Now showing items 10591-10610 of 20306

    • A Kantian Account of Human Virtue

      Schmidtz, David; Brown, Christopher Anthony; Schmidtz, David; Smit, Houston; Timmons, Mark (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      There are certain elements of Kant's moral philosophy that I believe no moral theory can afford to ignore. On the other hand, there are others which Kant's theory evidently would be better off without. I will be developing an account of human virtue by defending and exploiting some of Kant's most fertile and sustainable ideas, while arguing against other theses of his, a few of which have come to be regarded as definitive of Kantian Ethics.I begin by showing that we can plausibly interpret Kant's texts on "the good will" and "actions from duty" as presupposing that an agent's moral goodness consists in her aptitude for lawful conduct, that is, her aptitude for living in accord with practical principles valid for all possible agents. I build my basic account of virtue by showing that this aptitude inheres in the possession of certain traits. The cornerstone of virtue, I argue, is the moral commitment: the stable, non-instrumental aim of living lawfully. For, when this commitment prevails in determining an agent's actions, lawful conduct necessarily ensues--which cannot be said of any other commitment or aim. I identify four additional elements of virtue by searching for traits that a perfectly morally committed agent might possess, and which together would guarantee that her moral commitment prevails. These are: moral understanding, strength of will, empirical understanding, and empirical power. And I suggest that when an agent violates a moral requirement, this is always saliently attributable to a lack of one or more of the five proposed elements of virtue.I supplement the basic account of virtue by arguing that the morally committed human agent is rationally required to adopt four further, general aims: the efficient pursuit of her own happiness, the happiness of other agents and non-agents, her own moral perfection, and that of other similarly committed agents. This part of my view differs significantly from Kant's, so I will be largely concerned with critiquing the relevant arguments of his. But the result is still very much a Kantian account, and one that warrants serious consideration in contemporary debates about virtue.

      Zika, Jeanne Alice, 1941- (The University of Arizona., 1971)

      Petersen, Douglas Vernon, 1941- (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • Kartchner Caverns: Habitat Scale Community Diversity and Function in a Carbonate Cave

      Curry, Joan; Ortiz-Ortiz, Marianyoly; Rich, Virginia; Vedantam, Gayatri; Curry, Joan; Maier, Raina M. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      This dissertation examines the microbial and functional diversity in Kartchner Caverns, a limestone cave in Arizona, USA. Kartchner is highly oligotrophic due to the lack of photosynthesis and the limited inputs of organic material from the surface. This characteristic poses a challenge for microbial life in the cave. The first objective of this work was to evaluate the bacterial richness, diversity and taxonomic composition of speleothems surfaces within Kartchner Caverns in order to gain insight into the distribution patterns associated with these communities. Secondly, the metabolic strategies used by cave communities to survive harsh cave conditions were investigated based on phylogenetic associations and metagenomics. Both objectives were directed toward answering the questions "who are there?" and "what are they doing?". The 454-pyrotag analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity with each speleothem supporting a unique bacterial community profile. A focused study on one room of the cave revealed three community types: Type 1 was dominated by the phylum Proteobacteria; Type 2 by Actinobacteria; and Type 3 by Acidobacteria. Phylogenetic associations of the sequences generated by the 454 sequencing and by a Sanger clone library suggested cave microbial communities are supported by chemoautotrophic activities such as nitrite and iron oxidation. Results from the phylogenetic associations guided the metagenomic analysis which supports the presence of chemoautotrophic activities in the cave. Genes for two complete CO2 fixation mechanisms, the Calvin-Benson-Bashan and the rTCA cycles were identified in the cave metagenome, as well as genes for ammonia and nitrite oxidation. These genes are associated with both Bacteria and Archaea suggesting members of both domains are acting as primary producers in the cave ecosystem. Comparative analysis of cave samples to other environments suggests an overabundance of DNA repair mechanisms which could be potentially used by cave communities to overcome the toxicity due to high concentrations of calcium on the speleothem surfaces. This work provides the first comprehensive analysis of the microbial diversity and potential strategies used by microbial communities to survive under the extreme conditions found in a semi-arid limestone cave environment.

      Cole, Charles James, 1940- (The University of Arizona., 1969)
    • Kaska language socialization, acquisition and shift

      Hill, Jane H.; Meek, Barbra Allyn (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      Language maintenance and re-creation are burning issues for many indigenous communities around the world. Child language acquisition and socialization are processes integral to understanding these issues. In order to design realistic language recreation projects, research must first address the many factors impacting the acquisition and maintenance of a language by children. This dissertation shows how different contexts, historical, environmental, interactional, relate to Kaska language socialization and acquisition. Kaska is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in the Yukon Territory (Canada). In particular, it shows how the shift from Kaska being a language of everyday communication to one associated with authority and respect constrains children's Kaska production. To examine this shift, a combination of linguistic and ethnographic methods are used. Linguistic description identifies the grammatical structures of the target language. These are the structures that children need to acquire in order to be able to understand and speak the Kaska language. Additionally, grammatical description of adult utterances reveals that children are being exposed to a full Kaska grammar. This suggests that children may understand more Kaska than they produce. Ethnographic methods identify the social constraints on speaking the Kaska language and help establish links between interaction patterns and ideological constructs. They reveal that language choice is related to a speaker's age and social position. Older interlocutors may choose to speak Kaska while younger interlocutors typically choose English. Children have incorporated this pattern into their playgroups. By producing a Kaska utterance, a child may become leader of the playgroup. He or she uses Kaska to attain this social position. Speaking Kaska is also related to the concept of respect. Narratives on socialization emphasize this by instructing children on how to behave respectfully. While children are exposed to an adult Kaska grammar, they predominantly speak English. This pattern is not just the result of past assimilationist practices; it is part of Kaska language socialization.

      Koloski, Bernard, 1937- (The University of Arizona., 1972)
    • "Kechien" as Religious Praxis in Medieval Japan: Picture Scrolls as the Means and Sites of Salvation

      Harrison, Elizabeth G.; Wu, Jiang; Nakano, Chieko; Harrison, Elizabeth G.; Wu, Jiang; Pinnington, Noel J.; Kim, Hwansoo (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      This dissertation investigates the praxis of kechien, forming a karmic connection, evidenced in various religious picture scrolls produced during the Golden Era of their production in Japan, the late thirteenth through the early fourteenth century. This study is inspired by two goals: (1) to define the concept and practice of kechien, and (2) to challenge the widely accepted idea that picture scrolls, emaki, were used solely as a didactic and proselytizing tool. This absence of scholarly work focusing on kechien is rather astonishing considering that a variety of kechien practices are still omnipresent today and were especially so in medieval Japan. Inspired by Miya Tsugio's suggestion that some emaki were created for the purpose of kechien, I examine text and painting within picture scrolls as well as Buddhist scriptures and contemporary literary works in order to understand the role they played in the formation of kechien. I propose that emaki scrolls served as both a means and a site of kechien in medieval Japanese religious praxis.The dissertation starts with the concept of kechien seen through various modern dictionaries and the writings of Zhiyi and Genshin, two early monks whose works are often cited as the locus classicus for the term. As my study aims to explore praxis, I then turn to various practices of kechien performed by two types of people: producer and audience. I argue that production and consumption of religious picture scrolls were both regarded as valid and legitimate religious practices, especially near the perceived beginning of the age of mappo, the Final Age of the Dharma. People believed that once they had formed a kechien link with the subject of emaki scrolls through its production and viewing, they would be reborn into a Pure Land and ultimately achieve enlightenment sometime in the future. They also performed meritorious acts utilizing emaki scrolls in order to strengthen their karmic affinity and improve their conditions for enlightenment.
    • Keeping score: Restructuring rhetoric used in Fortune 500 companies and public Research I universities

      Rhoades, Gary; Raphael, Mary Louise Longman, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Researchers have discussed the problems of restructuring, the methods used to measure restructuring success, the effectiveness of restructuring efforts, and prescriptions for successful restructuring among specific types of organizations (for-profit and public non-profit). While some have suggested that different challenges face for-profit sector and public non-profit sector restructuring efforts, few have compared the restructuring processes in both sectors based on the statements made by organizational representatives. This research studies both the language of restructuring as used by university and corporate leaders and the actual results of the restructuring plans presented through the theoretical frameworks of isomorphism and resource dependency. The documents collected from each organization were limited to those prepared for public consumption and reflected the language used by top management or administrators. An approach, using multiple case studies, was employed to organize and focus the data collected. The use of individual cases provided the opportunity to examine specific restructuring strategies, language, and results used by different organizations functioning in different economic sectors. The language analysis looked for the expression of different or similar organizational values expressed during the course of restructuring. The organizations studied all underwent recent restructuring efforts, and included two Research I universities and three Fortune 500 businesses. This research indicated that the public rhetoric of restructuring may not reflect the actual activities of restructuring taking place within an organization. Even though the business literature and many businesses themselves have extolled the benefits of a more collaborative management style since the early 1980's, and legislatures have encouraged public universities to be more business-like since the early 1990's, and though much of the rhetoric reflected these pressures, the actual management processes showed very little change in either group. A movement toward one another in management style was not found in these organizations. All five organizations structured rhetoric to satisfy their constituents, all five organizations maintained their traditional management and decision making styles, and, at the end of the restructuring period, all five organizations were still trying to find ways to improve their organizational outcomes.
    • Keeping up with friends: A grounded theory of friendship and well-being in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

      Haase, Joan; Steinke, Nancy Ann (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Children with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) often describe themselves as lonely. This grounded theory investigation documented ways that friends aid children with JRA. In depth, open ended interviews with three children with JRA, their best friends, and mothers of each were done. Observations at Arthritis Camp supplemented the interview data. In this document only the data from the children with JRA were reported. A substantive range nursing theory was generated to specify the process by which friendships influence the child with JRA's well-being. The basic social psychological process of Keeping Up, the child with JRA's ability to maintain acceptable play interactions, was identified as the core category in the grounded theory Keeping Up With Friends. Three stages of friendships were identified: Making Friends, Being Friends, and Losing Friends. The process of Keeping Up took place in the stage of Being Friends. Categories that positively related to the child with JRA's sense of well-being were: Keeping Up, Maintaining Acceptable Play Interactions, Companionship, Help from Friends, and Strategies to Manage Denigrating Social Responses. Categories that decreased the child's well-being included Problems with Having JRA and Missing Out. Well-being was defined by the children with JRA as feeling good, happy, strong, and as normal as possible. Being Visibly Different from friends and Barriers to Friendships were found to negatively affect the child with JRA's ability to Keep Up. Among several implications for nursing practice and research was the importance of the children learning to pace themselves as they participated in social activities as well as their sensitivity to unwanted attention in social situations. Clinically this model could be used "as is" when working with girls with JRA who are lonely, being teased or left out of social activities.
    • Kent A. Newbury: A Study of His Choral Works

      Chamberlain, Bruce; Hintze, Richard Robert; Chamberlain, Bruce; Brobeck, John; Schauer, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      Kent Alan Newbury is an American composer who was born in Chicago in 1925, and currently resides in Scottsdale, Arizona. He has composed over 550 works and has had 282 choral works published. His first published piece was Psalm 150 (1955) and his latest publication was Praise the Lord, All Ye People (2013). Thirty-nine of his published choral pieces are still in print. At this time, the unpublished manuscripts include 204 choral pieces, four solo works, four instrumental works for dance, thirty-seven brass or band works, six woodwind pieces, and nineteen string or orchestra works. Newbury's complete catalog is included as Appendix B. During his Initial Period (1955-1965), Newbury had eighteen pieces published. In his Developmental Period (1966-1985), 247 pieces were published. That is an average of twelve pieces published per year. During his Mature Period (1986-present), he has had seventeen pieces published. This is the first published work documenting Newbury's life and music. It is hoped this study will introduce more choral directors to Newbury's music and encourage the performance of his music by more college, church, and school choirs. Analysis of Newbury's published choral works reveals the consistent inclusion of four stylistic traits: syncopation, text painting, parallelism, and textural layering. This study demonstrates how the use of these stylistic traits develops through his compositional career, both in terms of the frequency of usage and the progression of the technique. Syncopation is plentiful throughout Newbury's three periods. Syncopation and rhythmic displacement are found in 37% of published pieces in his Developmental Period and in 100% of published pieces in his Mature Period. The syncopation ranges from simple to complex, and it is sewn into the inner fabric of his compositional style. Text painting is used a great deal in Newbury's Initial Period, but the frequency diminishes in his later periods. Instead, he approaches his composition as he is inspired by the text, and the music reflects the text, in its totality if not in detail. Parallelism is a favored stylistic trait. Newbury composes with parallel fifths and fourths, and parallel chords moving in similar motion (planing) as well as contrary motion (the omnibus progression). Despite his teachers' objections to the use of parallel fifths, this is a consistent element throughout his career. Textural layering is a technique in which notes are added or repeated to call attention to the text or to build harmonic structures. As with text painting, the frequency of usage is most prevalent in his earlier periods.
    • Kenyan Language Ideologies, Language Endangerment, and Gikuyu (Kikuyu): How Discourses of Nationalism, Education, and Development Have Placed a Large, Indigenous Language at Risk

      Hill, Jane H.; Zepeda, Ofelia; Orcutt-Gachiri, Heidi Ann; Mendoza-Denton, Norma C.; Philips, Susan U.; Gilmore, Perry (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      This dissertation, based on pilot research in the U.S. and Kenya in 2002 and fieldwork in two secondary schools in Kenya in 2004, has a twofold focus. First, it examines language ideologies of English, Kiswahili, and Kenya's 53 indigenous languages, in particular Gikuyu [Kikuyu], in the context of Kenyan discourses of nationalism, education, and development. Second, it shows how these language ideologies are contributing to the language endangerment of Kenya's indigenous languages.The stable trilingualism enjoyed by the parents of today's young Kenyans is not shared by their children. The research question that drove this dissertation was, Why are trilingual parents raising bilingual children? This dissertation seeks to answer that question by drawing on ethnographic observations, consultant interviews, and newspaper data from Kenya's largest newspapers, the Nation and the Standard. Rapid language shift, occurring in just the past 20 years in Kenya, has put even large languages like Gikuyu into an endangered status. A historically contextualized understanding of the reasons behind the shift is necessary in order for the trend to be reversed.
    • Ketamine Infusions for Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

      Edmund, Sara J.; Lindly, Lindsey Ann; Elam, Charles R.; Corriveau , Luc (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose: The purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project is to educate mental health professionals at Peak Wellness Center in southeast Wyoming about intravenous ketamine for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.Background: Intravenous ketamine has been used for several years for analgesia and anesthesia. The use of intravenous ketamine for psychiatric disorders is a new utilization of this anesthetic medication; a knowledge deficit exists among mental health professionals regarding its usage for depression treatment. Methods: A 15-minute, online educational presentation with pre- and post-test surveys was developed detailing strategies for identifying patients that would benefit from intravenous ketamine treatment, safety considerations, contraindications to treatment, cost, insurance considerations, where local ketamine clinics are located, and how to refer clinically qualified patients for treatment. Results: Ten PWC mental health professionals viewed the educational presentation and responded to corresponding surveys. A comparison of the 10 participants responses demonstrated increased intravenous ketamine knowledge, improved comfort level for discussing ketamine treatment with patients, and greater intent to refer qualified patients to certified intravenous ketamine providers Conclusion: The project shows that education can positively impact mental health professionals’ knowledge about new treatment modalities for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Keywords: depression, major depressive disorder, intravenous infusion, ketamine, treatment-resistant
    • The keyboard music of Frederic Anthony Rzewski with special emphasis on the "North American Ballads".

      Hayashi, Kim.; Fan, Paula; Woods, David; Fernandez, Nohema (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      "The Keyboard Music of Frederic Anthony Rzewski With Special Emphasis on the North American Ballads" focuses on the piano works by Frederic Anthony Rzewski. Opening chapters are devoted to Rzewski's life and his activities, particularly his special political and social associations, and those musicians, composers and performers who have been an important part of his life, and to the development of his music. There is a special chapter on the piano variations The People United Will Never Be Defeated, as this piece brought to fruition many of Rzewski's compositional techniques, particularly those used in the North American Ballads. As Rzewski suggested that this author investigate the folk music of North America, a chapter centered on those aspects of folk music used in the Ballads is also contained herein. The paper is focused on an in-depth analysis of the North American Ballads with a fully-annotated score. A chapter on some of Rzewski's other important piano pieces and a complete works list is also included.

      Braun, Eldon J.; Anderson, Gary L. (Gary Lee) (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      This work is a quantitative description of the renal excretion and the post-renal modification of ureteral urine from native (unanesthetized, uninfused, and normal hydropenic) desert quail, Lophortyx gambelii. The technique used in this study establishes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine flow rate, and urinary excretion of water, sodium, potassium, and uric acid for desert quail in a relatively undisturbed state and in steady-state balance with regard to intake and output of water, sodium, and potassium. In contrast, conventional methods of determining GFR in birds include the use of anesthesia, cloacal or ureteral canulation, and infusion of fluids to introduce filtration markers (e.g. inulin) and to cause a diuresis (e.g. by using mannitol). In the present study, native desert quail had a urine flow rate of about 40 g/ compared to over 500 g/ for desert quail previously studied using conventional methods. Also in the present study, GFR was about 1.6 ml/kg.min which is about 25% lower than previously reported (2.1 ml/kg.min) for desert quail studied with conventional techniques. Renal absorption of the filtered loads of water, sodium and potassium also was determined in the present study. The fractions of the filtered loads reabsorbed by the renal tubules were: for water 98%, for sodium 99.4%, and for potassium 42%. These findings illustrate that renal reabsorption of these filtered substances is less complete in birds than in mammals where, in man for example, about 99% of the water and 99.8% of the sodium are normally reabsorbed. In addition, this study evaluates the role of the cloaca and lower intestines in changing the composition of the ureteral urine. Ureteral urine is modified in the cloaca and lower intestines of the desert quail before being excreted with the final droppings. This modification results in reabsorption of about 70% of the water and sodium and about 80% of the potassium in the ureteral urine. Thus for the desert quail, post-renal reabsorption of water and sodium from ureteral urine produced by the kidneys increases the total amounts of the filtered loads reabsorbed to 99% for water and 99.7% for sodium, which are nearly the same as seen for man. It is concluded that post-renal reabsorption of water and sodium is an important aspect of fluid and electrolyte balance in native desert quail. About 65% of the uric acid present in the ureteral urine was found to be degraded during its passage into the lower intestines. This is particularly significant because trapping of sodium and potassium occurs within the uric acid precipitates which form in bird urine. It was determined that about 20% of the sodium and 33% of the potassium in the ureteral urine are trapped within uric acid precipitates. Degradation of uric acid may increase the reabsorbable pools of these cations and facilitate their reabsorption by the tissues of the lower intestines. Since the intestinal ceca of birds contain large populations of uric acid-decomposing bacteria, and because other studies have suggested large amounts of water are reabsorbed in the ceca of birds, the role of the ceca in post-renal modification of urine was evaluated. The results are not conclusive. Cecaectomized (Cx) birds showed only a transitory increase in water loss when compared to sham operated (Sh) birds. No difference in uric acid excretion was seen between Cx or Sh birds. Thus, no obligatory role for the ceca in post-renal reabsorption of water and electrolytes, or in degradation of uric acid, was evident.
    • Kids and Computers: The Interactions and Attitudes of Girls and Boys with Technology

      Connolly, Sonya Nicole; Short, Kathy G.; Valmont, William J.; Betts, J. David (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This dissertation study examines computer use by second graders in an affluent, suburban community to determine how boys and girls view and participate with computers at home and in an educational setting. This qualitative study examined the students' time spent with computers, software choices, perceptions of technology now and in the future, their computer skills and their perceptions of their skills and the influence of parents through the use of interviews, observations, logs, surveys and artifact collection.The findings from this research demonstrate that there were no drastic differences in the amount of time boys and girls spent on computers at home and at school. In terms of software choices, all students favored games to other types of software. However, girls were more likely to favor games that were less competitive and boys tended to favor sports games. The parents in this study had primarily positive perceptions of the role of computers in their children's lives and the students felt that their parents supported their computer use.Additionally, this study reveals that while all students were able to meet most of the school district's technology frameworks, better assessment tools need to be created to truly capture the richness of what students are able to do with computers and to encourage them to use the computer in thought provoking ways that emphasize more than just skills. Finally, students of both genders were able to envision multiple uses for computers now and in the future.

      Harris, Robin B; Abalos, Andrew T.; Hsu, Paul; Martinez, Jesse; Garcia, Francisco; Thompson, Patricia A; Harris, Robin B (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted infection and is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer is incompletely understood. Innate immune response to HPV infection has recently been identified as a potential cofactor in this progression. This study examined potential association(s) between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and HPV infection. HPV concordance was estimated among heterosexual couples demonstrating the complexity of HPV infection.Methods: HPV concordance was cross-sectionally estimated in 29 heterosexual couples. A polymerase chain reaction based assay for KIR genotyping was developed and validated. 283 women from the Young Women's Health Study and 259 men from the HPV Infection in Men: A Prospective Cohort Study had HPV infection data and samples available for KIR genotyping. Associations between KIR genotype and haplotype with HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance were assessed.Results: Among 29 couples, prevalence for any HPV type was comparable between women 86.2% and men, 75.9%. Partial concordance was observed in 66% of the couples. Forty-one percent (41%) of couples had perfect concordance. A high degree of concordance was observed, however HPV type distributions differed in men and women. In women from the YWHS, KIR2DS5 was significantly associated with oncogenic HPV prevalence (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.31-0.99). Any HPV incidence was significantly associated with KIR2DL2 (Hazards Ratio [HR]: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.0-4.44), KIR2DS2 (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.13-5.24), KIR2DS3 (HR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.16-4.81), and KIR haplotype B (HR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.02-6.02). Women lacking KIR2DS5 had an increased risk of any HPV acquisition in the presence of KIR2DL2 (HR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.28-6.86), KIR2DS2 (HR: 3.33, 1.39-7.99), or KIR2DS3 (2.77, 95% CI: 1.24-6.19). In Men, KIR2DS3 was significantly associated with increased probability of any HPV clearance (HR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.04-3.49).Conclusions: This research contributes to our understanding of HPV infection dynamics through the assessment HPV type concordance in sexual partners. Additionally, through the development of an assay for KIR genotyping, we were able to identify associations with KIR gene positivity and HPV prevalence, incidence, and clearance in men and women.

      Raval, Suresh; Thomas, Reena; Raval, Suresh; Monsman, Gerald; Cooper Alarcón, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      This dissertation is concerned with the gendered discourse of nation and home where women carry the symbolic duty of holders of a pure, uncontaminated culture passively confined to the domestic space. I consider two commonplace tropes, the woman-as-nation metaphor and the Victorian angel in the house, both of which convey a limited view of women's agency and her significance in simultaneously resisting and ratifying patriarchal visions of nation and gender. The novels in this study document various phases of nation building under periods of colonialism and postcolonialism, and each features the plight of women affected by the realities of sham democracies and political instability. My analysis rests on the claim that postcolonial authors continue the inquiries into the ironic and futile foundations on which nation and identity is built which define modernist despair. I assert the value in understanding how women respond to disillusionment across cultures in an attempt to recover the experience of women and her political consciousness, granting a relevance to the role women play in textual deliberations on political skepticism and political idealism often reserved for male actors.