another. The effects of elements external to the system being analyzed must be recognized and the functioning to the system indicated. The data to describe a social system are: the technological, demographic and ecological situation; the relation between and within organizations; the relations of organizations to individuals, and individuals to organizations; the ideology; and changes which have occurred through time. These methods and hypotheses do not reveal all which is known about the Salt River Project. However, they are designed to reveal the nature of the Project's adaptation to a rapidly urbanizing cornmunity.
    • Salt Tolerance and Current Status of the Date Palms in the United Arab Emirates

      Glenn, Edward P.; Alhammadi, Mohamed Salman; Glenn, Edward P.; Riley, James J.; Hendricks, David; Walworth, James L. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This study aimed to address the current status of the United Arab Emirates date palms. The first chapter focused on the development of the date palm sector in the UAE. A huge increase in the date palm number was achieved in the past few decades. In the same time, there are critical issues facing this development, such as water demand, salinity, and Red Palm Weevil. The second chapter is a greenhouse experiment to test the growth of twelve date palm seeds at four NaCl levels, control, 3000, 6000, and 12000 ppm. Optimal growth found at control and 3000 ppm of NaCl. Relative growth rate (RGR), biomass, and NL decreased significantly by increasing salinity; however, no significant differences were observed in the average SGR for any cultivars. Increased NaCl leads to significant decreases in K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ contents of plants. Na:K ratios were lower in shoots than in roots. Lulu, Fard, Khnaizi, Nabtat Safi, and Razez cultivars showed higher RGR and biomasses whereas Khnaizi, Mesally, and Safri had higher Na:K ratios than other cultivars in the control indicating higher Na+ discriminations from plant parts. The third chapter studied the vegetation change in the eastern region of the UAE. Due to shortage of fresh water resources, the vegetation of the eastern region of the UAE has experienced a series of declines resulting from salinization of groundwater. To assess these changes, field measurements combined with Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) based Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were analyzed. Images from two dates, 1987 and 2000 were acquired to enable the computation of the greenness anomalies for three sites in the eastern region, Fujairah, Kalba, and Hatta. The results show an overall increase in the agricultural area, associated with a severe decrease in vegetation greenness and health conditions, particularly in the Kalba study area. The SAVI values decreased with increased soil salinity, permitting the identification of salt-affected areas. Potential areas of further research range from studying the effects of tree spacing and understory crops as immediate and potential solutions to maintain productivity and mitigate the salinity problem.
    • SALT TOLERANCE IN GRAIN SORGHUM

      Ratanadilok, Ngamchuen Kaowichian (The University of Arizona., 1978)
    • Salt tolerance of tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) and navy (P. vulgaris L.) beans at several developmental stages.

      Coons, Janice M.; Goertz, Steven Harvey.; Dobrenz, Albert K.; Hofmann, Wallace C.; O'Leary, James W.; Oebker, Norman F. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      Two accessions of tepary (phaseolus acutifolius Gray var. latifolius) and navy (P. vulgaris L. 'Fleetwood') beans were studied for salt tolerance at several• developmental stages. Genotypes were germinated at 0.0 through -2.5 MPa NaCl at 25°C and 35°C for nine days. Tepary accessions had higher germination percentages and rates than navy for ≤ - 2.0 MPa at 250C and ≤ - 1.5 MPa at 35°C. Fresh weights of root plus hypocotyl decreased severely with the first increment of NaCl (-0.5 MPa) for all genotypes. Fresh weight of navy was reduced more at 35°C than at 25°C. Genotypes were stressed in vermiculite-filled trays with 0.0 through -1.5 MPa NaCl for 14 days. Final growth stage and rates of emergence were reduced at salinities ~ -0.6 MPa NaCl, and were higher in tepary than navy at -1.2 MPa. Tepary beans tended to maintain higher water and osmotic potentials, and at -0.9 MPa had less reduction in leaf area than navy beans. Fresh weights, dry weights and root:shoot ratios declined in all genotypes with increasing salinities. Plants grown hydroponically were stressed with -0.10, -0.25, and -0.50 MPa NaCl during either vegetative or reproductive stages. Navy had equal or greater fresh and dry weights of leaf, stem, and pods at -0.10 MPa, but tepary beans had equal or greater weights at the highest salinity relative to navy. Tepary had the greatest pod weight with -0.50 MPa NaCl applied during the reproductive stage. Carbon exchange rates (CER) were lower in navy than one or both tepary beans at some sampling times. Tepary beans tended to have higher leaf water and osmotic potentials than did navy. Transpiration and stomatal resistance values were similar in all genotypes, while leaf temperatures were different in white tepary versus navy. Tepary beans yielded higher than navy when grown in low and high salinity fields. Transpiration rates, leaf water and osmotic potentials, and CERs were similar or higher, while stomatal resistance and leaf temperatures were similar or lower in tepary than in navy. Plant height and stand count also were measured. Tepary was more salt tolerant than navy, exhibiting greater tolerance to NaCl at every growth stage.
    • Salts in the Air and Water Understanding their Formation Mechanism, Reactions and their Advantages and Disadvantages

      Farrell, James; Sorooshian, Armin; Azadiaghdam, Mojtaba; Hickenbottom, Kerri; Achilli, Andrea (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This study utilizes multiple aerosol datasets collected in Metro Manila, Philippines to investigate sea salt aerosol characteristics. This coastal megacity allows for an examination of the impacts of precipitation and mixing of different air masses on sea salt properties, including overall concentration and size-resolved composition, hygroscopicity, and morphology. Intensive size-resolved measurements with a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) between July-December 2018 revealed the following major results: (i) sea salt levels exhibit wide variability during the wet season, driven primarily by precipitation; (ii) ssNa+ and Cl- peaked in concentration between 1.8 – 5.6 µm, with Cl- depletion varying between 21.3 - 90.7%; (iii) mixing of marine and anthropogenic air masses yielded complex non-spherical shapes with species attached to the outer edges and Na+ uniformly distributed across particles unlike Cl-; (iv) there was significant contamination of sea salt aerosol by a variety of crustal and anthropogenic pollutants (Fe, Al, Ba, Mn, Pb, NO_3^-, V, Zn, NH_4^+); (v) categorization of samples in five different pollutant type categories (Background, Clean, Fire, Continental Pollution and Highest Rain) revealed significant differences in overall Cl- depletion with enhanced depletion in the submicrometer range versus the supermicrometer range; (vi) κ values ranged from 0.02 to 0.31 with a bimodal profile across all stages, with the highest value coincident with the highest sea salt volume fraction in the 3.2-5.6 µm stage, which is far lower than pure sea salt due to the significant influence of organics and black carbon. Analysis of longer term PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) and PMcoarse (= PM10 – PM2.5) data between August 2005 and October 2007 confirmed findings from the MOUDI data that more Cl- depletion occurred both in the wet season versus the dry season and on weekdays versus weekend days. The effectiveness of three different pretreatment processes (Fluidized bed crystallization reactor, Ultrafiltration and ferric chloride coagulation and flocculation) in order to remove scale-forming and fouling substances from the wastewater secondary effluent were studied. At optimized conditions, fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR) was able to remove >99.9% of magnesium, 97% of calcium and 42% of silica while ultrafiltration (UF) and ferric chloride coagulation were only able to remove 18% and 16% of the silica concentration, respectively. UF was also able to reduce the turbidity of the SE by 93%. Furthermore, the co-precipitation of different mineral salts with organic matter were also discussed using size exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD). At optimized conditions, ferric chloride resulted in the highest natural organic matter (NOM) reduction (56%) compared to FBCR (26%) and UF (13%). Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis were used to characterize the NOM in the SE and the effluent of these pretreatments. Five different components (three humic substance, one fulvic acid and one protein-like) were detected. FBCR (7-100%) and ferric chloride (26-65%) were able to remove from all 5 types of NOM while UF was only able to reduce the concentration of the protein-like NOM (11%).
    • SAMPLE INTRODUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY

      Fry, Robert Carl, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1977)