Now showing items 19738-19757 of 19787

    • X-ray and Infrared Diagnostics of Star Formation and Black Hole Accretion in Galaxies

      Rieke, George H; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Rieke, George H; Strittmatter, Peter; Bechtold, Jill; Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Using infrared and X-ray diagnostics, we study star--formation and black hole accretion in nearby and distant galaxies.We examine diagnostics of the hardness of the ionizing field in low--redshift starburst galaxies, to constrain the initial mass function. We obtain new measurements of HeI 1.7 micron/Br 10, a physically simple diagnostic, then test ISO mid--infrared line ratios, finding them reliable. Compared to new photoionization models, the ISO ratios in 27 nearby starburst galaxies are systematically low. This argues that solar--metallicity starbursts are deficient in massive stars, or that such stars are present but highly embedded.Using Spitzer, HST, Chandra, and ground-based data, we examine the multi-wavelength (0.4--24 micron) spectral energy distributions and X-ray properties of X-ray--selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in several deep fields: the Chandra Deep Field South, the Lockman Hole, and the extended Groth Strip. We examine the 24 micron to X-ray flux and luminosity ratios for 157 AGN at z~1; the luminosity ratios have not strongly evolved since z~0, and we find no trend with X-ray column density. This means that highly--obscured AGN do not have exceptional infrared fluxes. We examine the SEDs of 45 bright X-ray and 24 micron sources: only 22% are classified as unobscured ``type 1'' AGN; 18% are classified as ULIRG-like SEDs; and the majority are classified as obscured (``type 2'') AGN or spiral--like SEDs. This supports the picture from X-ray surveys that much of the AGN activity in the distant universe is significantly obscured. We examine why 20% of X-ray--selected AGN are optically--faint; they lie at significantly higher redshifts (median z=1.6) than most X-ray--selected AGN, and their spectra are intrinsically red. Their contribution to the X-ray Seyfert luminosity function is comparable to that of optically--bright AGN at z>1, but they do not significantly alter the redshift distribution. Lastly, we investigate why half of X-ray--selected AGN lack signs of accretion in optical spectra. We find that these ``optically--dull'' AGN have Seyfert--like mid--infrared emission, which argues that they do not have abnormally--weak UV/optical continua. The axis ratios of their host galaxies argue that extinction by host galaxies plays a key role in hiding nuclear emission lines.
    • X-ray densitometric measurement of climatic influence on the intra-annual characteristics of southwestern semiarid conifer tree rings

      Cleaveland, Malcolm Kent.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Stokes, Marvin A.; Smiley, Terah L.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gay, Lloyd W. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      Annual tree-ring width of Southwestern conifers growing on dry sites exhibits sensitivity to variation in climatically created moisture stress. Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and pinyon in the eastern San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado were sampled at four sites to investigate covariation of climate with intra-annual anatomy. The sites possessed characteristics that created different amounts of physiological stress in trees. Increment borer samples were glued into wooden mounts and machined to approximately 1.0 mm thickness by a special router-planer. All samples were crossdated by comparing climatically controlled synchronous patterns of ring widths. Moving slit X-ray densitometry (at Forintek Canada Corporation Western Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver, British Columbia) objectively defined the earlywood zone (large, low density cells) and latewood zone (smaller, denser cells formed late in the growing season) in each ring. The densitometer measured eight parameters for each ring: ring, earlywood, and latewood width, minimum and maximum density, and mean ring, earlywood, and latewood density. Individual radial series were standardized (i.e, transformed to indices with 1.0 mean and homogeneous variance) by fitting curves and dividing annual values by the corresponding curve values. Density series proved more difficult to standardize than widths and usually correlated more poorly among individual radii of the same data data type. Statistical characteristics of site summary density chronologies differed from width chronologies. Response functions using monthly mean temperature and total precipitation showed climate influenced all data types. Low moisture stress increased ring, earlywood, and latewood width and ring, maximum, and latewood density. High moisture stress increased minimum and early— wood density. No width or density type consistently covaried more than any other with climate. Linkage of climatic variation with density parameters differed considerably from that reported in the literature for conifers growing in wetter, cooler climates. Southwestern conifers posed unique densitometric technical difficulties. Selection of sites that caused moderate physiological stress and samples with few missing rings proved critical. Acquisition of density data required much more time and effort than optical measurement of ring width, but yielded valuable intra—annual data. Intra—annual densitometric data hold great promise for reconstruction of seasonal paleoclimate.

      MOSTACCI, DOMIZIANO VALERIO. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      A model has been developed for calculating x-ray line emission from spherical plasmas. The main features of this method are: (1) Plasma parameters are obtained from a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamics and heat flow code. (2) Multi-frequency groups: the line structure can be reproduced with the desired accuracy by adjusting the number of frequency groups. (3) Self consistent, time dependent excited level populations and radiation fluxes: the code starts with coronal populations, calculates the ensuing radiation flux and then recalculates the populations and so on, iterating until convergence is reached. (4) Goemetrical groups of rays groups by spherical impact parameters. (5) Line broadening due to ionic thermal agitation and Doppler shift due to the net plasma flow velocity. Inclusion of the flow velocity shift would be different without the multi-frequency group treatment. The method has been applied to an aluminum target, and the results are in good agreement with previous experimental work. The total energy, summed over all lines, as well as the line intensity ratios (which are a sensitive measure of agreement with experiment) were predicted with good accuracy. The pictures that would be seen by a pinhole camera are also calculated by the code.
    • X-ray structures of novel intermediates in the thymidylate synthase models for chemical mechanism and conformational change

      Montfort, William R.; Arendall, William Bryan (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      The catalytic mechanism of thymidylate synthase (TS) was investigated using X-ray crystallography: four structures that yield new information about the early stages of TS action are reported. TS catalyzes the production of thymidylate (TMP), one of the four nucleotide bases of DNA, from the substrate, deoxyuridylate and cofactor, methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTF). Knowledge about the TS mechanism is important for both the medical and basic sciences. TS is the sole de novo source of TMP and it is thus a target for anti-proliferative drugs aimed at addressing cancer and other diseases marked by rapidly dividing cells. To aid this effort, past research on TS has developed two models to explain how TS works. A detailed, sequential chemical mechanism explains the methylene and hydride transfers from one cofactor to the substrate. And, a two state, dynamical model explains the conformational change that TS undergoes during its catalytic cycle. Combining these two models will lead to a fuller understanding of protein structure, function, and dynamics interrelationships. Two of the new structures contain cofactor in a heretofore unseen state, bound in the active site with its imidazolidine ring intact. Finding that this is an allowed enzyme-cofactor state indicates that ring opening and formation of the highly reactive iminium cation may occur relatively late in the methylene transfer, after preparation of the substrate; and, the reaction may perhaps be concerted. Further, details of these two structures show that protonation of the correct imidazolidine ring nitrogen (N10) may be selected by the geometry and environment imposed on the bent cofactor by TS. N5, the "wrong" ring nitrogen, is blocked and in a hydrophobic environment, while N10 is rehybridized to sp3 and its lone pair (nascent hydrogen) is pointed into an aqueous cavity trapped within the enzyme. A proposal coming from this dissertation is for a combination of the two models describing TS catalysis. The chemical mechanism model and the conformational change model both describe the same phenomena and these models should be connected and combined into one larger model to further increase our knowledge of the connections between structure, dynamics and function. The four structures reported here begin that connection process.

      Kurnick, Allen A.; Reid, Bobby L.; Anjaneyalu, Yernool Verkatarayappa, 1931- (The University of Arizona., 1962)

      Fielder, Grace; Catalano, Theresa Ann; Ruiz, Richard; Waugh, Linda (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      In this dissertation, the denaturalization of migrants in the US and Italy as represented in newspaper crime reports was identified and compared to the opposing naturalization of Italian crime organizations in Italy and Wall Street/ corporate criminals in the US. This was accomplished through careful, multidisciplinary, scientific analysis of over 100 articles taken from Italian and US newspapers of assorted political tendencies from the years 2004-2010. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined beginning with a corpus analysis of texts from each group studied followed by a topic analysis designed to identify topics discussed in the media for each group analyzed. In addition, lexical choices were categorized as denaturalization, naturalization or derogation, and examples from texts were examined in depth to reveal linguistic (such as metaphor) strategies involved in negative or positive representation of these groups. A Critical Discourse Analysis Approach combined with Social Semiotics and grounded in Social Identity and Nationalism theories was employed to reveal an underlying racist and xenophobic ideology in both Italian and US media. Results show that in both the United States and Italy, the highlighting of migrants' lack of proficiency in the host country language as well as cultural practices functions as evidence of how migrants are different thus justifying discriminatory practices against them. The resulting categorization of migrants as "Them" serves the dominant group's purpose of staying in power. In conclusion, the author points to a need for teacher educators in the field of second language education and literacy to make it a top priority to educate teachers and students as to how discourse contains underlying ideologies and how to think critically to de-construct and de-mystify them.
    • Xenosensor Regulation of Enzymes and Transporters in Drug Exposure and Disease

      Cherrington, Nathan J.; Merrell, Matthew David; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Zhang, Donna D.; Smith, Catharine L.; Chen, Qin M. (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      A large and varied array of xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) enters into our bodies every day. In order to prevent toxicity resulting from xenobiotic accumulation, the body has developed a complex and integrated network of enzymes and transporters to promote and control the metabolism and excretion of drugs and other compounds. Drug metabolizing enzymes are classified as oxidative (Phase I) or conjugative (Phase II), and generally result in increased hydrophilicity of their substrates. Drug transporters actively route xenobiotics into (Phase 0) or out of (Phase III) the cells. The expression of the proteins involved in drug metabolism and transport are coordinately regulated by xenosensing transcription factors, including the constitutive androstane receptor, the pregnane X receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and Nrf2. Through the activation of these xenosensors, chemical exposure itself induces the processes which help to remove the xenobiotics from the body. The liver is the major organ of drug metabolism in the body. Chronic hepatic diseases impact the activity of xenosensors and the expression of their enzyme and transporter gene targets. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the United States, affecting 20-30% of the populations. This profoundly underdiagnosed disease has significant effects on hepatic gene expression and may increase the risk of adverse drug reactions and xenobiotic toxicity in affected patients. This manuscript presents original research which contributes to our understanding of xenosensor function in the contexts of chemical exposure and liver disease. Manuscripts in this dissertation investigate 1) the induction profile and mechanisms of the experimental therapeutic agent oltipraz, 2) the xenosensor-regulated mechanisms of induction of the drug transporter ABCC3, 3) the impact of NAFLD on the expression of major drug metabolizing enzymes, and 4) the utility of altered drug disposition as a biomarker for NAFLD progression. The findings of these studies highlight the clinical importance of xenosensor activation and the potential pharmacological and toxicological consequences of hepatic disease.
    • Yaqui Coordination

      Langendoen, Terence; Martínez-Fabián, Constantino; Langendoen, Terence; Harley, Heidi; Carnie, Andrew; Karimi, Simin; Dooley, Shelia (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This research describes and explains in the OT framework the Yaqui coordination. It is assumed that coordinate structures are asymmetric and, based in the Yaqui data, I propose that the coordination is the result of an adjunct-host relation. This work shows that the ConjP is inappropriate for explaining the place that the Yaqui coordinator into 'and' occupies in overt syntax. It demonstrates that the proposal which suggests that coordinators in second position are clitics (Agbayani and Goldston 2002) can not be maintained in Yaqui because such position is generated by fronting a topicalized constituent. If we depart from the idea that clitics and topics move to different positions, then a different explanation is required. The proposal is extended to the analysis of unbalanced verbal chaining structures. It is shown that some --kai constructions are marked syntactically as subordinated but actually they are coordinate structures. In the final part of this work I describe and analyze the agreement between coordinate nominals and verbs. The analysis indicates that Yaqui responds partially to the system of CONCORD and INDEX features proposed by Halloway King and Dalrymple (2004). However, its whole explanation requires the use of constraints in order to explain the coordinate patterns of the language.
    • Yaqui voices: Schooling experiences of Yaqui students

      Sonnleitner, Theresa Ann Mague.; McCarty, Teresa L.; Ruiz, Richard; Zepeda, Ofelia (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This ethnographic study examines the unique schooling experiences of Yaqui students in an urban public school setting in Tucson, Arizona. The dissertation focuses on life narratives as a means of understanding how contemporary Yaqui adults view formal education, the struggles they endured to maintain their cultural identity within a mainstream educational environment, and Yaqui-defined factors contributing to the diminished and differential school success experienced by present-day Yaqui youth. The study enlisted 10 Yaqui individuals who resided in Old Pascua at the time of their elementary and secondary schooling, and who represented a range of ages and schooling levels. Old Pascua was chosen because it was established as the first Yaqui community in Tucson and because of Yaqui student attendance in specific schools. Critical theory provides the study's theoretical framework. Such a framework illuminates both the institutional practices and policies which contribute to the limited success of minority students, and the means of transforming those limiting conditions. Yaqui oral narrative accounts serve as the primary documentation and critique of existing educational institutions. The individual and collective struggles revealed in these first-hand accounts, as well as the social, political, and historical factors impacting the lives of Yaqui individuals, are examined. This documentation and a thematic analysis of the accounts suggest several institutionally produced factors that contributed to Yaqui students' lack of school success: the hidden curriculum of school; family support for education; and perceptions related to success. These themes are explored relative to the lives of Yaqui individuals, to research literature, and to critical theory. Finally, participant-generated recommendations for institutional change are discussed. These include changes in school and community relations, relevance of schooling, and economic factors. This study provides insights into the uniqueness of Yaqui school experiences and extends the current body of literature on American Indian/Alaska Native education by considering schooling from a neglected perspective--one informed by Yaqui individuals themselves. By examining the complex array of factors contributing to Yaqui students' diminished school success, the study also joins microethnography, macroethnography, and critical theory in a unified, systemic approach.
    • Yaqui-Mayo language shift

      Hill, Jane H.; Moctezuma Zamarrón, José Luis (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The process of language shift and maintenance of Yaqui and Mayo against Spanish is analyzed through an empirical study of the social network of four families (in each group a more conservative family in the use of the native language, and the other using more Spanish in everyday interactions). This interpretative analysis integrates a multidisciplinary system that incorporates the model of political ecology, along with the postulates and methodology of the ethnography of communication, linguistic conflict, social networks and the relationship between language and identity, through ideology. This empirical approach follows the model of linguistic anthropology, giving an account of the dynamic relationship between the social phenomenon and the linguistic one. A microanalysis allows us to observe the external, and mainly internal, processes articulated to the linguistic conflict developed within the family social networks. Thus, it is possible to do an objective approximation to the heterogeneous linguistic practice of the members of each family, and the social networks they are immersed in. In this sense we require not only a synchronic approach, but also a diachronic one, in order to construct brief lingual life histories of the members of the families, in which the matriarchs have played a very important roles in the process of language shift and resistance. Moreover, within each family, there is a considerable variety in the uses and functions they give to each language, linked to identities established by ideologies in permanent elaboration.
    • Year One at "City" High School: An Ethnographic Study of Heritage Language Learners at an Innovative Charter School

      Helmer, Kimberly Adilia; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Philips, Susan U.; Gilmore, Perry; Carvalho, Ana (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Packer and Goicoechea (2000) and Wortham (2006) propose that academic learning is both personal and social transformation. This transformation is continuously negotiated through classroom interaction and curricular choices. The current ethnographic study of an urban southwestern charter high school investigates academic learning in two contexts: a Spanish heritage-language (SHL) class and a humanities class.The study examines Mexican-origin students' resistance to studying their ancestral language. From the first day of their SHL class, students refused to speak Spanish (despite their proficiency), rejected published Spanish-language materials, and acted out. Student resistance was rooted in their perceived lack of relevant tasks and materials, teacher-respect for their home language and culture, and student belief that learning "proper Spanish" could threaten social and familial relationships (see also Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Labov, 1972a; Mehan, Hubbard, & Villanueva, 1994).The resistance of the heritage language learners contrasts sharply with the engagement of the same students in their Humanities course in which students connect enthusiastically with subject matter and instructor. Findings suggest that engagement was fostered through the teacher's strict adherence to the principles of place-based learning (Gruenewald, 2003a, 2003b), critical democratic pedagogy (Shor, 1992), and the instructor's teacher ethos.Latinos have the greatest high school dropout rate in the United States while simultaneously being the largest growing demographic group (Carreira, 2003; "US Census Report," 2004; Waggoner, 2000). The pairing of these two statistics should draw alarm. Thus the study of Latino student engagement and resistance to academic learning is crucial for understanding this problem as well as exploring what pedagogies hold most promise. In terms of HL instruction, analyses reveal that a critical place-based approach to heritage-language instruction holds such promise.
    • Yield, dry matter production, and nitrogen uptake of drip irrigated cotton

      Ahmed, Sabah Kedar.; Stroehlein, Jack L.; Tucker, T. C.; Bohn, H. L.; Briggs, R. E.; Hofmann, W. C. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The study consisted of two experiments conducted over two growing seasons. Urea ammonium nitrate was used as a source of N at rates of 50, 75, 100 and 150% of levels estimated to be ideal for maximum yield of cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied through a drip irrigation system. The yield of seed cotton, flowering pattern, boll set, plant N uptake, and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N fertilizer rates and two plant populations in the 1984 study. Yield of seed cotton, plant N uptake and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N rates, three seeding rates, and three cotton cultivars in the 1985 study. Petiole nitrate patterns were studied both seasons. The effect of N applications on seed cotton yield was dependent upon the initial soil N and the yield possibility. In this study the lower rate of N appeared to be sufficient for the yields obtained. Thinning resulted in reduction of the total number of flowers and significantly decreased yield, but percent boll set was not affected. Nitrogen additions significantly increased plant N uptake and dry matter production as well as petiole NO₃-N levels during the growing season. The N need of cotton under drip irrigation was determined throughout the growing season by using petiole analysis. The levels of petiole NO₃-N for N sufficiency and deficiency which are accepted under furrow irrigation cotton were shown to be applicable for drip irrigated cotton. Yield of DPL-775 and DPL-90 cotton cultivars was significantly higher than that for DPL-41 cotton cultivar in 1985.
    • Yixuan Li's Thesis of Three Chapters

      Fishback, Price; Li, Yixuan; Ichimura, Hidehiko; Taylor, Evan; Taylor, Evan (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The first chapter examines how Ban-the-box policies affect employment outcome of females. While the previous literature finds that minority males are hurt by Ban-the-box policies, no one has focused on females. I fill this gap by using individual level employment status data to examine the influence of Ban-the-box policies on females by initial employment status. I find that relative to non-Hispanic white females, Hispanic females who started outside the labor force experience a lower probability of being employed or entering the labor force after pubic bans.The second chapter examines whether changes in temperature affects gender differentials in time allocation and the potential mechanisms through which this response might operate. Based on data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), we find that, relative to men, women decrease their labor supply by approximately one hour during days with temperatures of 100 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, despite having fewer working hours than men over the entire distribution of temperature. However, the differences in the time allocated to housework and leisure between men and women vary little with temperature. Our further investigation suggests that a substantial part of the gender gap in response to temperature is attributed to family status and fertility status. The third chapter investigates whether higher housing prices cause parents to be less willing to have boys. Over the past two decades, Chinese males have been competing in marriage markets by offering to purchase homes when getting married. The rise in housing prices has made this practice increasingly expensive, and may help explain why the sex ratio of new-born babies in China has declined since 2008. Using aggregated data at the city level, I find that higher housing price are associated with lower male-to-female ratio of new-born babies, confirming that higher housing price do weaken Chinese parents’ son preference. The mechanism is that higher housing price combined with the custom for the bride to provide a house significantly increases the cost of nurturing a son while the return does not increase much. So parents are less willing to having a son compared with having a daughter.
    • Yogic Breathing for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Designing an Application to Supplement Learning and Overcome a Stress State

      Sheppard, Kate; Creighton, Jennifer Renee; Buchner, Brian; Doyle, Mary; Sheppard, Kate (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Many who suffer with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) fear the stigma associated with seeking treatment. Often the stigma even prevents sufferers from reaching out for support, resources, or education. The purpose of this project was to design an application (app) to bridge the gap between patient and provider by supplementing patient learning and teaching a yogic breathing technique to overcome an acute stress state. To accomplish this, an extensive literature review sought to determine the viability of pairing complimentary alternative methods (CAM) of treatment with application-based interventions. A specific aim also included evaluation of an app available on the market using industry standard tools, the Systems Usability Scale and HONcode measures, to determine areas for improvement. Applications can present a viable alternative to reaching patients who are unable or refuse to seek provider assistance. There are few apps to address mental health concerns; furthermore, patients may not use applications because they fear bias within the content or the lack of a quality product. Of the applications available on the market created by professional providers, there is a noted lack of aesthetics, user-friendliness, and reliability. To address aesthetics and user-friendliness, the new application is module based and incorporates basic web-application design principles. To address reliability, the new application answered all the objective criteria in the HONcode and scored higher on the subjective Systems Usability Scale than a leading app on the market, as evaluated by the project lead. This application presents an opportunity to determine the success of pairing patient education and CAM with technology. While it is beyond the scope of this project, the new application is ready for a pilot testing to obtain feedback on the content, structure, and usability, before launching on GoogleApps™ for open access.
    • You be our eyes and ears: Doing community policing in Dorchester

      Marston, Sallie; Saunders, Ralph Helperin, 1961- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      This dissertation argues that community policing--which police describe as a form of policing centered around the principles of partnership, prevention and problem solving--is an illusion which serves to legitimate the police without fundamentally changing the way police do their job. Community policing, I argue, is a logical extension and refinement of the basic technics of policing. This is evident in the ways that police hope to organize city residents into a policing body within which civilians serve as the eyes and ears of the police. It is evident also in the ways that police are dominating urban space. A second argument is that because of its emphasis on partnership, community policing contains within it a mechanism--unintended by its architects and unrecognized by police--by which communities can shape police practice even as police strive to shape, control and in some cases dissolve communities. Thus community policing is one such instance in which the very means by which a repressive agency of the state bureaucracy exercises its power can serve not only as a point of resistance to state projects but may even provide a mechanism for shoring up and reconstituting popular traditions--in this case, community. In Boston, civilians hope to use community policing as a means for capturing and thereby shaping police practice and for (re-)building neighborhood-based communities. My discussion draws upon twenty months of field experience in Boston where I interviewed community activists and engaged police and communities through intensive participant observation.
    • You do what you have to do: Cultural and sociocultural influences on self-medication behavior in the United States.

      Vuckovic, Nancy Helen.; Nichter, Mark; Philips, Susan U.; Wright, Anne (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This dissertation is about the self-medication practices of 40 women in the Southwestern United States, and about the beliefs and practical exigencies which influence those practices on a day-to-day basis. I document cultural knowledge about health, illness, and medicines present in the contemporary U.S. Coexisting models of health are revealed the first of which advocates avoidance of medicines and views medicines as potentialy harmful. The second reflects a dependence on medicine to provide a quick fix for social as well as physical ills. I then examine the changing cultural social, and economic conditions which affect household medication decisions. The effects of time pressures changing gender roles, and lack of health insurance are considered in particular. Findings of this study suggest that these factors lead women to aggressively treat symptoms with medications in an effort to provide for their families within the constraints of time famine, multiple responsibilities, and restricted access to medical care. The narratives women tell about self-medication efforts are integral to their strategies for survival because they enable women to transform situations of "making do" into esteem-building episodes. I conclude by discussing the implications of my findings for anthropological theory as well as for health care policy.
    • Young Adult Nurse Work-Related Well-Being, Contemporary Practice Worldview, Resilience, and Co-Worker Support During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Reed, Pamela G.; Littzen, Chloe Olivia Rose; Rishel, Cindy J.; Rainbow, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to describe and examine the type and significance of factors significantly related to young adult nurse work-related well-being.Background: Nurse well-being is an important factor related to organizational and patient safety concerns in practice. Young adult nurses have the lowest work-related well-being, highest turnover intentions, and lowest overall job satisfaction across practicing nurses. Research Design: A convergent mixed methods design. Methods: A purposive sample of 110 young adult nurses completed a 72-item online survey. A subgroup of 15 young adult nurses were randomly selected to complete a semi-structured interview. Data were merged for mixed methods integration and analysis to provide a comprehensive understanding of young adult nurse work-related well-being. Results: Sixty-seven percent had suboptimal work-related well-being. Initial regression analysis revealed that resilience, Magnet® designation, perceived similarities in practice worldviews with co-workers of a different age, and COVID-19 explained 38% of the variance in young adult nurse work-related well-being. Regression analysis with resilience removed resulted in nurses’ contemporary practice worldview, co-workers’ practice worldviews of different age, managers’ practice worldviews, and COVID-19 explained 31% of the variance in young adult nurse well-being. Content analysis supported three categories, 1) the contemporary practice worldview, 2) the moral dimensions, and 3) facilitators and inhibitors. Mixed methods metainferences generated potential explanations about young adult nurse work-related well-being beyond that possible through either quantitative or qualitative methods alone. Implications: Young adult nurses experience significant levels of work-related distress that place them at heightened risk for burnout, fatigue, patient care errors, and intent to leave in the next 24 months. The moral dimension of nursing is especially relevant to young adult nurse work-related well-being, as are the nurse’s contemporary practice worldview and perceived similarities with co-workers’ and managers’ practice worldviews.
    • Young Adult Perceptions of Egalitarianism in their Families of Origin: An Examination of Conflict Style, Locus of Control, and Psychological Distress in Young Adult Relationships

      Segrin, Chris G; Taylor, Melissa; Segrin, Chris G; Tusing, Kyle; Emmers-Sommer, Tara; Bechtel, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This study addressed the possible change in young adult attitudes toward family dynamics due to the shift from traditionalism to egalitarianism in recent decades. More specifically, it sought to explore young adult perceptions' of their parents' relational ideology (e.g., degree of traditionalism), and whether young adults perceived their relational ideology to be similar to their parents' ideology. It was predicted that high levels of traditionalism in young adults would be associated with low levels of relational efficacy, as defined by conflict styles and feelings of internal control over relationships. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001) posits that children learn behavior modeled by parents, particularly behaviors that are rewarded. Hence, with the increase in more egalitarian attitudes modeled by parents, this study sought to determine the extent to which young adults are now acquiring and implementing primarily egalitarian rather than traditional attitudes. A path analysis revealed significant associations between parents' degree of traditionalism and offspring traditionalism, as well as significant associations between parents' degree of traditionalism and their distributive and integrative conflict styles. Further, young adult conflict strategies were associated with parents' conflict strategies, and were significantly associated with their internal locus of control. High levels of traditionalism in young adult women were negatively associated with their internal locus of control and positively associated with their psychological distress. It appears that women perceived their parents as more egalitarian, and used conflict styles more conducive to egalitarian relationships relative to men.