Now showing items 16406-16425 of 20306

    • Rural Place Experience and Women's Health in Grandmother-Mothering

      Jones, Elaine G; Thomas, Elizabeth Ann; Jones, Elaine G; Berg, Judith A.; Phillips, Linda R.; Reel, Sally J. (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      The conceptual orientation of this study was informed by social ecology theory coupled with the concept of rural place, to investigate social processes embedded within the physical, social and symbolic environment affecting the health of rural grandmothers raising grandchildren. A modified grounded theory methodology was used to generate a middle range theory explicating the basic social process of rural grandmother-mothering. The Rural Grandmother-Mothering as Cushioning model explains how the rural place experience of the physical, social and perceptual environmental context influences the health of rural grandmothers raising grandchildren.This research has significance for the scientific community by demonstrating how place is fused with human experiences. Results can inform nursing interventions tailored to the unique social processes in rural settings and designed to promote the health of the increasing numbers of women engaged in grandmother-mothering.
    • Rural society and economic development: British mercantile capital in nineteenth-century Belize.

      Meyer, Michael; Cal, Angel Eduardo.; Stone, H. Reynolds; Guy, Donna; Gosner, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      Nineteenth-century European industrialization increased the demand for raw resources available in sub-tropical regions. The eastern coast of Central America and the Bay of Campeche had an ample supply of dyewoods used in the textile industry, and mahogany, a durable and precious wood used in the production of railway cars and furniture. British mercantile capital linked the various peoples and activities that were involved in the extractive industry and in the short-lived sugarcane and banana industries. The pre-Columbian regional economic block based on resources such as salt was taken over by the Spaniards during the Contact period. But the tenuous Iberian hold gave way to persistent British buccaneers turned loggers. Eventually, though, British mercantile firms took over the business. These firms monopolized the land, credit and the import business, and exerted considerable influence on the local state. This enclave economy essentially "created" its society, bringing in African slaves and attracting laborers from the region: Garifuna, Miskito, Mestizo and Maya. The Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901) also sent some 15,000 refugees mostly peasants into Belize. Indentured workers were imported from the 1860s. Except for the blacks, most of the workers and peasants established settlements in the rural areas. The relationship between capital and labor and between capital and the peasantry was marked by both conflict and accommodation. Whereas the firms tried to secure a reliable, cheap, and submissive labor force and tried to "proletarianize" the peasantry with the help of state-backed mechanisms, the nature of the industry: the cultural norms of the Maya peasantry, for example, the strategic alliances among the groups at the frontier and the limited supply of labor made it difficult for capital to have its way. In fact, the Maya's determination to block further British expansion in the northwest eventually undermined the level of business confidence necessary to operate in a turbulent frontier. Mercantile capital withdrew when faced by declining prices. Many workers were repeasantized.
    • Russian elements in selected piano compositions of Cesar Cui (1835-1918)

      Woods, Rex A.; Ryder, Raymond Teele (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      Cesar Cui [Tsezar Kjui] (1835-1918) was a military officer, composer and critic whose activities as a music critic helped promote nationalism in Russian music and bring the "Russian Five" to the attention of Western Europe. In his book La Musique en Russie (1880) Cui identifies several characteristics of Russian music. The current document examines several of Cui's piano works in the context of Russian musical elements such as rhythmic freedom, modal melodies and plagal cadences, shifts between major and relative minor, static harmony and short themes. Cui's use of these elements in his piano writing produces a personal style with identifiably Russian characteristics even though Cui himself, as well as some of his contemporaries, claimed that he did not write in a nationalistic vein. The compositions selected for this study are Quasi Scherzo, Op. 22, No. 4, Waltz in a minor, Op. 31, No. 2, "Serenade," Op. 40, No. 5 (from the suite A Argenteau) and three of the 25 Preludes, Op. 64: No. 4, in b minor, No. 8, in c# minor, and No. 15, in D-flat major.
    • The Russian Influence On The Literary And Critical Writings Of Mikhail Naimy

      Gamal, Adel Suleyman; Swanson, Maria Lebedeva; Gamal, Adel Suleyman; Hudson, Leila; Barker, Adele; Shiri, Sonia (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      My dissertation examines the Russian influence on the critical writing, poetry, prose and philosophy of Mikhail Naimy (1889-1988), the world renowned figure in modern Arabic literature. Together with Jibran Khalil Jibran, Ameen al-Rihani, Ilia Abu Madi, Rachid Ayuub, and several other Arab-American men of letters he founded the Pen Association, a literary league in New York in 1920 that lifted Arabic literature from the quagmire of stagnation, imitation and old classicism. They also promoted the new generation of Arab writers and made it an active force in Arab nationalism. Numerous researchers have studied the impact of British, American and French cultures and literatures on the Pen Association's creative writings. Meanwhile it was Russian literature that had the most important impact on Naimy, as well as on some other members of this literary association (though less). This influence has still only been studied superficially aside from some Soviet era analyses. My dissertation makes a much-needed contribution to this blank spot, since the Russian literary critic Vissarion Belinskiī (1811-1848) and the towering figure of Leo Tolstoī (1828-1910) contributed greatly to the foundation of the modern Arabic literature. My dissertation traces Mikhail Naimy's Russian Orthodox heritage in Lebanon, his education in Poltava, Ukraine, and his readings of Belinskiī and Tolstoī to show how he incorporates critical social reform, anticlericalism and mysticism into his important Arabic language works. It also shows the influence of the Russian literary criticism on Naimy's critical articles. My dissertation sheds light on global literary processes, as Naimy was able to synthesize Russian, European and American literary traditions into his native Arabic heritage. This integration is an important part of the evolution of modern Arabic literature and an interesting phenomenon that emerged in the American melting pot of the early twentieth century. My research has significant methodological value, as it will identify the typology and significance of cultural contacts, based on the example of influence mentioned above. It will also contribute to an important topic of the renewed interest in the academy - Russian influences and impacts in the Middle East and in Arabic culture and literature.
    • The Russian Molokan Colony at Guadalupe, Baja California: Continuity and change in a sectarian community.

      Muranaka, Therese Adams.; Thompson, Raymond H.; Reid, J. Jefferson; Dean, Jeffrey S. (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Migration, ethnicity and cultural pattern are reviewed. The research questions how accurately the prehistoric archaeologist can interpret migration and ethnicity by means of a review of the modern migration of a group of Russian sectarians to Baja California, Mexico. Excavations undertaken in seven households at different levels of assimilation with their Mexican and Indian neighbors suggests that material culture does reflect ethnicity under these best of all archaeological circumstances. A methodology for the determination of prehistoric migrations is suggested. It concludes that "cultural pattern" is a more useful concept than "ethnicity" in the determination of archaeological migrations.
    • Russian Musical Elements: An Analysis of Selected Piano Works by Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)

      Gibson, Tannis; Beriyeva, Yelizaveta; Woods, Rex; Rosenblatt, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Mily Balakirev (1837-1910) was a Russian composer, piano virtuoso, teacher, conductor, and a key proponent of the nationalist spirit that distinguished much of mid-19th century Russian classical music. Balakirev is considered, among historical Russian composers, to have been the one who ushered in a new era for Russian classical music. This document examines Piano Sonata No. 2 (1905), and Mazurkas Nos. 6 (1902) and 7 (1906) within the context of Russian musical elements such as folk song elements, plagal and alternative cadences, mediant key relationships and the Russian sixth harmonic progression. The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to identify, define, and locate the appearances of these elements or devices within the selected solo piano works; second, to advance the argument that these devices represent and evoke an aesthetic that one can identify as distinctly Russian in nature. After a brief overview and statement of purpose in the introductory chapter, a discussion of Balakirev’s life, biographical information and compositional output with attention paid to his close relationship with the members of the Moguchaya Kuchka composers concludes Chapter II. Chapter III offers an historical overview of Russian musical elements, which are presented, analyzed and illustrated through annotated examples from Balakirev’s piano works selected for this document. The final chapter confirms Balakirev’s successful and influential use of Russian musical elements and provides a deeper understanding of Balakirev’s innovative style of integrating those elements into classical music of the 19th-century.
    • S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine induced cellular injury in rabbit renal cortical slices

      Gandolfi, A. Jay; Brendel, Klaus; Wolfgang, Grushenka Hope Isabella. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The proximal tubule of the kidney is a target for a wide variety of chemical agents, both inorganic and organic. An in vitro model to investigate the site-specific toxicity of organic nephrotoxins was developed and validated using biochemical, functional, and histological parameters. The in vitro toxicity of cephaloridine, gentamicin, hexachloro-butadiene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) was investigated and the histopathological lesions induced in vitro were compared to those observed in vivo. All four organic nephrotoxins induced a proximal tubular lesion similar to that observed in vivo. DCVC was chosen for additional study. After determining the progression of cellular events resulting from DCVC exposure, the transport, metabolism and localization of DCVC was investigated. DCVC was found to be transported into the proximal tubule via an amino acid system rather than the postulated organic anion system. Aminooxyacetic acid (an inhibitor of β-lyase activity) partially inhibited the covalent binding and toxicity of DCVC indicating that metabolism of DCVC by β-lyase to a reactive thiol is partially responsible for the toxicity. A second enzyme system (L-amino acid oxidase) may play a role in the resulting nephrotoxicity. DCVC is localized to the proximal tubule and mitochondria appear to be the subcellular targets. The site-specific S₃ lesion produced by DCVC may be attributed to innate susceptibility of the S₃ region. The chemical form of a toxin may affect the transport and metabolism of that compound. The N-acetylated derivative of DCVC is an anion and was shown to be transported by the organic anion system. Probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transport, almost completely inhibited the toxicity of N-acetyl-DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC produced a lesion similar to that produced by DCVC. N-acetyl-DCVC is not metabolized by β-lyase and thus must be deacetylated to DCVC prior to being metabolized and producing toxicity. The optical isomer of DCVC, D-DCVC, proved to be less toxic yet exhibited the same selectivity of injury as DCVC. This research demonstrates that an in vitro model which reflects the in vivo toxicity of a compound can be utilized to study the mechanisms (transpoart, metabolism and localization) of selective injury.
    • S-C Complications in Nineteenth-Century Sonata Movements

      Pomeroy, David Boyd; Jenkins, Kyle Joseph; Pomeroy, David Boyd; Rosenblatt, Jay; Traut, Donald (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Many have noted nineteenth-century composers' tendency to undermine crucial formal boundaries normally found in eighteenth-century sonata forms. This dissertation examines phenomena that undermine the demarcation between the expositional secondary theme and closing section. In this document I refer to such events as "S-C Complications." In their Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (2006), James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy argued that this point of articulation plays a much more crucial role than that of merely forming a boundary between S- and C-space. Rather, it serves as the goal for the entire expositional trajectory, a goal whose presence is felt from the very outset of the movement. The authors refer to this moment as "essential expositional closure," or EEC. In this dissertation I attempt to show what role EEC in Hepokoski and Darcy's sense plays in nineteenth-century movements featuring S-C Complications. I conclude that nineteenth-century composers were very likely aware of the EEC's genre-defining status since they consistently and systematically undermined it. Further, whereas in the late-eighteenth-century repertoire S-C complications were rarely employed, in the nineteenth century they became more normative, and thus non-deformational. In addition to discussing the phenomena's dialogic relationship with eighteenth-century norms, I also address their effect on tonal structure and formal syntax, concluding that S-C Complications frequently have the effect of expanding closure beyond the scope of one cadence. For practical reasons I have limited the scope of this study to non-concerto movements written primarily by Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms.
    • S-parameter VLSI transmission line analysis.

      Prince, John L.; Cooke, Bradly James.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Cangellaris, Andreas; McCullen, John D. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      This dissertation investigates the implementation of S-parameter based network techniques for the analysis of multiconductor, high speed VLSI integrated circuit and packaging interconnects. The S-parameters can be derived from three categories of input parameters: (1) lossy quasi-static R,L,C and G, (2) lossy frequency dependent (dispersive) R,L,C,G and (3) the propagation constants, Γ, the characteristic impedance, Z(c) and the conductor eigencurrents, I, derived from full wave analysis. The S-parameter network techniques developed allow for: the analysis of periodic waveform excitation, the incorporation of externally measured or calculated scattering parameter data and large system analysis through macro decomposition. The inclusion of non-linear terminations has also been developed.
    • "Sadness is a Great Pain for the Body": The Emotional Trauma and Embodied Impacts of Migration from Mexico to Tucson, Arizona

      Sheridan, Thomas E.; Crocker, Rebecca; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Sheridan, Thomas E.; Pike, Ivy; Gonzales, Patrisia; Shaw, Susan (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      A considerable body of evidence links social and economic inequities to poor health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This thesis is a historically contextualized study of how migration from Mexico to southern Arizona is experienced at the site of the body. In this dissertation, I outline the ethno-historical background of traditional medicinal usage and concepts of health and healing in northern Mexico, the primary sending region to southern Arizona. This historical grounding enables a richer exploration of how Mexicans understand migration to effect their physical and mental health. I then examine migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and report on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Finally, I use the illness narratives of my participants to move more deeply into the connections between these experiences of emotional suffering and physical health. Here I employ immigrants' own words to draw a link between group level epidemiological data on health declines in the immigrant community and established research in biological anthropology and neurobiology that identifies individual emotional hardship as a biological pathway to disease. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security has had on well-being, this thesis argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community.
    • Safe and Effective Opioid Prescribing Practices for Chronic Pain Patients

      Prettyman, Allen; Price, Robin; Gregg, S. Renee; Gould, Anita E. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Background: Opioid addiction is a national crisis. A key factor of this crisis is the increasednumber of opioid prescriptions for chronic pain patients. The increased availability of opioid drugs has led to widespread misuse affecting millions of lives across the country. The devastating effects of prolonged opioid use have threatened public safety and have led to the need for a nationwide intervention. Despite the many factors contributing to the opioid crisis, new policies are needed to address educational gaps for chronic pain management, opioid prescribing practices, and opioid addiction. Purpose: This project aimed to determine if providing a brief educational session on evidence- based opioid prescribing practices for chronic pain patients will increase confidence in providers at an outpatient military clinic in Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Methods: This project used a quasi-experimental design with one group of participants. The KnowPain-12 survey questionnaire integrated with a 7-point Likert scale was used to anonymously measure each provider’s knowledge, attitude, and approach to managing chronic pain. All participants completed the KnowPain-12 survey questionnaire pre-intervention and post-intervention to measure knowledge gained. Results: There was an increase in total points for each participant after receiving the intervention. The most significant increase in points was noted with an eleven-point difference from pretest to posttest. Most of the responses favored the most appropriate choice, “Strongly Agree” or “Agree” for questions 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 and “Strongly Disagree” or “Disagree” for questions 1, 5, 10, and 11. Conclusion: This quality improvement (QI) project endeavored to provide an educational intervention to help providers appropriately prescribe opioids and manage chronic pain patients. There were positive results from the responses from the pre-intervention scores to the post- intervention scores. In addition, this QI project indicated that providing a well-rounded educational brief of evidence-based practices increased providers’ confidence of safe opioid prescribing to chronic pain patients.
    • THE SAINT'S PLAY IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

      Del Villar, Mary, 1917- (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • The Salado culture in southwestern prehistory

      Thompson, Raymond H.; Young, Jon Nathan, 1938-; Longacre, William A.; Culbert, T. Patrick (The University of Arizona., 1967)
    • Salespeople's Selling Orientation: Reconceptualization, Measurement and Validity Assessment

      Lusch, Robert F.; Wessels, Gunter Frederik; Ganesan, Shankar; Rhosh, Mrinal; Lusch, Robert F. (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      A study of Elite Salespeople (ES), those salespeople who maintain and sustain consistent high performance in the sales task was completed to discover and understand elite salesperson behavior. Analysis of participants' responses to structured depth interview questions led to the emergence of a construct called a Selling Orientation (SO). SO is made up of behaviors that guide salespeople to build, maintain, and monitor their personal credibility both with customers and industry members, as well as within the company. A number of field pre-tests were performed to derive a measurement scale for SO. This process was followed by a field survey that measured SO in a sales force. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the measurement scale and results support internal consistency and construct validity of a short 9 item scale for SO. This study advances the understanding of sales performance related theory by illuminating attributes of ES's. Additionally, this study introduces the concept of a Selling Orientation that is associated with high sales performance and key account management. Finally, the study introduces a measurement scale useful in the study of salespeople's selling orientation.
    • Salient role-identity, attitude, and self-presentation: Self-monitoring and situation as moderators.

      Snow, David A.; Choi, Eun-Jung.; Snow, David A.; Shockey, James; McAdam, Douglas; Greenberg, Jeff; Ittelson, William H. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The concept of self-presentation plays a critical role in much sociological and psychological theorizing about human behavior. Although a number of experimental studies of self-presentation have been conducted, until recently theorizing about self-presentation has not been translated into testable hypotheses. This paper attempts to fill this void with an empirical examination of self-presentation as it applies to religious verbal self-presentation related to salient religious role-identity and religious attitude. This research on self-presentation was guided by two major theories: structural symbolic interactionism and trait psychology. The data, obtained from a sample of undergraduates to a questionnaire, provide an examination of the relationship between salient role-identity, attitude, and self-presentation taking into account individual differences in self-monitoring and situation. Two causal models were estimated with weighted least square (WLS) method using the program LISREL 7. The most important findings are that salient role-identity is more strongly associated with self-presentation for high self-monitors than for low self-monitors in both formal and informal situations; attitude is more strongly associated with self-presentation for low self-monitors than for high self-monitors in both types of situations; and situation and self-monitoring interact, so that the stronger association between attitude and self-presentation occurs for low self-monitors in formal situations, and the stronger association between salient role-identity and self-presentation exists for high self-monitors in informal situations. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
    • Salinity Effects on Guayule Leaf Anatomy and Physiology

      Ray, Dennis T.; Biel, Karl Y.; Poscher, Elisabeth; Ray, Dennis T.; Biel, Karl Y.; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Yensen, Nicholas P. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Salinity usually reduces plant growth in terms of height and biomass, but can increase secondary metabolite production. This frequently reported observation in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray, Asteraceae) was investigated for possible mechanisms.Osmotic and specific ion effects of four chloride salts (CaCl2, MgCl2, KCl, and NaCl) on leaf anatomical and plant physiological parameters were studied. One-year-old plants of guayule line AZ 2 were grown under two salt concentrations (750 ppm and 1500 ppm) for each salt type (plus a control) in sand culture (semi-hydroponic) for eight weeks under controlled greenhouse conditions in Tucson, Arizona.Growth in height decreased with increasing salt concentration. Shoot dry weight, rubber, and resin contents, however, showed no significant differences between treatments, indicating no effect from either salt concentration or salt type. There was a trend for increasing rubber content with increasing salt concentration, although not statistically significant. At the same time, net CO2 gas exchange rates decreased significantly with increasing salinity.With increasing salt concentration, guayule showed osmotic effects in terms of height, indicating a lower hydraulic conductivity. Although plants of higher salt concentrations utilized significantly less water, they had the same shoot dry weights, rubber, and resin contents. Salt-stressed plants therefore achieved higher water use efficiencies. The diurnal net CO2 gas exchange rates were significantly reduced with increasing salinity; the nocturnal net CO2 gas exchange rates showed no significant difference between the treatments.Anatomically, it was found that the stomata were raised or elevated above the epidermis, and supported by upwardly curving cells. When guayule was grown under salt treatments, the trichomes were found to include deposits of material. Trichomes might act as a detoxification repository for excess ions. Although the physiological significance of raised stomata is unknown, it is hypothesized that the unique combination of raised stomata, indumentum, and multiple layers of palisade parenchyma allows for an overall high photosynthetic capacity and performance. During stress conditions such as salinity or drought, guayule might activate an internal CO2 concentrating mechanism, i.e., bicarbonate/CO2 pump, internal CO2 recycling, or PEP carboxylation activity.
    • Salinity-fertility interaction with macro and micronutrients in maize (Zea mays) plants.

      Stroehlein, Jack L.; Helmy, Magdi Mourad Mohammed.; Tucker, T. C.; Bohn, H. L.; Briggs, R. E.; Bartels, P. G. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      In two greenhouse experiments, the response of maize plants (Zea mays L.) to macro and micronutrient fertilizers was studied. The first experiment was conducted in Cairo, Egypt in which maize plants were grown on saline soils with ECₑ values of 1.42, 6.12 and 12.1 dSm⁻¹ and fertilized with N, P, K alone and in combination. It was found that maize plants produced the highest dry matter when NP fertilizers were added in the Ca-form compared to the other fertilizer treatments, and this positive response decreased with increasing salinity level. Also, it was found that application of P and K fertilizers either alone or together as PK augmented the adverse effect of salinity on dry matter and nutrients uptake. In addition, the concentration and uptake of Na⁺ ions in the shoot tissues decreased with increasing salinity level up to ECₑ 12 dSm⁻¹. This could be due to Na+ exclusion or accumulation in root tissues. However, application of N and P fertilizers tended to decrease plant content of micronutrients, particularly Fe as well as Zn at high salt levels. The second experiment was conducted in a University of Arizona campus greenhouse. A Pima soil from the Marana area was artificially salinized with NaCl, Na₂SO₄, CaCl₂, and Mg₂SO₄ salts almost to the salinity levels mentioned above. Maize plants were grown and fertilized with NP fertilizer as a basic dressing. Chelated forms of Zn, Fe, and Mn were added with two different methods; soil and foliar spray application. Two pH values of spray nutrient solutions were used; pH 6 and pH 8. Data obtained showed increased dry matter and nutrient uptake in response to spraying maize plants with Zn + Fe or Zn+ Fe + Mn at pH value of 8 at the medium salt level relative to the other treatments. However, maize plants also showed high dry matter and nutrient uptake in response to Zn + Fe + Mn soil application at the high salt level, although Zn-pH 8 gave unexpectedly high dry matter production. It seems probable that this high dry matter obtained could be due to the effect of high pH spray treatment on increasing the activity of some enzymes, e.g. PEP-carboxylase and/or ribulose 1,5 diphosphate carboxylase, as well as the increase in rate of translocating the photosynthates and this effect was augmented by the nutrient(s) applied. Also, it was found that Na uptake decreased while total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content increased with increasing salinity level. The increase in the chlorophyll content could be due to either Na exclusion by the plants and/or the decrease plant growth due high salts.
    • Salmonella in an Oyster Production and Small Feedlot Environment, Use of Novel Proteins Expressed by an Attenuated Salmonella Vector for the Reduction of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens

      Joens, Lynn A.; Armstrong, Alexandra Edwards; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Lightner, Donald; Law, Bibiana; Joens, Lynn A. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      The CDC estimates that 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths annually are attributable to foodborne illnesses, making their impact significant in terms of both human health and economic losses (3). Estimates vary, but it is frequently stated that Campylobacter species affect 2.4 million people annually (28). Among bacterial foodborne pathogens it is second in the US only to Salmonella, which in recent years has consistently been the most frequently reported, most likely to cause hospitalization, and deadliest foodborne bacterial illness in the US (3, 106).In order to reduce the burden of illness caused by these pathogens and improve the safety of our food supply, continued investigation of the epidemiology, transmission and interactions of these organisms with their environments is necessary. Additionally, prevention of colonization within natural reservoirs of these bacteria which contribute to contamination of foods is an important step in the reduction of the burden of foodborne illness. This work examines the relationship of Salmonella to oysters and the aquatic environment in which they are raised, the interactions of Salmonella in a small feedlot environment, and the reduction of colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni through vaccination with recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors into which novel Campylobacter genes had been cloned. It was found that while Salmonella is still sporadically present on the West Coast of the US, an area where oysters were previously found to be positive for the organism, the strain which predominated in the last study of that area is reduced in prevalence. Additionally, it was found that that strain does not possess special fitness in oysters or the aquatic environments in which they are raised, though Salmonella survives in oysters and water samples longer than a representative coliform. Salmonella is also present in the small feedlot environment sampled, and animal stress appears to play a role in the shedding of the organism in that environment, leading to the potential contamination of beef carcasses during processing. Reduction of colonization by C. jejuni in broilers was achieved in the case of both vaccines, with a maximum reduction of four logs as compared to controls.
    • SALT AND SODIUM AFFECTED SOILS IN RELATION TO NITROGEN UTILIZATION BY WHEAT

      Hummadi, Khalid Bader, 1950- (The University of Arizona., 1977)
    • Salt and water movement in soils following heavy applications of feedlot waste

      Amoozegar-Fard, Azizolah.; Fuller, Wallace H.; Warrick, Arthur W.; Matlock, W. G.; Lomen, D. O.; Greenlee, W. M. (The University of Arizona., 1977)
      The movement of salts in soils following application of feedlot wastes was studied experimentally and theoretically. The objectives of the study were (1) to evaluate the movement of salts in the soil following heavy application of animal wastes as related to the aggregate sizes of manure and water management practices and (2) to develop a mathematical model to predict the movement of salts within the soil and manure mixture. In the experimental study, air dried manure was formed into three distinct sizes, small (to pass 40 mesh sieve), medium (0.9 am in diameter, 1.2 cm in length), and large (1.8 cm in diameter, 1.8 cm in length). Soil columns of 15 cm inside diameter were packed with 30 cm of a soil-manure mixture over a 10 cm depth of soil. The manure application rate was equivalent to 100 metric tons/ha calculated on the basis of the cross-sectional area of the column. A total of five pore volumes of water was passed through the soil under continuous and intermittent water applications. The leachates were collected in 1/2 pore volume increments and the volume, EC, and pH determined immediately. Within 48 hours of the sampling, the leachates were analyzed for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and five trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni). The EC of the leachate for the first 1/2 pore volume was significantly (1% level) highest for the small-sized aggregates and the lowest for the large aggregate treatments under both moisture regimes. During the second increment, the order was reversed. In the later water applications, the EC for small aggregates was higher than the other sizes. There were no significant differences between the EC of the leachate from medium and large aggregate treatments during the later periods under either water treatments. Under both moisture regimes, the amount of Na removed from small aggregates decreased more rapidly than the other sizes. More than 90% of the total Na added to the system by manure was removed from the small aggregate treatment. In contrast, the highest amount of K removed (895 mg from small-sized aggregates under continuous leaching' represents about 35% of the total amount present In the manure applied. More Ca was removed from the small-sized aggregate treatments under both moisture regimes than was added by manure application. As for Mg the pattern of the removal was similar to that of Ca. No Cl was detected in the leachate after the fifth 1/2 pore volume was displaced. A mathematical model was developed to predict the movement of readily soluble ions such as Na, K, and Cl from different aggregate sizes of manure. The theoretical curves were compared with earlier experimental data and the parameters appearing in the mathematical equation were estimated. The results for Cl, Na, and K are presented graphically, and the estimated parameters as well as the values of the square roots of the sum of the squares between the theoretical and experimental values as percentage of the sum of the experimental values (SSR) are reported. From the low value of SSR's, it is evident that the model can predict the movement of the readily soluble ions from different aggregate sizes of manure quite accurately. A discussion on the suitability of the model for different sizes of manure aggregates and also a comparison between two different procedures to fit the model to the experimental data are given. In addition, a three phase theoretical model was developed to describe the movement of readily soluble ions from a soil-manure-water system. Experimental data were used in testing the model. The results for Na, K, and Cl are presented graphically. Estimated parameters for the experimental system and the values of SSR are presented. This model also can predict the movement of readily soluble ions from a soil-manure-water system.