Now showing items 15168-15187 of 20306

    • The Public Good as a Campus Battleground: Activists and Administrators Defining Access to Institutions and Campus Space

      Rhoades, Gary D.; Everett-Haynes, La Monica; Rhoades, Gary D.; Deil-Amen, Regina J.; Lee, Jenny J. (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      During the early part of the 21st century, a number of campus demonstrations and other protest acts on college and university campuses became highly visible nationally and internationally, largely thanks to social and traditional/popular media. This visibility was partially due to the ubiquitous and easily accessible nature of emergent digital technologies–cameras, cell phones and social networking sites, among other tools. Though campus protests and social movements began to proliferate nationally, and in the context of increased economic inequity, few studies sought to explore how campus actors (students and employees in particular) used social and popular media to shape and control public perception, specifically during highly visible campus conflicts. Further, much of the literature on campus activism has historically overlooked protests and social justice movements occurring on comprehensive state university and community college, or 2-year, campuses. Additionally, the literature does not offer a comprehensive examination of strategies surrounding pre-negotiated protest acts between campus activists, administrators and law enforcement officers. Also, the literature has not adequately examined responses to tactical strategies employed by law enforcement agencies during campus protest, and at a time of heightened militarization of officers. Both issues are related to the image-making capabilities of activists and administrators. To explore such issues, I set out to investigate how student and employee activists and also administrators construct meaning around the public good mission of higher education. I then explored how both groups public good conceptualizations to shape both action and public perception. In doing so, I employed a combined theoretical framework, modifying academic capitalism and co-cultural theories and adapting them into a single framework. My framework enabled the examination of power dynamics around interactions, discourse and space, ultimately leading to an understanding that the public good mission is a battleground. Within this frame, campus activists and administrators are struggling to both define and manifest the democratic imperative, or historic public good mandate, in different ways. The framework also allow for the study of why specific information is publicized or narrated, while other information is omitted or ignored. Using qualitative methods, I specifically studied how individuals seek to control involvement in democratic processes on campus based on definitions associated with the public good. I also studied ways individuals advance democratic ideals. Further, I explored what tools (including social media and traditional and/or popular media, also referenced collectively as "the press") individuals employ to shape public perception about equity issues and conflicts on campus. In this regard, social and popular media serve as conduits for informing public audiences. For my investigation, I purposefully selected one land-grant institution, a comprehensive state university, and one 2-year community college–all in California. I intentionally selected California, as the state has historically and continues to be seen an important forerunner for nationwide higher education policy and practice. I also chose campuses whose conflicts were receiving statewide and national media attention to allow for the investigation of public perception surrounding campus conflict. Doing so also allowed for the exploration of how those on campus employed social media strategies and also utilized popular media to attempt to shape and control the public image of their institutions. My findings suggest that while campus activists and administrators maintain a similar belief that public institutions should be broadly accessible, they differently conceptualize how the public good mission of higher education should manifest. The difference in framing of the public good complicates interactions between both groups, and at times leads to violent clashes during protest. My findings also suggest that while activists and campus officials both maintain a social media presence and interact with media representatives, administrators are not as successful in capturing public support. This appears especially true during and after clashes have occurred during campus protest acts that also involve campus law enforcement officers. Additionally, my findings indicate that the under-utilization of social media, lax media relations strategies and blame shifting, specifically during protest acts, may ultimately hurt administrators and law enforcement officers with regard to image-shaping efforts. Of note, the resulting coverage of violent clashes in the popular media tended to favor activists over administrators and law enforcement officers no matter the type and amount of pre-planning and pre-negotiations between activists and campus officials. Ultimately, my findings challenge perceptions that institutional image-making powers reside squarely with administrators and media relations offices. Given the widespread use of digital technologies and social media, and also strategies activists have employed to engage with members of traditional media outlets, my findings also illustrate how student and employee activists are changing how power is introduced and distributed within their campus communities.
    • Public goods and the justification of political authority.

      Buchanan, Allen E.; Schmidtz, David.; Lehrer, Keith; Erlings, Billie Raye; Feinberg, Joel (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Currently, the argument that markets cannot provide public goods underlies the justification of political authority most widely accepted by political theorists. Yet, as theorists usually depict the problem, public goods could be voluntarily produced at levels of efficiency comparable to those attainable by coercion. Once we allow that the real problem is much more messy than its theoretical models led us to believe, we have to admit that coercion may be necessary after all. At the same time, we have to admit that the moral problem of justifying coercion is also more messy than we thought, and for precisely the same reason. I discuss contractual mechanisms for voluntary public goods provision, arguing that with such a mechanism, voluntary contribution levels might be much higher than conventional theories predict. My theory is borne out in laboratory experiments. Still, it remains an open question whether it would be worth the trouble to switch from the coercive methods presently employed to noncoercive (or less coercive) methods of public goods provision. A strictly efficient method is not among our options. We have to assess the efficiency of various methods in a relative sense. Should we find cases in which public goods cannot be provided by contract, or should we decide that in some cases we do not even want to risk trying voluntary methods, we are forced to face the moral issue squarely. I offer a traditional analysis of justice, although I employ it in a somewhat unorthodox way in drawing conclusions about the moral status of private property in a well-ordered society. I then use this analysis to develop a foundation for property rights, exploring its implications for questions concerning what people are morally obliged to do, and what they can legitimately be forced to do, for the sake of public goods production.
    • The Public Health Impact of Immigration and Border Enforcement Policy and a Service-Learning Approach to Counter Ethno Racial Health Disparities in the US-Mexico Borderlands

      Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Sabo, Samantha Jane; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Carvajal, Scott; Ehiri, John; Shaw, Susan (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      Background: Historically, US immigration policy, including border enforcement, has served to define national belonging and through this process, has constructed particular groups as undesirable or threatening to the nation. Such political-economic strategies contribute to oppression through gender, ethnic, and class discrimination and economic and political exclusion. This dissertation is based on three studies that collectivity explored these issues as structural determinants of health (SDH) and forms of structural and everyday violence. Objectives: These studies aimed to (1) examine the relations between immigration related mistreatment and practices of ethno-racial profiling by immigration officials on health of Mexican immigrants of the Arizona border (2) contextualize the structural and everyday violence of such institutional practices through mistreatment narratives and (3) evaluate the impact of an intensive Border Health Service Learning Institute (BHSLI) on public health students' ability to locate such forms of violence and identify the role of public health advocacy. Methods: Study one and two are a secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data drawn from a random household sample of 299 Mexican-origin farmworkers. Study three is a qualitative analysis of 25 BHSLI student reflection journals from 2010-2012. Results: Farmworkers were US permanent residents and citizens, employed in US agriculture for 20 years. Approximately 25% reported immigration related mistreatment, more than 50% were personally victimized and 75% of mistreatment episodes occurred in a community location while residents engaged in routine activities. Immigration mistreatment was associated with a 2.3-increased risk for stress in adjusted models (OR 2.3, CI 1.2, 4.1). After a week at the US-Mexico border, BHSLI students articulated aspects of immigration and economic policy impacting health. Students framed economic and immigration policies as health policy and found the role of public health to convene stakeholders toward multi-institutional policy solutions. Conclusion: Immigration related mistreatment and ethno-racial profiling are historically embedded at institutional and individual levels and reproduce inequality overtime. Such institutional practices of discrimination are SDH and forms of structural and everyday violence. Academic public health programs, engaged in service learning strengthen students' abilities to learn and act on such SDH and contribute to campus-community engagement on related ethno-racial health disparities.
    • Public Health Perspectives of Cultural Competence

      Lee, Jenny J.; Sedig, Sheila Marie Dolan; Lee, Jenny J.; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Rhoades, Gary D. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Racial health disparities and social injustices in health care continue in the United States (US) despite decades of research, policies, and programs dedicated to their elimination (Feagin & Bennefield, 2014). Cultural competency education of health care providers has been one way purported to help sensitize professionals to these inequities, thus seeking to address racial bias, unequal treatment, and misunderstandings of minority populations (Office of Minority Health, 2001). Such education can begin when students enter academia to commence their health care education, and certainly occurs as a student moves on through their academic career, particularly as they enter their post-graduate level studies. Investigating the required cultural competency course of a Master of Public Health (MPH) program through the perspectives of faculty, current students, and alumni for its ability to develop culturally sensitive health care practitioners was the aim of this case study. Document analysis and direct observation of the one cultural competency course required for all concentrations in one MPH program was undertaken. This was a semester-long course and was offered face-to-face and online; both were observed. In-depth interviews of faculty, current students, and alumni of the same program were also conducted. Using the public health critical race (PHCR) praxis theoretical framework (Ford & Airhihenbuwa, 2010b), data was analyzed to determine how, and to what extent, faculty teach cultural competency, students internalize this instruction, and alumni put this education into practice. By using a critical theoretical framework designed for public health program development, this study found that such a framework has effective utility as a curriculum – this framework could be used to increase students understanding of racial issues that impact health and health care. Data also revealed a schematic believed, by faculty, students, and alumni, to be important for the development of cultural competence. The findings also point to the importance of creating space in the classroom for both minority and majority voices to feel free to express difficult issues without repercussions of stereo-typing and name-calling; and for faculty to be able to effectively deal with such discourse. Curriculum that addresses issues of health disparities and social justice, classroom praxis, and faculty role-modeling can be combined to create the institutional environment where culturally sensitive and socially just health care practitioners may emerge.
    • Public Interest, Indigenous Rights, and the Los Angeles Aqueduct

      Bauer, Carl J.; Borgias, Sophia Layser; Tsosie, Rebecca A.; Berry, Kate A.; Banister, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation offers a critical reassessment of the emblematic water conflict over the Los Angeles Aqueduct, one of the first large rural-to-urban water transfers in the American West. Drawing on three years of in-depth archival, ethnographic, and collaborative research, it examines how public, private, and tribal interests have been weighed in decision-making about land and water allocation over time. The first part of the dissertation addresses gaps in the history of the water conflict, which has long been framed as a clash between the farmers of Owens Valley and the City of Los Angeles, or between private and public interests. However, archival research revealed that federal and city policies on behalf of the public interest in water supply for Los Angeles also systematically restricted Indigenous land and water claims, despite federal obligations to protect tribal interests. Weaving together insights from critical legal studies, settler colonial studies, and historical political ecology, the research sheds light on the intersections of natural resource policy and federal Indian policy and their implications for water justice in the American West. The second part of the dissertation extends the history of the water conflict into the current day, as it has been transformed by environmental laws that recognize a public interest in environmental protection to be weighed alongside the public interest in urban water supply. Yet, while water exports have been curtailed in response to environmental concerns, tribal water rights remain disputed and Indigenous perspectives remain largely sidelined in water management debates. As water wars have become science wars in the wake of environmental battles, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power has assumed the mantle of an ‘environmental corporate citizen’ and reframed its operations in environmental terms. This has, in turn, reconfigured relationships among environmental, ranching, and Indigenous actors within the Eastern Sierra, as well as between them and Los Angeles residents, as diverse coalitions have found common ground among concerns about ecosystem health, rural livelihoods, and Indigenous stewardship. Observation of this process highlights the dynamic and at times tenuous nature of what have been called “unlikely alliances,” but also the transformative potential of growing movements for water justice. As rapid urbanization and climate change pressures drive more cities to look to distant rural areas for water supply, this study offers important insights into the shifting politics of water transfers and the diversity of actors and interests involved.
    • Public Pedagogy and Writing Program Administration: A Comparative, Cross-Institutional Study of Going Public in Rhetoric and Composition

      Kimme Hea, Amy C.; Holmes, Ashley J.; Hall, Anne-Marie; Cardenas, Martiza (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      In this project, I theorize public pedagogy in rhetoric and composition by examining a series of case studies within the writing programs and departments of the University of Arizona, Syracuse University, and Oberlin College. This cross-institutional study employs comparative analysis of historical, pedagogical, and institutional documents, as well as interviews I conducted with 19 faculty, administrators, and graduate teaching assistants. First, I draw on archival data to construct institutional histories that trace "town and gown" relations and institutional commitments to equality, social justice, religious and moral education, and the ideals of a land-grant mission. Then, building on these histories, I identify administrative practices that offer sustainable models for long-term public pedagogies. This research employs stakeholder theory to examine what is at stake for students and instructors engaging in public pedagogies. More specifically, I use transformative learning theory to discuss the potential rewards for students who "go public" with their writing and experiences. Finally, I examine classroom practices of instructors and argue for a theory of public pedagogy that is rhetorical, transformative, and located. I offer a model that suggests how writing program administrators might locate public pedagogies within their institution, program, and/or classrooms. I also provide instructors of rhetoric and composition with a series of questions and a graphic for usage when developing public pedagogies within their courses. This study contributes to current scholarly conversations about public writing, community outreach, and civic engagement by examining how programs and pedagogies function across different institutional contexts.
    • PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE INCIDENCE OF CRIME

      Warr, Eric Mark (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • Public Policy and Its Impact On the Labor Market

      Fishback, Price V.; Oaxaca, Ron L.; Depew, Briggs Bourne; Fishback, Price V.; Oaxaca, Ron L.; Scaller, Jessamyn; Sorensen, Todd A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      My dissertation consists of four chapters that are motivated by understanding the intended and unintended economic outcomes of public policy in the labor market. My particular focus is studying how individuals respond to incentives created by policy and welfare reform. The first chapter explores the effect of expanding dependent health insurance coverage to young adults. I study both the outcomes from state policies and the recent Affordable Care Act (ACA). In the second chapter I analyze the unintended consequences of a New Deal policy that paid farmers to reduce production. As a result, I find significant displacement of croppers and tenants in the Cotton South. The third chapter ties together the micro-foundations of the labor supply to the firm with the macroeconomic areas of on-the-job search theory and the business cycle. By using employee level data from two US manufacturing firms in the volatile inter-war period, I show that these two firms had significantly more wage setting power during recessions than expansions. My final chapter addresses the question of how does reduced immigration restrictions affect the composition of immigrants in the US.
    • Public Policy Effects on Labor Markets Choices: Immigration Enforcement and Unemployment Insurance

      Fishback, Price; Schaller, Jessamyn; Cordova, Karla; Herbst, Daniel; Taylor, Evan (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      The recent increase in interior immigration enforcement has reduced the number of low-skilled workers in the U.S. In my first chapter I study how this decrease in labor supply affects citizens' self-employment. I examine the impact of four immigration enforcement policies; each implemented with a staggered roll-out across the U.S. and different levels of adoption. I find that increased immigration enforcement had a negative effect on male and female citizens' self-employment. This is evidence that undocumented immigrants have a level of complementarity to self-employed citizens. The reduction of citizens' self-employment is concentrated among high school graduate natives. The lower levels of self-employment are not accompanied by an increase in the wage and salary sector, suggesting that there is no switching within sectors happening. The industries that are more affected are construction and wholesale self-employment. However, self-employment among Hispanic citizens' had the opposite effect. To enable comparison with previous studies, I estimate the effects of the immigration enforcement programs on the employment of citizens. I find that E-Verify mandates have a negative effect not accounted for in previous studies. The second chapter studies the effects of establishing an unemployment insurance (UI) program on workers' unemployment duration in a developing market economy. Mexico City was the first city in Mexico to provide formal government-funded unemployment benefits. A job search model with duration dependence predicts that workers stay longer unemployed but increase their search intensity when they approach UI benefits exhaustion. I exploit the UI program's temporal and geographical variation in a Differences-in-Differences framework and estimate an unemployment duration model, where the reemployment probability varies between major Mexican cities across time with the introduction of the UI program after controlling for individual characteristics, time and location fixed effects. I find no evidence of an effect on unemployment duration with the introduction of UI in Mexico City. Even workers with low education levels do not have a higher probability of staying unemployed with the introduction of UI. There are two potential explanations for these null effects: 1) UI benefits levels are low enough that staying on unemployment is an unattractive option, as the replacement rate after two months of unemployment was only 10\% in Mexico, compared with 60\% among OECD countries 60\% (2007) and 2) the program effectively enforces the requirement that the unemployed search for work, which leads them to find work quickly. Finally, in my third chapter, we examine the gender wealth gap, including pension wealth and statutory pension rights. The empirical basis of this examination is the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), which is one of the few datasets where information on wealth as well as on pension entitlements is collected at the individual level. Pension wealth data are available for 2012 only. Individual-level wealth data allows us to analyze the gender wealth gap between women and men across all households. Due to the longitudinal character of the underlying data on employment trajectories and family-related events, we examine how pension entitlements are affected by childbirth, marriage, divorce, widowhood, and other factors.
    • PUBLIC POLICY FOR EDUCATION: AN ANALYSIS OF PRIORITIES ESTABLISHED BY TASK FORCES ON EDUCATION AND ARIZONA STATE POLICY MAKERS.

      Cool, Brent A.; TARRY, DANIELLE IRENE.; Grant; Blake (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of four policy actors in Arizona with common recommendations of eight task force studies on K-12 public education in an effort to determine changes in policy priorities for education in Arizona from 1981 through 1984. The policy actors investigated were the Arizona State Board of Education, the Arizona Legislature, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, and the lobby efforts of the Arizona Education Association. Activities of these four policy actors were compared with common recommendations from The Paideia Proposal--An Educational Manifesto, A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, Making the Grade, Action for Excellence--A Comprehensive Plan to Improve Our Nation's Schools, A Place Called School-Prospects for the Future (national reports), Education in Arizona: Popular Concerns Unpopular Choices, A Statewide Report Concerning Public Education, and A Call to Excellence--A Plan for the Renewal of Arizona Public Schools (state reports). A comparative documentary analysis was made of the quantitative and qualitative data gathered. It was found that 17 recommendations were common (consensus of four or more) among the five national and three state reports under consideration: (1) establishing a K-12 core curriculum; (2) upgrading textbooks; (3) increasing the amount of homework required; (4) lengthening the number of days in the school year; (5) providing extra programs for slow learners and gifted students; (6) lengthening the school day; (7) establishing codes of student conduct; (8) improving the use of school time; (9) increasing preschool and kindergarten programs; (10) removing tasks from teachers; (11) improving student attendance; (12) improving teacher preparation programs; (13) increasing teachers' salaries; (14) providing 11-12 month teacher contracts; (15) rewarding superior teachers; (16) evaluating teachers; and (17) defining the principal's role as instructional leader. Using the 17 common recommendations for education policy as a screening device, it was determined that the majority of new education policy in Arizona emanated from the State Legislature from 1981 through 1984. The Arizona State Board of Education seemed second in the amount of influence generated. Governor Bruce Babbitt and the Arizona Education Association played lesser roles as far as successful completion of their respective recommended policies were concerned.
    • Public Presentations of Professional Change in Academic Research Library Strategic Plans

      Rhoades, Gary D.; Bracke, Paul; Knott, Cheryl; Lee, Jenny J.; Rhoades, Gary D. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Academic librarianship is a profession in the midst of change. Embedded within multiple social spheres, academic librarians are adapting to changes in higher education, the sociotechnical environment of information, and the system of professions. This research investigates the ways in which academic librarians publicly present the ways in which they are aligning themselves in the face of academic capitalism. Using a qualitative approach of document analysis of research library strategic plans, this study explores the ways in which academic librarians express their perceptions of changes in higher education, of changes in the sociotechnical environment of information, and of changing professional jurisdiction and relationships. The theoretical framework, based on Abbott's System of the Professions and Linked Ecologies. The study analyzes strategic plans from 75 American research universities from the membership of the Association of Research Libraries and the Association of American Universities. Academic librarians were found to be re-establishing claims to existing jurisdictions while also making new claims. They described their roles in 4 ways: Supporting, Collaborating, Competing, and Leading. These relationships demonstrate attempts to demonstrate centrality to the campus by strengthening institutional prestige and quality by strengthening the library itself, by contributing to the academic activities of faculty and students through supportive and collaborative activities, and by leading change in academia by leading changes in the system of scholarly communication. They also exhibited entrepreneurial behaviors by seeking to connecting to external sources of income, particularly through grant-seeking and private fundraising. There was also evidence that academic librarians perceived impacts of changes in the sociotechncial environment on their instructional roles, and on the ways they provide and manage scholarly research collections. Finally, there was some evidence of linkages between higher education and information environments, with mass digitization and search as hinge issues and librarian activities in publishing a scholarly communications as avatar activities.
    • THE PUBLIC RELATIONS POTENTIAL OF A COLLEGE GOVERNING BOARD

      Wilson, Robert Archer (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • Public science, private science: The causes and consequences of patenting by Research One universities

      Powell, Walter W.; Morrill, Calvin; Owen-Smith, Jason David (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      Drawing on pooled cross-section time series data and fieldwork based comparative case studies, this dissertation examines the causes and consequences of increased patenting by Research One universities. Academic patenting has increased dramatically in the last two decades, indicating a growing concern with commercial and economic outcomes for university research. Patents are characteristic of private, for profit, science. As such, they differ in consequential ways from publications, the characteristic output of public, or academic, science. Both public and private science are stratified by accumulative advantage mechanisms. Drawing on an 18 year pooled cross-section simultaneous equation model, this dissertation demonstrates that patenting activity and scientific reputation have become increasingly linked in the last fifteen years. The dramatic increase in academic patenting and the concentration of commercial success among a handful of universities can both be explained by changes in the relationship between public and private science over time. Not all universities have benefited equally from the increasingly linkages between commercial and academic science. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at two university campuses, this dissertation argues that a university's ability to capitalize on global changes in the relationship between public and private science depends on its research capacity, technology transfer infrastructure, and institutional ability to support the simultaneous pursuit of patenting and publishing. This combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies enables analysis of university patenting trends across time and at multiple levels. Field level changes in the relationship between commercial and academic science shape an are shaped by organizational adaptations to new ambiguities created by importing private science to the university context. Within the organizations individual activities and possibilities for action are structured by the changing organizational and institutional environments that have resulted from increased research commercialization.
    • Public stories in public dialogue: Structures of a university faculty senate's democratic public culture

      Ruiz, Richard; Fonte, Anita Carol, 1949- (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      From my previous community work, I had a sense that recognizing the pattern of how and why public stories emerge in public dialogue was an important part of understanding and strengthening a democratic public culture. I studied the public dialogue of the University of Arizona Faculty Senate in part because I belong to this community. I observed six public meetings of the faculty senate, developed field notes, analytical memos, listened to and transcribed the audiotapes of the faculty meetings, and analyzed the sixteen public stories from those meetings. I developed a new research methodology for understanding public stories in public dialogue which uses combined perspectives of ethnographic, conversational and narrative analysis. I analyzed the research through the lens and audiophone of a critical ethnographer in order to see and hear the public stories in public dialogue and understand the faculty senate's democratic public culture. The results of my research show that the UA faculty senate's public speech is partially demonstrated by public speech which includes public stories in public dialogue. The results show that the democratic public culture of the UA faculty senate is functional, fragile and fragmented. This juxtaposition of characteristics is, to some degree, mediated by public stories which develop as trigger stories. Trigger stories are produced when one of Grice's conversational maxims--functioning as norms of interaction--quality or quantity is violated. In this research, other norms of interpretation, specifically, equality as moral power or relationship building do not generate trigger stories. This research is important for understanding and strengthening the public speech of the UA faculty senate and its democratic public culture. Also, the method of story and dialogue analysis developed in this research can be applied to other democratic public cultures.
    • Public values in urban riparian land use.

      Simcox, David Edward. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Riparian wetlands are among the most valuable landscapes in the arid southwest. Since they are sources for water and green vegetation, they are unique compared to surrounding desert landscapes. They also offer the potential for a wide range of commodity and non-commodity based land uses. In a rapidly urbanizing setting, commodity based uses such as housing, retail, and industrial development often come into conflict with non-commodity based uses such as recreation and wildlife, water and nature preservation. The purpose of this study was to deduce public value orientations toward the rapidly urbanizing riparian landscapes of Tucson, Arizona through an assessment of residents' attitudes and perceptions regarding those landscapes. Theoretical constructs addressing the relationship between attitudes and perceptions and varying conditions of residential setting, proximity, familiarity, and human influence in the landscape were also assessed. Data were collected by mail survey and by a photo-surrogate landscape assessment technique which provided data on scenic quality and the appropriateness of various land uses. Results indicate that the strongest differences across residential settings, proximity, familiarity, and human influence occur for perceptions of existing landscape conditions. Weaker differences occur for perceptions of change and opinions on planning, management, and growth. No differences were found on land use preferences. Although perceptions differ about what currently exists in the landscape, respondents are unified in their preferences for future land use. This suggests that landscape assessments based only on perceptions of existing conditions may not accurately reflect public values for future land uses. Public value orientations were found to be associated with: (1) careful planning to control growth; (2) conservation of water resources; (3) preservation and rehabilitation of natural vegetation, wildlife habitat, open space, and other non-commodity resources, and (4) development of compatible flood control structures. Results suggest that the changes occurring in the study area are incompatible with respondents' preferences for future land uses.
    • Public Wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide

      Austin, Diane E; Sheridan, Thomas E; Piekielek, Jessica; Green, Linda B; Shaw, William (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      This dissertation examines changing relationships among natural landscapes and state agencies, as these relationships intersect in transboundary protected wildlands and in debates about natural resource protection and U.S.-Mexico border policy. Recent increases in undocumented migration, smuggling, and border enforcement along the Arizona-Sonora border impact ecology and public land management practices. In this dissertation, I analyze how natural and national spaces and boundaries are produced through institutional and individual practices and discourses in border wildlands. Further, I consider how different productions of space restrict or create opportunities for collaborative responses to ecological impacts resulting from migration, smuggling, and border enforcement. This research builds on anthropological scholarship on conservation, borders, and the production of space through an ethnography of conservation institutions as they face dramatic political and ecological changes in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands.
    • The Pueblo and the public: Urban realities in counterpoint.

      Gourley, John.; Saarinen, Thomas F.; Mann, Lawrence D.; Zube, Ervin H.; Velez Ibanez, Carlos (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      The "Pueblo and the Public" is a case study of a public issue as presented in newspapers. The issue is whether or not to raze the old Mexican part, the Pueblo, of downtown Tucson. The dissertation is in four parts and is described as follows. Part One defines terms and reviews theory relating speech to thought and society and develops an analytical approach to the research based on the framework of Ogden and Richards (1989). It concludes with a review of urban renewal as a national policy and as an academic debate that raised questions that were never resolved. Part Two is a geographical study of the Pueblo, within Tucson and its history. Geographic descriptions are based on archival information and interviews with old residents. Part Three describes the content of a newspaper text drawn from a 15-year coverage in Tucson's English-language daily newspapers. This text is examined as a story and analyzed in terms of its concepts and its schemes of reality. Part Four makes a comparison between the text's schemes of reality and geographic schemes of reference. A summary is made and the questions from the national debate are answered. The conclusion is that the Ogden and Richards' framework is useful in understanding the situation. The newspapers framed the public issue in a way that did not give the public an adequate or appropriate basis to make an informed decision about razing the Pueblo. The main findings are that speech transmits meaning in three distinct ways at the same time. First, it has form and sequence which expresses ideas having historical context. Second, the listener translates form and context into attitudinal schemes and responds to them. Third, form, context and situation are modified by symbols and meta-ideas. It is concluded that correctly interpreting the meaning of speech requires performing three different cross-referencing operations: (1) to where the action is located, (2) to antecedent action, and (3) to how the listener is situated.
    • THE PUEBLO INDIAN OCCUPATION OF THE SOUTHERN GREAT BASIN

      Shutler, Richard, 1921- (The University of Arizona., 1961)
    • Puerto Rican Adolescents Striving to Live a Normal Life with HIV: A Grounded Theory

      Jones, Elaine; Rodriguez, Janet; Jones, Elaine; Jones, Elaine G.; Crist, Janice; Koithan, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      According to the Puerto Rico Health Department as of January 2008, 258 cases of HIV, ages 10 -19 had been reported and 224 cases of AIDS, ages 13-19 (Puerto Rico Health Department, 2008). The purpose of this research was to describe the basic social processes of medication adherence in Puerto Rican youth who are HIV positive. Three research questions were proposed: 1) What are the basic social processes of medication adherence in Puerto Rican youth who are HIV- positive?; 2) What factors influence medication adherence (or nonadherence) among HIV- positive adolescents?; 3) What behaviors indicate that the HIV- positive adolescents adhere or do not adhere to their prescribed medications? The Autonomy Development of Adolescence by Steinberg provided the theoretical framework for this study. Grounded theory was used to study 13 Puerto Rican HIV-positive adolescents. Data collection included semi-structured, in-depth interviews, field notes, participant observation, and a demographic questionnaire. A substantive theory Striving to Live a Normal Life, with the core category of normal emerged from data analysis. Striving to Live a Normal Life explains how these Puerto Rican HIV-positive adolescents try to integrate their HIV status and treatment with their lives. These adolescents concentrate their lives on striving to live a normal life. A variety of ways is used to deal with HIV and has helped them visualize themselves as a normal adolescent with a normal life. Because they see themselves having a normal life, taking or not taking their medications for HIV is also seen as a normal part of their lives. This study suggests the beginning of understanding the concept and process of normalization in this population. These findings support the findings in a study done with HIV-positive adolescents from France in which the concept of normality was related to their lives. It also informs interventions to promote improved medication adherence among Puerto Rican youth who are HIV -positive.
    • Pugkeenga: Assessing the Sustainability of Household Extension and Fragmentation under Scenarios of Global Change

      Baro, Mamadou A; West, Colin Thor; Baro, Mamadou A; Finan, Timothy J.; Lansing, J. Stephen; Comrie, Andrew C. (The University of Arizona., 2006)
      This dissertation explores the sustainability of the pugkêenga system of household cooperation as practiced by Mossi rural producers on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso. Consistent with the sustainable livelihoods framework, this dissertation systematically compares the assets of two different types of domestic organization found among Mossi domestic groups today: extended and nuclear households. Similar studies in contemporary West Africa and other parts of the world suggest that globalization and modernization make extended forms of household organization unsustainable and impractical in the face of changing ecologies and the penetration of capitalist modes of production. This study challenges such assertions and contends that the material and moral configurations of extended households actually enhances their sustainability in the face of environmental and social change. The Sahel region, in which the fieldwork took place, has undergone a period of prolonged desiccation. The Central Plateau is also one of the most densely populated areas within the Sahel. These factors contribute to the high rate of migration for which the Mossi and Central Plateau are well-known. This research investigates these dynamics with ethnographic fieldwork, statistical analyses, and agent based modeling. The results of these analyses demonstrate that the pugkêenga system of household cooperation enhances the household livelihood sustainability under increased climate variability, population pressure, and migration.