Now showing items 20234-20253 of 20274

    • Yaqui Coordination

      Langendoen, Terence; Martínez-Fabián, Constantino; Langendoen, Terence; Harley, Heidi; Carnie, Andrew; Karimi, Simin; Dooley, Shelia (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This research describes and explains in the OT framework the Yaqui coordination. It is assumed that coordinate structures are asymmetric and, based in the Yaqui data, I propose that the coordination is the result of an adjunct-host relation. This work shows that the ConjP is inappropriate for explaining the place that the Yaqui coordinator into 'and' occupies in overt syntax. It demonstrates that the proposal which suggests that coordinators in second position are clitics (Agbayani and Goldston 2002) can not be maintained in Yaqui because such position is generated by fronting a topicalized constituent. If we depart from the idea that clitics and topics move to different positions, then a different explanation is required. The proposal is extended to the analysis of unbalanced verbal chaining structures. It is shown that some --kai constructions are marked syntactically as subordinated but actually they are coordinate structures. In the final part of this work I describe and analyze the agreement between coordinate nominals and verbs. The analysis indicates that Yaqui responds partially to the system of CONCORD and INDEX features proposed by Halloway King and Dalrymple (2004). However, its whole explanation requires the use of constraints in order to explain the coordinate patterns of the language.
    • Yaqui voices: Schooling experiences of Yaqui students

      Sonnleitner, Theresa Ann Mague.; McCarty, Teresa L.; Ruiz, Richard; Zepeda, Ofelia (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This ethnographic study examines the unique schooling experiences of Yaqui students in an urban public school setting in Tucson, Arizona. The dissertation focuses on life narratives as a means of understanding how contemporary Yaqui adults view formal education, the struggles they endured to maintain their cultural identity within a mainstream educational environment, and Yaqui-defined factors contributing to the diminished and differential school success experienced by present-day Yaqui youth. The study enlisted 10 Yaqui individuals who resided in Old Pascua at the time of their elementary and secondary schooling, and who represented a range of ages and schooling levels. Old Pascua was chosen because it was established as the first Yaqui community in Tucson and because of Yaqui student attendance in specific schools. Critical theory provides the study's theoretical framework. Such a framework illuminates both the institutional practices and policies which contribute to the limited success of minority students, and the means of transforming those limiting conditions. Yaqui oral narrative accounts serve as the primary documentation and critique of existing educational institutions. The individual and collective struggles revealed in these first-hand accounts, as well as the social, political, and historical factors impacting the lives of Yaqui individuals, are examined. This documentation and a thematic analysis of the accounts suggest several institutionally produced factors that contributed to Yaqui students' lack of school success: the hidden curriculum of school; family support for education; and perceptions related to success. These themes are explored relative to the lives of Yaqui individuals, to research literature, and to critical theory. Finally, participant-generated recommendations for institutional change are discussed. These include changes in school and community relations, relevance of schooling, and economic factors. This study provides insights into the uniqueness of Yaqui school experiences and extends the current body of literature on American Indian/Alaska Native education by considering schooling from a neglected perspective--one informed by Yaqui individuals themselves. By examining the complex array of factors contributing to Yaqui students' diminished school success, the study also joins microethnography, macroethnography, and critical theory in a unified, systemic approach.
    • Yaqui-Mayo language shift

      Hill, Jane H.; Moctezuma Zamarrón, José Luis (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The process of language shift and maintenance of Yaqui and Mayo against Spanish is analyzed through an empirical study of the social network of four families (in each group a more conservative family in the use of the native language, and the other using more Spanish in everyday interactions). This interpretative analysis integrates a multidisciplinary system that incorporates the model of political ecology, along with the postulates and methodology of the ethnography of communication, linguistic conflict, social networks and the relationship between language and identity, through ideology. This empirical approach follows the model of linguistic anthropology, giving an account of the dynamic relationship between the social phenomenon and the linguistic one. A microanalysis allows us to observe the external, and mainly internal, processes articulated to the linguistic conflict developed within the family social networks. Thus, it is possible to do an objective approximation to the heterogeneous linguistic practice of the members of each family, and the social networks they are immersed in. In this sense we require not only a synchronic approach, but also a diachronic one, in order to construct brief lingual life histories of the members of the families, in which the matriarchs have played a very important roles in the process of language shift and resistance. Moreover, within each family, there is a considerable variety in the uses and functions they give to each language, linked to identities established by ideologies in permanent elaboration.
    • Year One at "City" High School: An Ethnographic Study of Heritage Language Learners at an Innovative Charter School

      Helmer, Kimberly Adilia; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Wildner-Bassett, Mary; Philips, Susan U.; Gilmore, Perry; Carvalho, Ana (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Packer and Goicoechea (2000) and Wortham (2006) propose that academic learning is both personal and social transformation. This transformation is continuously negotiated through classroom interaction and curricular choices. The current ethnographic study of an urban southwestern charter high school investigates academic learning in two contexts: a Spanish heritage-language (SHL) class and a humanities class.The study examines Mexican-origin students' resistance to studying their ancestral language. From the first day of their SHL class, students refused to speak Spanish (despite their proficiency), rejected published Spanish-language materials, and acted out. Student resistance was rooted in their perceived lack of relevant tasks and materials, teacher-respect for their home language and culture, and student belief that learning "proper Spanish" could threaten social and familial relationships (see also Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Labov, 1972a; Mehan, Hubbard, & Villanueva, 1994).The resistance of the heritage language learners contrasts sharply with the engagement of the same students in their Humanities course in which students connect enthusiastically with subject matter and instructor. Findings suggest that engagement was fostered through the teacher's strict adherence to the principles of place-based learning (Gruenewald, 2003a, 2003b), critical democratic pedagogy (Shor, 1992), and the instructor's teacher ethos.Latinos have the greatest high school dropout rate in the United States while simultaneously being the largest growing demographic group (Carreira, 2003; "US Census Report," 2004; Waggoner, 2000). The pairing of these two statistics should draw alarm. Thus the study of Latino student engagement and resistance to academic learning is crucial for understanding this problem as well as exploring what pedagogies hold most promise. In terms of HL instruction, analyses reveal that a critical place-based approach to heritage-language instruction holds such promise.
    • Yield, dry matter production, and nitrogen uptake of drip irrigated cotton

      Ahmed, Sabah Kedar.; Stroehlein, Jack L.; Tucker, T. C.; Bohn, H. L.; Briggs, R. E.; Hofmann, W. C. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The study consisted of two experiments conducted over two growing seasons. Urea ammonium nitrate was used as a source of N at rates of 50, 75, 100 and 150% of levels estimated to be ideal for maximum yield of cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied through a drip irrigation system. The yield of seed cotton, flowering pattern, boll set, plant N uptake, and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N fertilizer rates and two plant populations in the 1984 study. Yield of seed cotton, plant N uptake and dry matter production were studied in relation to four N rates, three seeding rates, and three cotton cultivars in the 1985 study. Petiole nitrate patterns were studied both seasons. The effect of N applications on seed cotton yield was dependent upon the initial soil N and the yield possibility. In this study the lower rate of N appeared to be sufficient for the yields obtained. Thinning resulted in reduction of the total number of flowers and significantly decreased yield, but percent boll set was not affected. Nitrogen additions significantly increased plant N uptake and dry matter production as well as petiole NO₃-N levels during the growing season. The N need of cotton under drip irrigation was determined throughout the growing season by using petiole analysis. The levels of petiole NO₃-N for N sufficiency and deficiency which are accepted under furrow irrigation cotton were shown to be applicable for drip irrigated cotton. Yield of DPL-775 and DPL-90 cotton cultivars was significantly higher than that for DPL-41 cotton cultivar in 1985.
    • Yixuan Li's Thesis of Three Chapters

      Fishback, Price; Li, Yixuan; Ichimura, Hidehiko; Taylor, Evan; Taylor, Evan (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The first chapter examines how Ban-the-box policies affect employment outcome of females. While the previous literature finds that minority males are hurt by Ban-the-box policies, no one has focused on females. I fill this gap by using individual level employment status data to examine the influence of Ban-the-box policies on females by initial employment status. I find that relative to non-Hispanic white females, Hispanic females who started outside the labor force experience a lower probability of being employed or entering the labor force after pubic bans.The second chapter examines whether changes in temperature affects gender differentials in time allocation and the potential mechanisms through which this response might operate. Based on data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), we find that, relative to men, women decrease their labor supply by approximately one hour during days with temperatures of 100 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, despite having fewer working hours than men over the entire distribution of temperature. However, the differences in the time allocated to housework and leisure between men and women vary little with temperature. Our further investigation suggests that a substantial part of the gender gap in response to temperature is attributed to family status and fertility status. The third chapter investigates whether higher housing prices cause parents to be less willing to have boys. Over the past two decades, Chinese males have been competing in marriage markets by offering to purchase homes when getting married. The rise in housing prices has made this practice increasingly expensive, and may help explain why the sex ratio of new-born babies in China has declined since 2008. Using aggregated data at the city level, I find that higher housing price are associated with lower male-to-female ratio of new-born babies, confirming that higher housing price do weaken Chinese parents’ son preference. The mechanism is that higher housing price combined with the custom for the bride to provide a house significantly increases the cost of nurturing a son while the return does not increase much. So parents are less willing to having a son compared with having a daughter.
    • Yogic Breathing for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Designing an Application to Supplement Learning and Overcome a Stress State

      Sheppard, Kate; Creighton, Jennifer Renee; Buchner, Brian; Doyle, Mary; Sheppard, Kate (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Many who suffer with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) fear the stigma associated with seeking treatment. Often the stigma even prevents sufferers from reaching out for support, resources, or education. The purpose of this project was to design an application (app) to bridge the gap between patient and provider by supplementing patient learning and teaching a yogic breathing technique to overcome an acute stress state. To accomplish this, an extensive literature review sought to determine the viability of pairing complimentary alternative methods (CAM) of treatment with application-based interventions. A specific aim also included evaluation of an app available on the market using industry standard tools, the Systems Usability Scale and HONcode measures, to determine areas for improvement. Applications can present a viable alternative to reaching patients who are unable or refuse to seek provider assistance. There are few apps to address mental health concerns; furthermore, patients may not use applications because they fear bias within the content or the lack of a quality product. Of the applications available on the market created by professional providers, there is a noted lack of aesthetics, user-friendliness, and reliability. To address aesthetics and user-friendliness, the new application is module based and incorporates basic web-application design principles. To address reliability, the new application answered all the objective criteria in the HONcode and scored higher on the subjective Systems Usability Scale than a leading app on the market, as evaluated by the project lead. This application presents an opportunity to determine the success of pairing patient education and CAM with technology. While it is beyond the scope of this project, the new application is ready for a pilot testing to obtain feedback on the content, structure, and usability, before launching on GoogleApps™ for open access.
    • You be our eyes and ears: Doing community policing in Dorchester

      Marston, Sallie; Saunders, Ralph Helperin, 1961- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      This dissertation argues that community policing--which police describe as a form of policing centered around the principles of partnership, prevention and problem solving--is an illusion which serves to legitimate the police without fundamentally changing the way police do their job. Community policing, I argue, is a logical extension and refinement of the basic technics of policing. This is evident in the ways that police hope to organize city residents into a policing body within which civilians serve as the eyes and ears of the police. It is evident also in the ways that police are dominating urban space. A second argument is that because of its emphasis on partnership, community policing contains within it a mechanism--unintended by its architects and unrecognized by police--by which communities can shape police practice even as police strive to shape, control and in some cases dissolve communities. Thus community policing is one such instance in which the very means by which a repressive agency of the state bureaucracy exercises its power can serve not only as a point of resistance to state projects but may even provide a mechanism for shoring up and reconstituting popular traditions--in this case, community. In Boston, civilians hope to use community policing as a means for capturing and thereby shaping police practice and for (re-)building neighborhood-based communities. My discussion draws upon twenty months of field experience in Boston where I interviewed community activists and engaged police and communities through intensive participant observation.
    • You do what you have to do: Cultural and sociocultural influences on self-medication behavior in the United States.

      Vuckovic, Nancy Helen.; Nichter, Mark; Philips, Susan U.; Wright, Anne (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This dissertation is about the self-medication practices of 40 women in the Southwestern United States, and about the beliefs and practical exigencies which influence those practices on a day-to-day basis. I document cultural knowledge about health, illness, and medicines present in the contemporary U.S. Coexisting models of health are revealed the first of which advocates avoidance of medicines and views medicines as potentialy harmful. The second reflects a dependence on medicine to provide a quick fix for social as well as physical ills. I then examine the changing cultural social, and economic conditions which affect household medication decisions. The effects of time pressures changing gender roles, and lack of health insurance are considered in particular. Findings of this study suggest that these factors lead women to aggressively treat symptoms with medications in an effort to provide for their families within the constraints of time famine, multiple responsibilities, and restricted access to medical care. The narratives women tell about self-medication efforts are integral to their strategies for survival because they enable women to transform situations of "making do" into esteem-building episodes. I conclude by discussing the implications of my findings for anthropological theory as well as for health care policy.
    • Young Adult Nurse Work-Related Well-Being, Contemporary Practice Worldview, Resilience, and Co-Worker Support During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Reed, Pamela G.; Littzen, Chloe Olivia Rose; Rishel, Cindy J.; Rainbow, Jessica (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to describe and examine the type and significance of factors significantly related to young adult nurse work-related well-being.Background: Nurse well-being is an important factor related to organizational and patient safety concerns in practice. Young adult nurses have the lowest work-related well-being, highest turnover intentions, and lowest overall job satisfaction across practicing nurses. Research Design: A convergent mixed methods design. Methods: A purposive sample of 110 young adult nurses completed a 72-item online survey. A subgroup of 15 young adult nurses were randomly selected to complete a semi-structured interview. Data were merged for mixed methods integration and analysis to provide a comprehensive understanding of young adult nurse work-related well-being. Results: Sixty-seven percent had suboptimal work-related well-being. Initial regression analysis revealed that resilience, Magnet® designation, perceived similarities in practice worldviews with co-workers of a different age, and COVID-19 explained 38% of the variance in young adult nurse work-related well-being. Regression analysis with resilience removed resulted in nurses’ contemporary practice worldview, co-workers’ practice worldviews of different age, managers’ practice worldviews, and COVID-19 explained 31% of the variance in young adult nurse well-being. Content analysis supported three categories, 1) the contemporary practice worldview, 2) the moral dimensions, and 3) facilitators and inhibitors. Mixed methods metainferences generated potential explanations about young adult nurse work-related well-being beyond that possible through either quantitative or qualitative methods alone. Implications: Young adult nurses experience significant levels of work-related distress that place them at heightened risk for burnout, fatigue, patient care errors, and intent to leave in the next 24 months. The moral dimension of nursing is especially relevant to young adult nurse work-related well-being, as are the nurse’s contemporary practice worldview and perceived similarities with co-workers’ and managers’ practice worldviews.
    • Young Adult Perceptions of Egalitarianism in their Families of Origin: An Examination of Conflict Style, Locus of Control, and Psychological Distress in Young Adult Relationships

      Segrin, Chris G; Taylor, Melissa; Segrin, Chris G; Tusing, Kyle; Emmers-Sommer, Tara; Bechtel, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This study addressed the possible change in young adult attitudes toward family dynamics due to the shift from traditionalism to egalitarianism in recent decades. More specifically, it sought to explore young adult perceptions' of their parents' relational ideology (e.g., degree of traditionalism), and whether young adults perceived their relational ideology to be similar to their parents' ideology. It was predicted that high levels of traditionalism in young adults would be associated with low levels of relational efficacy, as defined by conflict styles and feelings of internal control over relationships. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001) posits that children learn behavior modeled by parents, particularly behaviors that are rewarded. Hence, with the increase in more egalitarian attitudes modeled by parents, this study sought to determine the extent to which young adults are now acquiring and implementing primarily egalitarian rather than traditional attitudes. A path analysis revealed significant associations between parents' degree of traditionalism and offspring traditionalism, as well as significant associations between parents' degree of traditionalism and their distributive and integrative conflict styles. Further, young adult conflict strategies were associated with parents' conflict strategies, and were significantly associated with their internal locus of control. High levels of traditionalism in young adult women were negatively associated with their internal locus of control and positively associated with their psychological distress. It appears that women perceived their parents as more egalitarian, and used conflict styles more conducive to egalitarian relationships relative to men.
    • Young adult sexual styles: Links to concepts of self and others

      Barber, Bonnie L.; McGuire, Jenifer Kristine (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Sexual identity is examined in terms of three distinct parts: sexual style, self-concept in relational and sexual domains, and concepts of relationships and partners. Sexual style, the first component of sexual identity in this study, is defined operationally to include numerous features of sexual behavior and attitudes about behavior. Self-concept in relational and sexual domains is the second component of sexual identity and includes beliefs about the self in relationships, desire for relationships, personal marriage expectations and gender role beliefs. Concepts of relationships and partners, the third component of sexual identity, includes features of dating relationships in general, beliefs about dating, experience of communication and violence in relationships, and for people in relationships, specific characteristics of the relationship. The data for this project were taken from Wave 7 (age 20-21) of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions (MSALT). Part one of the study utilized hierarchical cluster analysis with split halves of females and males to group individuals into different sexual style clusters. Clusters were based on the measured variables: Usual frequency of intercourse, importance of regularly having sex, satisfaction with sex life, experience of coercion for sex, and sexual risk reduction. For females, the following five-cluster solution best represented the sample: Satisfied, Moderate, Active Unprotected, Pressured and Comfortably Inactive. For males, the following six-cluster solution best represented the sample: Satisfied, Dissatisfied, Moderate, Active Unprotected, Pressured and Comfortably Inactive. The model to predict sexual style was based on a model of sexual identity, and used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the probability of cluster membership given a certain level of each predictor variable, holding constant the other predictor variables. Using the model of sexual identity, it was possible to correctly classify between 35--47% of the females and males into the correct sexual style.
    • Young Adults' Committed Romantic Relationships: A Longitudinal Study on the Dynamics among Parental Divorce, Relationships with Mothers and Fathers, and Children's Committed Romantic Relationships

      Christensen, Donna H.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Lee, Sun-A; Christensen, Donna H.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Ridley, Carl; Card, Noel (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      Romantic relationship qualities are important for individuals' psychosocial adjustment. This dissertation focuses on how young adults' committed romantic relationships are related to experience of parental divorce and relationships with parents during adolescence. Also, how this relationship may be different by four dyads of parents and children - father/daughter, father/son, mother/daughter, and mother/son - is examined.The conceptual paper proposes parent-child relationships as a main family process affecting children's romantic relationships. Social learning theoretical perspectives is used as a guide that children observe, model, learn, and then apply the behaviors or patterns of relationships with parents to their own romantic relationships. Two potential roles of parent-child relationships are addressed in the dynamics among parental divorce, parent-child relationships, and children's romantic relationships. The first role of parent-child relationships is a mediation role between parental divorce and children's romantic relationships. The second role of parent-child relationships is a moderation role between parental divorce and children's romantic relationships. How one variable, parent-child relationships, can be a mediator as well as moderator is addressed in the conceptual paper. Also, the need to examine four dyads of parents and children in these models is addressed.Two empirical studies examine a potential mediation and a moderation model respectively. The data for these studies were taken from Wave 6 (high school senior) and Wave 8 (age 24) of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions (MSALT). The mediation model is tested using a multi-group mediation model using SEM. The results suggest that there is indirect effect of parental divorce on children's romantic relationships, specifically for father-daughter dyads. The moderation model is tested using hierarchical regression analyses and the results show that there is interaction between parental divorce and relationships with parents. For example, relationships with fathers in always-married families are significantly related to children's satisfaction in their romantic relationships.In the conclusion chapter, implications of the findings, limitations and contribution of the studies, and direction for future research are addressed.
    • Young Child Health Among Eyasi Datoga: Socioeconomic Marginalization, Local Biology, and Infant Resilience within the Mother-Infant Dyad

      Pike, Ivy L.; Young, Alyson G.; Pike, Ivy L.; Gillett-Netting, Rhonda; Nichter, Mark; Tucker, Bram (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This biocultural study of infant health and the sensitivity of maternal caretaking strategies was conducted between November 2004 and February 2006 among Datoga, a semi-nomadic pastoral group living in north central Tanzania. A sample of 40 mother-infant dyads were selected to examine the political economy of household constraints and how maternal decisions interact with infant biology to 'embody' social inequality and create patterns of health and illness among young Datoga children. The primary objectives of the research were: 1) Identify the critical periods within early childhood where interactions between household production, nutrition, and health status increase the vulnerability of Datoga infants; 2) Identify how caregivers perceive of changes in infant health and how they use this information to balance allocation of resources between caregiving and household production; 3) Examine how sociopolitical marginalization is impacting Datoga households by determining the intrahousehold variables that act most strongly to constrain women's ability to care for children; 4) Identify how household ecology and caretaking interact with infant development to create patterns of resilience within the mother-infant dyad. The findings from the study indicate that the socioeconomic marginalization of Datoga has severe consequences for child health and well-being. These consequences are evident in the relationship between 'idioms of distress' used to express feelings of vulnerability and disparities in health among both Datoga children and adults. Thus, more attention needs to be paid to the 'socialization' of disease in local contexts and the ways in which the marginalization of Datoga is influencing their exposure to risks for poor health outcomes. Nonetheless, the sensitivity of maternal response has a positive influence on patterns of child health among Datoga, even in the most marginal conditions. Although the cumulative effects of maternal condition during pregnancy and post-natal feeding practices are acting to create patterns of poor nutrition and high illness rates among Datoga children, other variables (such as the amount of time spent in close proximity with the infant) can shift the negative cascade of events and mediate the long-term consequences of even severe adversity.
    • Young children's explorations of written language during free choice

      Short, Kathy G.; Laird, Julie Anne, 1965- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The purpose of this study was to examine my belief that allowing young children time for free choice engagements and play is not only appropriate but necessary for their development of written literacy. This teacher research study took place in my kindergarten classroom. Data was collected during a daily free choice time when students had access to virtually all materials in the classroom and were responsible for their own engagement decisions. The primary data consists of field notes of my observations while students were involved in free choice engagements, a checklist of their engagements, and artifacts of the written literacy that students engaged in. The data analysis led to the development of a description of the types, functions, and contexts for how written language is integrated into the free choice engagements of the kindergarten students in my class. This analysis is from data on all the children in my classroom. Case studies offered a portrayal of three individual students' explorations of written language during free choice. The case studies give background information about each child, then describe the child as a player, and finally the child's literacy knowledge is described. This study has allowed me to become more acutely aware of what was happening during free choice time in my classroom. Throughout this dissertation I have contended that children come to school with a great deal of knowledge about literacy, and teachers need to value the literacy knowledge that children already have. The same must hold true for play. No doubt children have learned to play long before they come to school. It is the teacher's responsibility to close the gap between the two environments. Teachers need to respect each child's literacy strengths and motivations, and continue to offer invitations for engagements in many functional literacy engagements. I am confident that students will engage in written literacy when they are ready and see the engagements as meaningful and functional in their own lives.
    • Young Puerto Rican Children's Exploration of Racial Discourses Within the Figured World of Literature Circles

      Short, Kathy G.; Castrodad Rodriguez, Patricia M.; Short, Kathy G.; Moll, Luis; Marti­nez Roldan, Carmen; Gilmore, Perry (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      This study examines the racial discourses of six and seven year old Puerto Rican children participating in small group literature circles over one academic year. The main research question is "How do Puerto Rican young children in a multiage classroom construct race through dialogue within the figured worlds of literature circles?"This study is based on teacher research qualitative research design, using methods and techniques from ethnography and case study research. This study describes the dialogue of 20 Puerto Rican children, during 4 literature circles. These were chosen as case studies to examine in depth student's racial ideological explorations. Data gathering methods included field notes from participant observation, audiotapes, videotapes, and transcripts.A detailed description and analysis of children's responses to literature, this study documents how young Puerto Rican children's ambiguity and inconsistent usages and meanings of racial terminologies to signify their worlds. Through emerging ideological discourses such as colorblindness and esentializing discourses, young children explore discomfort instead of neutral, inclusive and unifying racial constructions, along with racial harmony that celebrates goodwill and benevolence. Literature circles as figured worlds informed by Rosenblatt's reader-response theory and Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner and Cain (2003) social practice theory of identity, are proposed to be a space were racial identities form and reform, facilitating variable forms of racial talk.The findings of this research illustrate the importance of teacher research as one form of qualitative research to illustrate the complexity of children's racial talk aimed toward educational racial understandings and change. The importance of racial discourses in young children's racial explorations to signify their worlds.
    • A young writer at home and in school

      Goodman, Yetta M.; Meyer, Richard Jonathan.; Goodman, Kenneth S.; Short, Kathy (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      This study is a qualitative case study of one writer, my daughter Zoe, over a period of two years comparing her writing at home with the writing completed at school during kindergarten and first grade. This study involves descriptions, interpretations, and analyses of Zoe's writing, including the processes and products across the two settings. There are two frames through which the writer and her writing are described, analyzed, and interpreted in this study. The first frame focuses on the purposes for and functions of Zoe's writing activity at home and in school. This includes our present understanding of written language development in terms of purposes and functions, the conditions writers require in order to write, determinants of written language, and the various systems upon which writers rely to make meaning. The second frame through which Zoe's writing is described, interpreted, and analyzed in this study focuses on the nature of the two settings, the home and the school. The settings are analyzed in terms of the activities and experiences in which the writer engages within each setting. The goal of this study is to understand the nature of a young child's writing activity across the home/school settings by analyzing the writing she did in each of those settings. The impact of the social nature of the settings upon her writing activity are also considered. A theoretical framework for written language use and development is presented and discussed as a vehicle for understanding and developing writing programs and developing supportive relationships between the school and the home.

      Iotti, Oscar R. (Oscar Raoul) (The University of Arizona., 1978)
    • Youth, Organizing, and Social Justice Pedagogy: Collaborations across Institutions and Sectors

      Romero, Andrea; Higuera, Gabriel; Cammarota, Julio; Wilkinson Lee, Ada; Deil Amen, Regina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This dissertation assesses the role of collaboration in social justice pedagogy. I conducted this study as the founder and director of the Collaborative Research in Action (CRiA) program, which recruited and trained community college and university undergraduate students to facilitate participatory action research (PAR) workshops at partnering middle and high schools. Training included readings and critical dialogue on PAR as well as visits with leading community organization representatives. After a semester of training, community college and university students were paired together, and matched with middle and high school classes and assisted those youth with their PAR projects. Together, the college student interns and I organized annual ethnic studies and social justice youth conferences at the university, where elementary, middle, and high school students throughout the region were invited to present their research on panels moderated by scholars and community leaders. Ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) serves as a theoretical framework. I utilized testimonio (Beverly, 2005; Perez Huber, 2010; Reyes & Curry Rodríguez, 2012) as a methodological approach to learn from 15 of the college student interns, teachers, and community advocates who participated in the program. Through parts of this dissertation I also share testimonio of my own experience with the CRiA program. Implications of this dissertation highlight how social justice pedagogy must be accompanied by mechanisms that connect students to organizations, collectives, and movements in order for learning to contribute to social transformation. Conversely, social justice pedagogy that is devoid of praxis (Freire, 2000) and engagement beyond the schoolhouse door perpetuates inequity by rendering oppression an academic exercise. Social justice pedagogy should be intergenerational, multi-institutional, and cross-sector while centering youth and student voice.
    • Youth, Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization in Indonesia

      Wyman, Leisy T.; Putra, Kristian Adi; Reinhardt, Jonathon S.; Gilmore, Perry (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The three studies in this dissertation were carried out with the intention of showing how Indigenous communities in critically endangered language settings can “bring their language forward” (Hornberger, 2008) by encouraging Indigenous youth participation and integrating technology into Indigenous language revitalization efforts in and out of educational settings. Indigenous youth play a pivotal role in determining the future of their languages (McCarty, et. al, 2009). However, youth are often situated in contexts where they no longer have adequate supports to learn and use their Indigenous languages (Lee, 2009; McCarty,, 2006; Romero-Little,, 2007; Wyman et al, 2013) and Indigenous languages are continuously marginalized and unequally contested by other dominant languages (Tupas, 2015; Zentz, 2017). The study within was situated in a multilingual and multicultural urban area in Indonesia marked by complex dynamics of language shift and endangerment in and out of school settings, where the teaching of Indigenous language at school was managed by the local government and limited as a subject to two hours a week. However, the study also documented multiple existing and potential resources for language revitalization, and demonstrated possibilities for building language revitalization efforts on youth language activism and the availability of technology in and out of schools. In the first study, I examined the implementation of Lampung teaching in schools in Bandar Lampung, looking at the outcomes, challenges, and achievements of existing programs, and available resources for further developing and improving the programs. In the second study, I present ethnographic vignettes of three Indigenous youth and young adult language activists from three different Indigenous communities in Indonesia, highlighting how study participants initiated wide-ranging language activist efforts, and suggested new ways to encourage other youth to participate in Indigenous language revitalization. In the third study, I invited eight young adult language activists to share their stories of language activism with students in three Lampung language classrooms in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, and help facilitate students’ Lampung language learning and use in online spaces together with Lampung language teachers. In the three studies, I triangulated quantitative data from sociolinguistic surveys and writing and speaking tests with qualitative data from interviews, focus group discussions, observations and documentation of language use in on and offline contexts. Overall findings from the three studies show how positioning youth and young adults as a resource (Wyman, et. al, 2016), and building on young peoples’ engagement with contemporary technology as a tool (Thorne & Reinhardt, 2008; Reinhardt & Thorne, 2017), can help youth learn, use and advocate for their Indigenous languages, offering hope for supporting language vitality in the future. Findings also demonstrate the potential for top down and bottom up language planning initiatives (Hornberger, 2005) to support youth Indigenous language learning and use beyond classroom settings, and encourage youth participation in community efforts to reverse language shift.