Now showing items 12533-12552 of 20306

    • A multivariate model for mineral endowment.

      Marlow, Josef Edward.; Harris, DeVerle P.; Rieber, Michael; Titley, Spencer R.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Glass, Charles E. (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This study proposes a multivariate statistical model for mineral endowment and estimates the model parameters for epithermal precious metal deposits in the Walker Lake 1° x 2° quadrangle of Nevada and California. The multiple regression model developed in this study is utilized to describe mineral endowment as a function of quantified geology. Geology and mineral endowment are quantified on consistent geological areas or intrinsic samples, which represent a homogenous multivariate population whose members are statistically independent. A new, geologically-defined mineral endowment descriptor, volume of mineralized rock (VMR), is proposed, which is defined as the total volume of rock exhibiting anomalous concentrations of metallic and non-metallic minerals occurring within a particular type of mineral deposit present above a specified maximum depth in the crust of a region. The proposed model incorporates an externally-defined measure of mineral exploration completeness in an exploration model to mitigate problems of information completeness inherent in regression models applied under the principle of analogy. The geodata variables employed as dependent variables in the regression model include primary geodata and synthesized information variables representing lithology, geochemistry, geological structure, and geophysics. A variable representing alteration mineralogy is developed using remote sensing satellite data. A radiometric correction is applied to Thematic Mapper (TM) data, and image processing techniques are employed to construct color ratio composite images, which are input into a maximum likelihood classifier to produce a map of mineral alteration. A regression model having a linear form is estimated for epithermal precious metal deposits in the Walker Lake 1° x 2° quadrangle and employed to predict volumes of mineralized rock. These estimates are useful for mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment. The model predictions in the study area indicate that the best exploration potential for deposits of the epithermal environment in the Walker Lake 1° x 2° quadrangle is in the south-central and southeast portions of the quadrangle. For resource assessment, the estimated volumes of mineralized rock, as descriptions of the physical entities of mineralization, provide inputs to an approach which would model the economics and technology necessary to transform this mineralization into mineral resources.
    • Multivariate statistical strategies for the diagnosis of space-occupying liver disease.

      Sechrest, Lee; Stempski, Mark Owen. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This dissertation investigated the use of a variety of multivariate statistical procedures to answer questions regarding the value of a number of medical tests and procedures in the diagnosis of space-occupying liver disease. Also investigated were some aspects of test ordering behavior by physicians. A basic methodology was developed to deal with archival data. A number of methodological problems were addressed. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine which procedures and tests served to provide the best classification of disease entities. Although the results were not spectacular, some variables, including a physical examination variable and a number of laboratory procedures were identified as being important. A more detailed analysis of the role of the laboratory variables was afforded by the use of stepwise logistic regression. In these analyses pairs of disease classifications were compared. Two of the more specific laboratory tests, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphate, entered into the equations to provide a fit to the data. Logistic regression analyses employing patient variables mirrored the results obtained with the discriminant function analyses. Liver-spleen scan indicants were also employed as predictor variables in a series of logistic regression analyses. In general, for a range of comparisons, those indicants cited in the literature as being valuable in discriminating between disease entities entered into the equations. Log-Linear models were used to investigate test ordering behavior. In general, test ordering was independent of department. The sole exception being that of the Gynecology-oncology department which relies heavily on Ultrasound. Log-Linear analyses investigating the use of a number of procedures showed differential use of procedures consistent with what is usually suggested in the medical literature for the combination of different imaging and more specialized procedures. Finally, a set of analyses investigated the ordering of a number of procedures relative to specific disease classifications. This set of analyses suffers, as do a number of the other analyses, from insufficient numbers of cases. However, some indications of differential performance of tests for different disease classifications were evident. Suggestions for further study concentrated on the development of experimental procedures given the results of this study.
    • Multiwave interactions in semiconductors.

      Paul, Andrew Eliot.; Koch, Stephan W.; Garcia, J.D.; Thews, R.L.; Tomizuka, Carl; Vuillemin, J. (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      This dissertation considers multi-wave interactions in bulk semiconductors. Non-equilibrium Green's functions are used to derive an appropriate set of equations describing the interaction of a light field with a semiconductor. Many-body effects lead to the screening of the Coulomb potential in these equations, as well as, carrier-carrier scattering. The carrier-carrier scattering is studied within the context of the carrier Boltzmann equation which contains the dynamically screened Coulomb potential. The relation between carrier scattering and optical dephasing is also made. The carrier scattering rates are then used in the equations describing a two beam pump-probe experiment. The resulting equations are solved numerically for both passive and active systems, and effects such as spectral hole burning, coherent light scattering, and light induced band splitting are studied. Considering three CW beams (pump and two probes) allows for the study of four-wave mixing in semiconductors. By considering CW fields, the semiconductor may be treated in the quasi-equilibrium approximation allowing for greater detail in the treatment of the light field. The resulting probe absorption yields asymmetries which result in an asymmetric four-wave mixing spectrum. The four-wave mixing spectrum is then used to study the amount of squeezing in the light field exiting the cavity in a four-wave mixing experiment.
    • Multiwavelength observations of quasars and their environments

      Impey, Christopher; Hooper, Eric Jon, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The relationship between the radio and optical properties of quasars and the connection between these properties and the quasar host galaxies are investigated. Radio data have been analyzed for 359 of the 1055 quasars in the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). A major result of this work is that the radio-loud fraction is mostly insensitive to redshift and quasar optical luminosity, remaining at ≈ 10% over the absolute magnitude range -28 ≤ M(B) ≤ -23 and from redshifts z = 0.2 to z ∼ 5. Two deviations from these flat distributions occur at z ∼ 1, where there is a modest increase in the radio-loud fraction, and for absolute magnitudes brighter than M(B) = -28, where the fraction climbs to 20-30%. The rise in radio-loud fraction at z ∼ 1 is reproduced by a model based on the optical and radio quasar luminosity functions. The increase at high optical luminosities is consistent with the existence of two radio emission mechanisms, one correlated with optical luminosity, the other independent. The nearly flat distributions in the LBQS differ markedly from those of the optically selected Palomar-Green Bright Quasar Survey and the X-ray selected Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. A subset of 16 LBQS quasars was imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope to study the dependence of radio and optical luminosity on the absolute magnitudes and morphologies of the host galaxies. There is no distinction in host galaxy magnitude between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, assuming they are all of the same galaxy type. The magnitudes of the hosts are ≳ L*, and the optical luminosities of the hosts and nuclear components are positively correlated. Many of the host galaxies have small axial ratios, which may indicate that they are inclined disk systems; or else they have bright elongated features which are visible while the bulk of the underlying lower surface brightness components of the host galaxy are not.
    • Multiwavelength Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer

      Schwiegerling, James; Jain, Prateek; Schwiegerling, James; Chipman, Russell; Miller, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      Measurement of higher order optical aberrations in the human eye has become important and common place now days, particularly in the advent of custom Lasik surgery and adaptive optics. The most widely used instrument in the industry and clinics is the Shack- Hartmann Aberrometer that utilizes the Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye. The standard SH aberrometer is made of a chin rest and requires the subject to look at the target with one eye and measures the aberrations at an infrared wavelength which is generally 780 nm. This research work adds two improvements to the standard instrument. These two new SH aberrometers have been built and tested on Human subjects. The first modification is to make the aberrometer portable and unobtrusive so that it can be hand held and the subject is allowed to look at the target with both eyes. This instrument is called the Unobtrusive SH Aberrometer (USHA). The second modification is to measure the aberrations at three visible wavelengths spanning the visible spectrum so as to not only measure the aberrations over the visible spectrum but also measure the chromatic aberration. This instrument is called the Multiwavelength SH Aberrometer (MSHA). This instrument is probably a first of its kind, capable measuring the in vivo chromatic aberration in a single image.
    • Mundos, Murallas, Murales: Muralism and the Global Border Industrial Complex

      McAllister, Ken S.; Ramírez, Alejandra I.; Tellez, Michelle; Gonzales, Patrisia; Licona, Adela (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Walls have been a medium upon which peoples imprint their visions and dreams of the world:their world-views. Muralism on national border barriers has become a popular aesthetic and mode of cultural production that has been photographed, archived, circulated, and debated around the globe for many decades. In this dissertation, I analyze the rise of national bordermurals as art that has the potential to disrupt, resist, and decolonize at an epistemic level (epistemic decolonization) and will argue that the “sensations” (in the form of emotional residue, affect, auras, and traces for example) are what give national border murals their provocative capacity. This dissertation is focused on a comparative, rhetorical analysis of national border walls and border wall murals; murals that seem to be connected through a similar symbology across boundaries, make political arguments, and provoke emotional responses from their audiences such as by depicting human rights violations, unlawful detentions, and death. By considering a phenomenology of border murals (the barrier’s histories, discourses, aesthetics, and affects), this dissertation addresses questions of rhetorical importance as it examines how national border barrier murals circulate, materialize, disrupt, and undo the (dis)illusions of nationalism, neocolonialism, and settler colonial logics. The Global Border Industrial Complex (GBIC) is a matrix of seemingly invisible exchanges of power. Border wall murals reveal some of those exchanges and relationships through their explicit imagery as well as their affect. The affect of globalized borders and border arts can be articulated through a decolonial, rhetorical, embodied, research methodology focused on the senses–facultades serpentinas. In this dissertation, using a facultades serpentinas methodology, I will analyze murals at different national borders (Israel, US, Berlin), each for their local or regional geopolitical context, and will specifically examine how they relate to the sensorial and the GBIC. In studying these sites, I hope to discover how the aesthetics of the border barriers resist and reproduce the (dis)illusions of extremist politics and governments through the senses. This dissertation will explore how/whether border muralists can act as agents of decolonization who can deconstruct the narrative of national walls and reconstruct it through a form of sensational or sensorial rhetoric capable of decolonizing both the geopolitical landscapes/borderlands. Political and epistemological decolonization can be understood as both a process of land and government (or governance) redress and well as critical consciousness raising (conscientização). I will provide an analysis that is focused on historical moments of colonization and deterritorialization within political, local and global, rhetorical frameworks (that attend to globally connected/globalized matrices of power). I expand on areas of study that braid together arts, scholarship, and resistance, and maintain an emphasis on the possibilities of muralism as a decolonial (or decolonizing) expressive form through the decolonial aesthetics theory as described by the Transnational Decolonial Institute (TDI).

      Wikstrom, Gunnar (The University of Arizona., 1973)
    • Muscle torque-total torque relationships at the shoulder and elbow: Rules for initiating multijoint arm movements

      Koshland, Gail; Galloway, James Coleman (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      One concept central to theories of multijoint control concerns the selection of muscles for the appropriate joint motion. For multijoint movements, a given muscle torque at an individual joint can lead to flexion, extension, or very little motion, since mechanical effects coming from other segments interact with muscle torque. This study quantified the contribution of muscle torque to initial joint motion for horizontal arm movements throughout the workspace. Previous studies of arm mechanics have been limited to a few movements or have focused on one joint. In contrast, this study reports data for both the shoulder and elbow joints. Moreover, a large number of movements were used for which direction, excursion, and distance were manipulated. Using high speed video recordings and techniques of inverse dynamics, a ratio of muscle torque to total torque was computed for each movement as a measure of contribution of muscle torque to joint acceleration. One consistent finding was that the muscle torque contribution consistently differed between the shoulder and elbow for most of the workspace. At one joint, muscle torque directly contributed to acceleration with negligible interaction torque ('direct' muscle torque contribution), thus the joint appeared to act as the launcher of the arm. At the other joint, both muscle and interaction torques contributed to joint acceleration ('complex' contribution), thus the joint appeared to be responding to mechanical effects from motion of the launcher. This contrast between joints may provide a simplifying feature for multijoint arm control. Specifically, only one of the two joints has complex mechanics, while the other joint, surprisingly, has simplified mechanics similar to a single joint in isolation. Movements in this study also demonstrated a three fold covariance (muscle torque contribution, movement direction, and the relative excursions of the shoulder and elbow) regardless of distance. A covariance of movement features, historically viewed as a confound, may provide a further simplification for arm control by reducing the unknowns; namely, the muscle torque contribution is associated with a resultant direction and joint excursions, or a direction or set of excursions is achieved by the associated muscle torque contribution.
    • Music as a Therapeutic Nursing Intervention and Cardiac Surgical Inpatients' Experience: A Quality Improvement Project

      Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Dacey, Ashley Ann; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Buchner, Brian R.; Wiley, Luz M. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Enduring cardiac surgery can result in physical pain and feelings of anxiety during the recovery period. Although pharmaceutical interventions exist to help alleviate these symptoms, complimentary therapies are seldom encountered in hospital settings. Listening to calming music has been shown to improve the patient experience and can be a safe adjunct to standard pharmaceutical management of pain and anxiety. The aim of this project was to implement music as a nursing intervention for open-heart patients and to evaluate both nurse attitudes and trends in use and patient experiences of pain, anxiety, and satisfaction. A descriptive, quality improvement project following the Plan-Do-Study-Act format for healthcare improvement was conducted on a cardiac telemetry unit at a suburban hospital in Arizona. Thirty percent of staff nurses provided feedback. The majority of participating nurses had a bachelor’s degree (58%) and less than 10 years of nursing experience (79%). Of the participating nurses, 79% recommended the intervention, with two fully providing the intervention to the patient when requested. Patient surveys were completed by 13% of potential patient participants, though only two surveys were suitable for analysis. Patients (n=2) reported improvements in satisfaction levels and would recommend the intervention for others. One reported an improvement in pain and the other patient reported an improvement in anxiety. Overall, music was viewed favorably by nurses and patients as a complementary therapy, but because of the short study period and limited nurse and patient feedback, more quality improvement projects are needed to determine its direct effects on patients. Engaging and recruiting frontline staff in the design of the project and enlisting more financial support from the organization would be advised.
    • Music for clarinet and string quartet by women composers.

      Rothenberg, Florie.; Kirkbride, Jerry; Dietz, William (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      This document examines works written by women composers for the ensemble comprised of clarinet and string quartet. A thorough search of clarinet and chamber music repertoire lists as well as reference materials devoted to women composers has yielded twenty pieces composed by women for this ensemble. The quintets by Elizabeth Maconchy, Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, and Ilse Fromm-Michaels are discussed in detail, primarily through analysis of theoretical properties, including formal structure, texture and timbre, harmonic idiom, and rhythmic and melodic language. An evaluation of performance requirements, leading to a determination of the level of ensemble needed for successful presentation is also provided, as is an aesthetic evaluation based on the above-mentioned analysis, existing criticism and personal opinion. A history of each composer's life is presented, with emphasis placed on her education and career. The remaining seventeen pieces are presented in the form of an annotated repertoire list. Ten of these works and their composers are discussed in a format similar to the works above, but in less detail. The composers in this category include: Stefania de Kenessey, Ruth Gipps, Elizabeth Gyring, Katherine Hoover, Nicola LeFanu, Helen Lipscomb, Vera Preobrajenska, Louise Talma, Julia Usher, and Joelle Wallach. Music for the remaining seven pieces has not been obtained, but limited historical data for each composer is provided.
    • Music for steel band: An examination of the various styles which develop specific performance skills

      Cook, Gary D.; Walton, David Brian (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      The steel band is one of the fastest growing ensembles in university and college settings. There are many types of steel bands and several different approaches to how the ensemble is taught, the styles of music that are taught and the reasons why those styles of music are presented. This document is directed toward instructors and students at institutions that have or intend to have a steel band as a regular rehearsing and performing ensemble. This research work will assist in understanding the styles of steel band music, the various methods by which those styles may be taught and what music performance skills will be exercised and developed by the styles and different presentations. The history of the steel band in Trinidad and the United States will be dealt with briefly. Latter portions of the document discuss the music performance skills that are exercised and developed by steel band experience, the different styles of music that a steel band rehearses and performs, the methods of music presentation possible within a steel band and the different performance skills that each type of presentation will favor. Also included are a glossary of steel band terms and a selected discography of exemplary steel band recordings.
    • Music for Trombone and Percussion: A Survey and Analysis of Performance Problems of Selected Representative Compositions

      Adams, Stan (The University of Arizona., 1981)
      The twentieth century has seen a tremendous growth in the use of the trombone and percussion instruments in chamber music. Stravinsky, in his L'Histoire du Soldat (1917) and Milhaud, in his La Creation du Monde (1927), helped lay the foundation. Two other works, Ionization (1931) by Edgar Varèse and Toccata (1942) by Carlos Chávez are the first of numerous works for percussion ensemble which have since been composed. So many developments of percussion instruments and their music are being made that many consider the twentieth century to be the "Age of Percussion". The trombone family (alto, tenor and bass) has experienced growth in literature and technical advancements but not quite to the degree of the percussion instruments. The development of the trombone choir by Emory Remington at the Eastman School of Music has led to its increased popularity in recent decades. The multiple trombone jazz groups of J. J. Johnson and Kai Winding in the 1950's and Urbie Green in the early 1960's have aided in the development of music written for the trombone. It has only been in the last two decades that music of the genre to be discussed here has been explored. Some of the earliest works that fit this category are Porter D. Henry's Suite for Trombone and Percussion and Vinko Globokar's Vibone for trombone and vibraphone, both of which date from 1963. Since that time, more than 90 works have been composed for one or more trombones and percussion instruments or for small mixed ensembles in which these instruments play a major role. The International Trombone Association and the Percussive Arts Society have done a great deal to advance both the literature and development for the trombone and for percussion. The following document will analyze performance problems involved in a number of representative works from the literature. It will also provide a listing of compositions for trombone and percussion alone or in a chamber music setting of up to five performers.
    • Music From the Soul of Woman: The Influence of the African American Presbyterian and Methodist Traditions on the Classical Compositions of Florence Price and Dorothy Rudd Moore

      Robinson, Faye; Mashego, Shana Thomas; Robinson, Faye; Hirst, Grayson; Dauphinais, Kristin (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      Since its inception, the African American Church has played a vital role in the African American community. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the black Methodist movement began. Methodism was the first separate denomination formed by African Americans in the United States and remains one of the largest denominations populated by African Americans. Presbyterianism became a part of African American culture during the mid nineteenth century. Within many black Methodist and Presbyterian churches, the tradition of the musical liturgy, which included the music of European classical composers, was expected to remain unchanged, and even today many of the churches within these denominations have held fast to a traditional music liturgy.For many black women coming of age during the late eighteenth through to the twentieth centuries, the time of the composers Florence Price (1887-1953) and Dorothy Rudd Moore (b.1940), the music liturgy of the African American Presbyterian and Methodist church aided them in their exposure to European classical composers and their compositions. This document explores the premise that exposure during their formative years to European classical music within their Presbyterian and Methodist churches helped to nurture Price and Moore's approaches to classical music composition. Included in Appendix A and B are works lists of Florence B. Price and Dorothy Rudd Moore. These works lists were organized by the author from various sources and should prove helpful to those interested in the research and performance of the composers' works.
    • Music has more than charm: a historical and stylistic discussion of Chinese folk songs

      Masher, Elizabeth; Chyou, Shang-Fen (The University of Arizona., 1989)
    • Music Intervention for the Burn Population

      Pacheco, Christy L.; Rivas, Erika; Edmund, Sara J.; Carlisle, Heather L. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of unintentional deaths in the United States (Capek et al., 2018). Patients who sustain a burn injury endure many painful procedures throughout their road to recovery. The repetition of these painful procedures often creates anticipated anxiety, which can have a significant impact in the recovery of burn patients. Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of music interventions in decreasing anxiety in burn patients. Given the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders associated with burn injuries, it is imperative to provide early interventions that are aimed to minimize psychological distress and promote comfort within the burn population. Aims: This quality improvement project evaluated the effectiveness of music on anticipatory anxiety among burn patients while also providing the nursing staff with information on the benefits of music intervention in procedural anxiety and pain. Methods: Patients anticipated anxiety levels were measured before their dressing change using a one-group, pre and posttest design. A Likert scale survey was used to determine the nurses’ perception and knowledge of music intervention as well as their daily utilization in practice. Results: A total of N=7 burn patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the music intervention portion of this quality improvement project. Findings indicated that this design was underpowered to detect statistically significant improvement t(6)= 1.629, p= 0.155, d= 0.61, 95% C.I. [-3.68, 15.01]. A total of N=21 nurses completed the nursing portion. Findings indicated that 62% (n=13) perceived music as effective in reducing anxiety during painful procedures while only 24% (n=5) were aware of the evidence supporting its use for anxiety management in burn patients. Music therapy was reported as “always” utilized by 29% (n=6) of the nurses during dressing changes and 90% (n=19) of the nurses felt that music could be easily incorporated into daily use if supplies were available. Conclusion: This quality improvement project demonstrated that although nurses lacked knowledge of music intervention and its evidence supporting its use on burn patients, their perception of its effects on anxiety was positive and supported by their frequent utilization of music. Music intervention was found to be effective in decreasing anxiety scores in four out of seven participants. Clinical observation demonstrated that music interventions supported the basic principle of Kolcaba’s theory of comfort by promoting a state of ease and contentment in burn patients (Kolcaba, 2003). These findings suggest that music intervention is a safe, nonpharmacological, evidence-based intervention that can be easily utilized to enhance the care of burn patients.
    • The Music of Edgard Varèse with Analysis of Intégrales and Déserts

      Morse, H. William (The University of Arizona., 1981)
      The purpose of this study is to organize the musical philosophies of Edgard Varese and to develop an approach for stylistic analysis of his works. Many concepts which Varèse translated into musical thought were not solely musical. They were also represented in twentieth century painting, architecture, poetry, science, mathematics, and technology. An understanding of Varèse's works required a redefined approach for listening. The pursuit of this study is, therefore, relevant and justified. This document is organized in four chapters. The first chapter will examine Varèse's personal development through an overview of important influences in his life, and his aesthetic philosophies. Chapter 2 will demonstrate how Varèse's own statements helped determine the approach for the author's analyzations. Chapters 3 and 4 deal directly with the analyzations of Intégrales and Déserts. Great music of any historical period has distinguished itself by individuality and not by complacency. Composers of innovation have risen to prominence because of the uniqueness and quality of their work. The music of Edgard Varése must also be included in this category because of its uncontestable originality and merit.

      Freebern, Charles L., 1934- (The University of Arizona., 1969)
    • Music Teacher Preparation for the Urban Classroom: A Qualitative Study

      Draves, Tami J.; Corso, Dawn T.; Languell, Amorette Briana; Cooper, Shelly (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      With the intent of improving pre-service music teacher preparation for successful teaching in urban classrooms, the purpose of this research study was to explore beginning music teachers’ perceptions of preparedness for teaching in urban settings. Though much research exists on urban teacher preparation in general education, few researchers have investigated the adjustments necessary for successful urban music teaching. I explored specific questions related to perceptions of overall preparedness, perceptions of preparedness based on the university curriculum, and external experiences that may have aided urban teaching preparation. Participants were four beginning urban music teachers from three geographic locations within the United States. Criteria used to identify potential participants were a completed undergraduate degree in music education or a graduate certification in music education, representation of diverse geographic locations within the United States, representation of male and female subjects, representation of various instrumental and vocal backgrounds, beginning teachers with less than five years of teaching experience, and representation of various school settings. Data collected for this instrumental case study included a background survey, three individual interviews per participant, two days of participant observation, and five participant journals. Trustworthiness was ensured through data triangulation, peer review, and participant checks. The research questions were used as a priori codes for the following three themes: (a) necessity, (b) perceptions of pre-service experiences, and (c) perceptions of preparedness. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) willingness to adapt, (b) varying relationships, and (c) challenges and rewards within urban settings. Implications for music teacher educators and pre-service curriculum adjustments are included.