Now showing items 17808-17827 of 19641


      Rydgren, A. E. (Alfred Eric), 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1975)
    • T-cell Receptor Vβ8.1 Peptide Reduces Coxsackievirus-induced Cardiopathology During Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Aging.

      Sepulveda, Ramon Tomas; Marchalonis, John J.; Payne, Claire; Ahmad, Nafees; Bernstein, Harris; Watson, Ronald R. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Infection of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as LPBM5 infection in mice results in progressive deterioration of the immune system in the majority of untreated hosts. Peptide immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in the stimulation or immunoregulation of T-helper 1 (TH1) and T-helper 2 (TH2) response subsets. In murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), TH1 deficiency enables the host to be susceptible to coxsackievirus infection, inducing cardiopathology in a short period. T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ8.1 peptide, a 16-mer peptide containing the entire CFR1 segment and part of the FR2 region of human Vβ8, showed both an immunoregulating and immunostimulating effect in murine AIDS. TCR Vβ8.1 peptide acts on T cells promoting interleukin-2 production and therefore enhancing a cellmediated immune response. It retarded development of cardiopathology due to coxsackievirus infection. Retrovirus infected mice treated with the peptide showed a longer life span than the nontreated retrovirus infected animals.
    • T. S. Eliot's civilized savage: Religious eroticism and poetics

      Schneidau, Herbert; MacDiarmid, Laurie J., 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Current studies of T. S. Eliot explore his social poetic, his religion, his sexuality, and his place in the history of modernism and contemporary poetics. "T. S. Eliot's Civilized Savage" links these interests, beginning with Eliot's controversial masculinity. Eliot constructs an impotent poet who engages in celibate heterosexual relationships; he uses comparative religious studies (such as Frazer's Golden Bough and Harrison's Themis) to transform these relationships into a social imperative. "The Death of Saint Narcissus," "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "Hysteria" compare Eliot's poet to Frazer's self-sacrificing god, pitting him against a voracious mother goddess who demands the poet's self-sacrifice. Eliot's lady poses as an alibi for his own hysteria and as a spiritual catalyst; the poet is reborn in the Father. By Ash Wednesday, Eliot rewrites heterosexuality using Christian iconography. "Tradition and the Individual Talent" exposes Eliot's ambivalent relationship to masculinity and maternity: though Eliot describes a purely scientific poetic reproduction, the essay bears traces of his maternal fascinations, though these images are sterilized by the rhetoric of Immaculate Conception. By 1927, Eliot converts to the Church of England, abandons Vivienne, rekindles a chaste romance with Emily Hale, develops his poetry of confession, and refashions the Lady. Now she acts as the perfect vessel for God's Word, and her "torn and most whole" body eliminates the threat of sexual intercourse. Subsumed in her, Eliot's poet becomes God's womb. Eliot's contemporary fall from grace seems to stem from repeated exposures of his erotic and religious masquerades. Christopher Ricks's publication of Eliot's notebooks foregrounds Eliot's racist, sexist and classicist ideology and Michael Hastings's Tom and Viv suggests that Eliot blamed his hysteria on Vivienne while profiting from the marriage. Eliot's mysticism appears to be an impotent attempt to escape domestic horrors, but a re-examination of this diagnosis may reveal our own construction of sexuality, poetics, politics and spirituality. As we recoil from Eliot's corrosive "conservatism" perhaps we safeguard our own.

      McRae, Lorin Pose, 1936- (The University of Arizona., 1968)

      Gray, Frederic Charles, 1918- (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • Tai Chi for Driving Health: Cognitive and Physical Function Related to Safe Driving Performance among Older Tai Chi Practitioners

      Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Miller, Sally May; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Insel, Kathleen C.; Reed, Pamela G. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      By the year 2030 it is estimated that one in five licensed drivers in the United States will be over the age of 65. Driving allows engagement in the community for shopping, banking, maintaining social connections, and accessing health care. However, age-related decline can impact many of the cognitive processes and physical abilities necessary for safe driving performance. Exercise has beneficial effects on specific cognitive processes and physical function, many of which are related to safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise is known to benefit cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance. The aims of this observational study were to: 1) examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance, 2) compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance to normative reference values, and 3) explore potential predictors of safe driving performance. Fifty-eight current Tai Chi practitioners (mean age = 72.9), with a median of greater than three years of Tai Chi practice were recruited from community Tai Chi classes and Tai Chi events. Participants completed a study packet describing self-reported Tai Chi and non-Tai Chi exercise habits, driving habits, self-report measures of dispositional mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) and overall well-being (Vitality Plus Scale, VPS), personal history, and health history. Investigator-administered study measures included the DrivingHealth InventoryTM, digit span tests, the Driving Scenes Test, and the Right Foot Tapping test. Statistically significant correlations were found between several study measures. Compared to normative reference values participants performed better on several cognitive and physical measures, and on the MAAS and the VPS measures. Small to large effect sizes were calculated. The strongest predictor of safe driving performance was the digit span backward. Tai Chi exercise has the potential to positively impact cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance through aerobic exercise mechanisms, development of mindfulness, and beneficial influence on overall vitality. The results of this study support the need for further investigation of Tai Chi exercise as a strategy to maintain safe driving performance in older adults.
    • Tailings Storage Facility (TSF) Stability and Water Management

      Kim, Kwangmin; Jeong, Yongsik; Kemeny, John M.; Tenorio, Victor Octavio; Son, Young-Jun (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are among the largest geotechnical structures in the world and operate for adequate and safe storage of tailings during and after mining activities. Ensuring the stability of these enormous structures has been a long-standing environmental liability for mining-related communities; the failures of TSFs can not only undermines the sustainable development of a mine, but also can cause irreparable hazards and damage to those communities and environments. This document presents research regarding three main topics related to TSFs water management. The first topic is development of site-specific guidelines for safe TSF water management. In this regard, the study focuses on determining the optimal beach distance from the decant pond to the crest, which can be a practical and easy monitoring criterion for securing TSF stability. 2D stress-seepage coupled analyses were conducted to evaluate geotechnical stability; additionally, water increments that increase due to unexpected weather conditions (heavy rainfall and strong wind) were considered for the optimal beach distance. The results of this research can be useful in developing a TSF risk level guideline of the testing site. The second topic is investigation of the potential of an environmentally-friendly polymer as a new drag reduction agent (DRA) to reduce frictional pressure loss and also to conserve water. Lab-scale pipe loop tests examined the effect of the polymer on the pressure loss of the tailings slurry in pipe flows. The experiment results confirmed the potential for using the polymer as a new DRA. Findings showed that pressure loss decreased with increasing polymer percentages up to 4%, but increased above concentrations of 4%. 3D numerical models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were developed and validated based on the pipe loop test results. The model provided the potential amount of water and transportation energy saving with minimal changes of pressure loss, induced by solid concentration increases. The final topic deals with usage of the new DRA. When the DRA is employed and solids concentration is increased, the study explored the relevant operating issues, such as settling of tailings particles in pipelines, and accelerating pipeline wear using 3D CFD numerical simulations. The polymer used in the second study reported here was expected to improve the efficiency of tailings slurry flows in pipelines. The results confirmed that by employing the new DRA, the minimal changes of pressure loss levels could be achieved even though there were increases in solids concentration. The polymer also increased the flow velocity, making it possible to transport tailings faster than the critical velocity at which the particle settlement begins. Also, the addition of the polymer resulted in an increase of the erosion rate, due to increased flow velocity, but the total amount of erosion was reduced at certain solids concentrations.
    • Tailoring k-Space Functionalities by Design in Phononic Crystals

      Deymier, Pierre A; Bucay, Jaim; Deymier, Pierre A; Raghavan, Srini; Erdmann, Robert G (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      K-space functionalities in 2-D phononic crystals (PCs) were studied through the use of the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) as well as the plane wave expansion method (PWE) to solve for the propagation behavior of acoustic waves in these periodic structures. Each of these methods are fully explained in sections 2 and 3 in Appendix A. Characteristics of the various structures were found which aid in the design of the PC to obtain very specific and controlled propagation behavior.Various refractive behaviors were studied which included positive, negative, or zero-angle refraction depending on the angle of the incident wave. For all three cases of refraction, the transmitted beam underwent splitting upon exiting the crystal. These properties are analyzed theoretically as well as demonstrated experimentally. Band structures and equifrequency surfaces (EFSs) show that the observed properties result from the unique geometry of the PC's EFSs as compared to that of the incident media. These properties were extended to the applications of multiplexing and demultiplexing in which the separation of information carried by acoustic waves was attributed entirely to their differences in wave vector. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a k-space multiplexing/demultiplexing device.Subwavelength resolution imaging capabilities of a flat lens composed of a phononic crystal (PC) were also studied. It was found that the image resolution of the PC flat lens beats the Rayleigh diffraction limit because bound modes in the lens can be excited by evanescent waves emitted by the source. These are modes that propagate only in the direction parallel to the lens surface. These modes resonantly amplify evanescent waves that contribute to the reconstruction of an image. The effect on the image resolution and focal point on various structural and operational parameters were studied. These parameters included source frequency, geometry of the lens, source position, and time. The mechanisms by which these factors affect resolution are discussed in terms of the competition between the contribution of propagative modes to focusing and the ability of the source to excite bound modes of the PC lens.
    • Takeovers and horizontal mergers: Policy and performance.

      Smith, Vernon L.; Wellford, Charissa Pepin.; Cox, James C.; Isaac, R. Mark; Oaxaca, Ronald L. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      The dissertation examines takeovers and horizontal mergers, considering whether or not current policy seems appropriate. Focus lies on both predicted and actual market performance effects. Horizontal mergers are investigated in a product market context and takeovers in an asset market environment. Horizontal mergers. The horizontal merger research is concerned with the relationship of industry concentration and anticompetitive market outcomes. Historically, economists treat concentration and competitive performance as inversely related, and the Department of Justice Merger Guidelines (DOJMG) continue to do so in the screening of mergers to be challenged. Laboratory analysis allows for direct control of variables such as market definition, scale economies, barriers to entry and concentration, thus permitting tests of the potential tradeoff of anticompetitive outcomes and production efficiency due to merger. The experimental design takes both the DOJMG and economic theory into account. When the merged firm enjoys economies of scale, the merger is observed to have a significant impact on industry performance, namely in the competitive direction. The data suggest that if the antitrust authorities rely on the Herfindahl-Hirshman Index (HHI) as measured by sales as opposed to capacity they inappropriately increase the number of cases to be challenged. It remains to be seen whether or not a more useful predictor of the anticompetitive effects of mergers exists. The data indicate that the HHI based on capacity accompanied by an alteration of the policy demarcation line would improve measurement of the effect. Takeovers. The takeover study focuses on two buyout policies, the tender offer and market takeover. The latter policy represents a prohibition of tender offers, but with acquisition attempts permitted via the asset market. Investment and operating skills of management are controlled for by holding profitability of the target firm constant. Laboratory analysis incorporates treatments of certain versus uncertain dividend values. Results suggest that shareholder value added (SVA) is greater when an acquisition is attempted than in its absence, regardless of takeover method or its success. SVA associated with the tender offer and market treatments do not vary significantly under both the uncertain and certain dividend value treatments.
    • Taking care of baby: Chilean state-making, international relationsand the gendered body politic, 1912-1970

      Gosner, Kevin; Black, Victoria Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Starting in the early 1900s, Chileans began to address skyrocketing levels of infant mortality. Committed to establishing state welfare policies, health scientists led campaigns to improve infant health. They concentrated on reforming working class maternity. This began a historical connection among health science, public welfare and indigent mothers in Chile. Looking to expand their international role in medical philanthropy in the 1930s, the Rockefeller Foundation invested heavily in Chilean medicine. Following suggestions by leftist physicians, North American philanthropists expanded maternal and child health care. From the 1930s through the 1940s, Chilean and U.S. health professionals further collaborated to reform medical education, build schools of medicine, establish public clinics, open research centers and provide public health education. Cooperation between Chilean leftists and representatives of the Rockefeller Foundation finally succeeded in socializing medicine in 1952. The National Health Service constituted a significant part of Chile's growing welfare system. Supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and Chilean government, state medicine continued to focus on working class women and infants. Leaders from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division attempted to limit their role in Chilean medicine as early as 1940. After helping Chileans to expand public health, Foundation leaders planned to withdraw from Chile. Prominent nationals, particularly leftist health scientists connected with socialized medicine, strongly protested this departure. Mutual interest between Chilean and North American health scientists in family planning persuaded the Rockefeller Foundation to remain. North Americans connected to the Rockefeller Foundation and wealthy Chileans feared social problems caused by burgeoning population. Leftists in the Chilean government worried that public funds could not match popular demand for state services. Population control advocates from the U.S., in turn, feared that growing populations in developing countries would consume world resources. Working with like-minded nationals, North American philanthropists, academics, diplomats and politicians instituted family planning in Chile. Population programs based on the mass distribution and study of previously untested intrauterine devices mushroomed. Pressure from the newly elected Communist president, Salvador Allende, as well as high-ranking U.S. politicians finally ended Chilean population control programs in the early 1970s.
    • Taking Goffman on a Tour of Facebook: College Students and the Presentation of Self in a Mediated Digital Environment

      Lee, Jenny; Birnbaum, Matthew Gardner; Lee, Jenny; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This study explores how college students present themselves on Facebook, a social networking website, and the impressions they want their fellow students to form of them when looking at their profiles. Goffman's dramaturgical and impression management framework served as a theoretical lens through which Facebook profiles were explored. Employing an ethnographic research design, data for this study were collected during eight-months of participant observation, 30 photo-elicitation interviews, and a photographic content analysis.Facebook has been rapidly adopted by undergraduate students who use it to maintain existing relationships and also as a medium in which to present themselves, especially through photographs. This study provides college administrators and student affairs professional some information about how undergraduates use Facebook and how Facebook can assist them in better understanding their institution's own student culture.Because photographs are instrumental to Facebook use, this study focused on the many images students place on their profiles. The use of photographs in social research is limited and it is hoped that this study will lay the ground work for further use of visual methods. This study found that college students believe that other college students are the primary audience for their profiles. Also, college students use six general "fronts" that lead audience members to see them as: (1) partier, (2) social, (3) adventurous/risk-taker, (4) humorous/funny/silly, (5) part of larger community, and (6) unique. Taken together, these fronts represent an "idealized" undergraduate. Students use props, settings, and gesture to provide their audience members visual cues to help them form the desired impressions. Much of the material that students place on Facebook is meant to be humorous or only understood by a small group of friends. Also, students only show a "narrow strip of activity" in their profiles.
    • Taking it to Court: Litigating Women in the City of Valencia, 1550-1600

      Nader, Helen; Karant-Nunn, Susan C; Gonzales, Cynthia Ann; Nader, Helen; Karant-Nunn, Susan C; Futrell, Alison (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This dissertation explores the history of women and litigation in the Spanish-Mediterranean city of Valencia between 1550 and 1600 through the examination of 114 civil suits filed in the appellate court of the Real Audiencia (Royal Supreme Court of the kingdom of Valencia). During this time, one-third of all legal cases reviewed by the Royal Supreme Court involved a female litigant as either the primary supplicant or defendant, and in some cases, women were both. Widows, wives, and daughters of Valencian artisans and merchants, farmers, and the elite initiated litigation over various socio-economic issues including disputed inheritances, dowries, yearly incomes, and urban and agricultural property. As good Valencian citizens, female litigants utilized the judicial system, particularly civil law courts, in order to negotiate their financial welfare during a time of economic prosperity in the city. In so doing, they demonstrated an understanding of local legal customs as well as their socio-economic rights, which they confidently defended. Historians have characterized early modern Spain as a litigious society, but there are few studies of Spanish litigation that focus primarily on the legal pursuits of women in civil court. Instead, scholarship has addressed Spanish women's involvement in criminal trials, an emphasis which tends to portray women as marginal to Spanish society. Civil litigation, however, presents women as individuals actively making daily decisions that impacted others from throughout their community. Moreover, the subject of women and litigation in Valencia reveals the degree to which local courts and the urban community, including men, supported women's legal and economic interests during the sixteenth century. Such local support further illustrates that women were central as opposed to marginal in early modern Spanish society.
    • Taking sexually oriented appeals seriously: Can they really be persuasive in social marketing situations?

      Jackson, Sally A.; Heckler, Susan E.; Reichert, William Thomas, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Message-effects research has explored in some depth the effects of emotion-evoking persuasive message elements such as fear and humor. Interestingly, persuasion research has for the most part neglected the impact of sexually-oriented appeals in persuasive contexts. To address this inadequacy, this study was designed to realize two overarching goals: (1) To contribute to what little is known about the effects of sexually-oriented appeals within persuasive contexts, and (2) to determine if this type of appeal can be effective beyond the consumer product domain to more socially-relevant contexts (e.g., disease prevention, parental responsibility, art museum visitation). For the purposes of this study, sexually-oriented appeals are defined as any appeal which is perceived by the audience as sexual and subsequently evokes a sexual response. In addition, appeals of this nature are also perceived by the audience as credible, appealing, and relevant. Regarding method, this study utilized a replicated message treatment design. Thirteen pairs of matched messages were used to test the effects on the dependent variables. Important advantages gained by utilizing this method and the appropriate statistical analyses included: increased generalizability and internal validity, and the ability to inspect treatment effect magnitude and variability. Overall, the findings of this study contribute to the above-mentioned goals. First, sexually-oriented appeals were found to be more persuasive than matched nonsexual appeals for social marketing topics. Second, sexually-oriented appeals stimulated more ad execution-related thoughts, fewer message-related thoughts, and fewer counterarguments. In addition, subjects were able to recall more visual aspects of sexually-oriented appeals than nonsexually-oriented appeals but there was no difference in copypoint recall between the two appeals. These results are congruent with past emotion research and affective models of persuasion. This research provides evidence that sexually-oriented appeals can be persuasive, at least in a social marketing context, and provides insight into the impact of sexual appeals on the persuasive process.
    • Taking SIDEs: The Cognitive and Communicative Processes of Political Polarization

      Rains, Stephen A.; Tsetsi, Eric; Harwood, Jake; Kenski, Kate; Stevens-Aubrey, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) and the hyperpersonal model are used in this study to investigate how political discourse via computer-mediated communication (CMC) influences political polarization. The SIDE model explains how visual anonymity and social identity salience affect social influence and adherence to group norms. The hyperpersonal model explains how CMC can enhance interpersonal relationship outcomes relative to face-to-face communication. This study extends the SIDE model using the hyperpersonal model to better understand how visibility or visual anonymity, political group affiliation, and social identity salience during online discussions affect political polarization. Results of an online experiment showed that when discussing political issues, the political party identity of individuals in a dyad affected political polarization. Talking with an in-group political party member led participant attitudes to become more extreme and increased intergroup differentiation. The interaction effect between the party identity of interlocutors and visibility also affected intergroup differentiation such that when participants were visible to one another, intergroup differentiation was significantly higher for in-group political discussions relative to out-group political discussions. Intergroup differentiation was also significantly higher following visually anonymous out-group political discussions relative to visible out-group discussions. Finally, two message effects were observed. The use of positive emotion words and the use of words reflecting in-group connection were related to political polarization. Participants who used more positive emotion words expressed more extreme attitudes, and those who used more in-group connection words expressed more in-group attraction. The implications for the SIDE model, online political discourse, and political polarization are discussed.
    • Taking students to task: Task-based computer-mediated communication and negotiated interaction in the ESL classroom

      Ariew, Robert; Smith, David Bryan (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      This dissertation reports on an investigation of task-based, synchronous, computer-mediated communication (CMC) and its relationship to second language lexical acquisition among learners of English. Over the course of one university semester, twenty-four intermediate-low and intermediate level non-native speakers of English from the English Language Center at Michigan State University engaged in multiple communicative tasks in pairs using ChatNet, a browser-based chat program. One of the overarching objectives of this study was to evaluate the viability of implementing computer-mediated communicative language learning tasks as a tool for promoting language learning in the ESL classroom. This study also sought to explore how intermediate level international ESL students collaborate in reaching mutual understanding, and whether and how they negotiate meaning when communication problems arise while engaged in these CMC tasks. Another purpose of this study was to test existing frameworks used to describe student interaction and negotiation, as well as to explore the role of task type in learner-learner CMC. Finally, this study sought to determine whether task-based CMC could help us establish a more direct link between negotiated interaction and lexical acquisition. A detailed analysis of the chatscripts as well as the pre- and post-test measures provide strong evidence that learners use a wide variety of communication strategies in an effort to smoothly navigate computer-mediated conversations while engaged in language learning activities. Learners were also found to negotiate for meaning when problems in understanding arose in ways that are similar to those observed in the oral interaction literature. Task type was found to influence learner choices in dealing with unknown lexical items as well as the overall amount of negotiated interaction learners engaged in. Moreover, based on the pre- and post-tests, this study provides strong evidence for a more direct link between negotiated interaction and second language acquisition, specifically the acquisition of lexical items. Post-treatment questionnaire and interview data suggest that learners, while engaged in task-based CMC activities found the experience valid, useful, enjoyable, and virtually stress-free. Based on the findings above, this study concludes that task-based CMC is a viable and effective toot for promoting language development in the intermediate-level ESL classroom. This is especially true when learners are engaged in those tasks that have been shown to elicit high levels of negotiated interaction. Further, in view of the favorable ratings by students, task-based CMC seems to offer a positive affective environment, which compliments the communicative language learning experience.
    • Taking the Next Step: Promoting Native American Student Success in American Indian/Native American Studies Graduate Programs

      Tippeconnic-Fox, Mary Jo; Blair, Mark L.M.; Tippeconnic-Fox, Mary Jo; Luna-Firebaugh, Eileen M.; Washburn, Franci A. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Native American doctoral student enrollment has not increased over the past twenty years, despite a steady increase in enrollment at the undergraduate level. Native Americans are the only group to not see an increase in doctoral degrees granted. There are many individual and institutional factors affecting Native American student success such as cultural and social isolation, financial stressors, racism, and access to indigenous faculty and mentoring. What are American Indian/Native American Studies (AIS/NAS) programs doing about it? AIS/NAS programs are uniquely qualified to address these factors. They were originally created to increase enrollment and recruitment of Native American students on campuses. Many of these programs have incorporated Native student retention into their missions and are often the only ones taking the next step to promote Native American graduate student success on campus. There are eight "pure" AIS/NAS graduate programs in the country. "Pure" means that the program is a stand-alone unit and the degree is earned in AIS/NAS. There are only three such doctoral programs in AIS/NAS: University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of California-Davis, and the University of Arizona. The University of Arizona is the number one doctoral degree granting institution in the United States for Native American students. Despite lack of funding and resources, forty percent of these doctoral recipients are from the American Indian Studies Program. A mixed method approach consisting of intense empirical research and data mining was used in order to find enrollments of Native students, identify AIS/NAS programs and enrollment trends, and identify factors affecting student success. Native American students are vastly underreported in the federal data base (IPEDS), which affects federal student aid and relegates many students invisible. The following were identified as the key factors for Native American graduate student success: determination and resiliency, supportive relationships through mentoring and access to faculty, and a desire to give back to their communities. It is recommended that AIS/NAS graduate programs honor their land grant obligations in order to increase access and funding for Native students through endowments and tuition waiver programs, develop a detailed mentoring plan, and improve outreach to Native communities.
    • A Tale of Two 'omes: Comparative Genomics and Important Genes in Specialized Tissues

      Gang, David R.; McDowell, Eric Todd; Gang, David R.; Ray, Dennis T.; Galbraith, David W.; Van Etten, Hans D. (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      Analysis of complex traits like plant specialized metabolism is a difficult task in non-model systems as plant specialized metabolism is controlled by a number of factors such as environment, genotype, age, and tissue. To help address this problem, we have taken a bioinformatic approach that involves sequencing select tissues that are enrichedfor the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. Using this approach, we have sequenced multiple tissues from a variety of species and compared them against one another. This comparative approach has allowed us to identify some of the genes responsible for the biochemical differences in and between species as well as genes that may be involved in control of specialized tissue development or metabolism. This dissertation begins with a brief introduction of plant metabolism, and pays special attention to historical and present views of plant metabolism, the importance of specialized metabolism, its evolution, and why it is advantageous to study specialized metabolism from specialized tissues like glandular trichomes and rhizomes. To this end, I detail our production and comparisons of glandular trichomes of several Solanum species using next-generation 454 sequencing. I also extensively review the underground stems, or rhizomes, of Viridiplantae. Discussions of our production and comparison of rhizome EST libraries from Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, and several Sorghum species are also made. My efforts to lay the groundwork that will hopefully permit functional analysis of interesting genes identified through our sequence comparisons of glandular trichome or rhizome EST libraries, in non-model systems are also discussed.
    • A Tale of Two Cities - San Francisco and Tucson: The Effects of Retail Mix on the Perceived Value of the City, Urban Identity and Willingness to Pay

      Staten, Michael; Stovall, George W III; Staten, Michael; Bhappu, Anita; Patten, Iris; Price, Linda (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Most research on place in retailing and marketing examines retail atmospherics, spectacular consumption, third spaces and logistics. This study lies at the confluence of retailing, marketing, and geography, and focuses on the city as the product consumed by its residents. The study seeks to examine the degree to which the retail landscape of a city affects the residents' perceived value of the city, their urban identity, and ultimately, their willingness-to-pay to live there. In order to answer this question, this study utilized mixed research methods consisting of a survey, based on several adapted existing perceived value scales; an urban identity scale; a willingness-to-pay scale; as well as archival geodata used to map the existing and perceived retail landscapes of Tucson and San Francisco–the two cities of interest in this study. These two cities were chosen because they are on opposite ends of a spectrum of US cities that includes cost of living and median income, among other variables. Results show that perceived value of the city and urban identity are very highly correlated and suggest the existence of a new construct. While the retail landscape in Tucson tends to have a positive effect on residents' affective responses to living there, there results are not statistically significant. The relatively low cost of living may play a role in these expectations. Residents accept the existing retail landscape and tend to make do with the options available. In San Francisco, because residents already pay a premium to live there, the retail landscape plays a more statistically significant role in residents' affective responses to living there. These results are important to retailers and marketers because retail expenditures form a large part of the tax revenue a city earns each year. If residents are unhappy with their retail patronage options, they may spend money elsewhere resulting in a decreased tax base from which to run the city.

      Sanfey, Alan G.; Tesch, Aaron Daniel Kuechler; Sanfey, Alan G.; Jacobs, William J.; Scheres, Anouk; Ryan, Lee (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      Theories that formally describe decision-making have traditionally posited that decisions are made by rational actors. However, it is generally accepted that humans often make irrational decisions because of quick emotional judgements. In order to reconcile these two inconsistent ideas psychologists have developed two-system theories that hypothesize decisions are made by two opposing cognitive systems, representing the rational and emotional processing of decisions. Evidence for a two-system model of decision-making can be observed in ultimatum game responder decisions. It is thought that rational processing of these choices will produce acceptance of unfair offers and emotional processing will encourage rejection of unfair offers. Emotional priming has been shown to decrease ultimatum game acceptances and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation of rational brain areas, i.e. DLPFC, show increases in ultimatum game acceptances. This study investigated the possibility of using behavioral tasks that are known to activate rational brain areas to promote/disrupt ultimatum game acceptances. The possible relationship between ultimatum game acceptances and executive functions was also examined. Although there were promising indications that working memory loading may increase ultimatum game acceptances in between-subject experiments, a within-subject investigation found little support for this method of promoting/disrupting rational ultimatum game decisions. There were also no relationships found between switching or inhibition executive functions and ultimatum game responder decisions. A moderate positive relationship was found between updating executive function and ultimatum game acceptance rates but this relationship was dependent on working memory task feedback, a within-subject design and active loading of the working memory system. However, its possible that these findings only apply to within-subject paradigms and future between-subject studies are advised.