Now showing items 18357-18376 of 20306

    • Systems Level Analysis of TORC1 Pathway Signaling in S. cerevisiae

      Capaldi, Andrew; Hughes Hallett, James; Capaldi, Andrew; Montfort, William; Nagy, Lisa; Serio, Tricia; Weinert, Ted (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      The target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) regulates cell growth and metabolism in all eukaryotes. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen and amino acid signals activate TORC1 via three GTPases; Gtr1, Gtr2, and Rho1, and the SEA-associated Npr2/3 proteins. However, little is known about the way that other nutrient or stress signals are transmitted to TORC1. Here I present two studies identifying how, and at what level, glucose and other environmental stimuli act to tune TORC1 signaling. In the first study I show that the TORC1 pathway populates three additional stress/starvation states. First, in glucose starvation conditions, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK/Snf1) and at least one other factor push the TORC1 pathway into an off state, in which Sch9-branch signaling and PP2A-branch signaling are both inhibited. The TORC1 pathway remains in the glucose starvation state even when cells are simultaneously starved for nitrogen and glucose or treated with rapamycin. Second, in osmotic stress, the MAPK Hog1/p38 drives the TORC1 pathway into a different state, in which Sch9 signaling and PP2A-branch signaling are inhibited, but PP2A-branch signaling can still be activated by nitrogen starvation. Third, in oxidative stress and heat stress, TORC1-Sch9 signaling is blocked while weak PP2A-branch signaling occurs. Together, the data show that the TORC1 pathway acts as an information-processing hub, activating different genes in different conditions to ensure that available energy is allocated to drive growth, amino acid synthesis, or a stress response, depending on the needs of the cell. In the second study I investigate further the observed hierarchy of TORC1 inputs. I show that glucose starvation triggers disassembly of TORC1, and movement of the key TORC1 component Kog1, to a single body near the edge of the vacuole. These events are driven by AMPK/Snf1-dependent phosphorylation of Kog1 at Serine 491/494 and two nearby prion-like motifs. Kog1-bodies then serve to increase the threshold for TORC1 activation in cells that have been starved for a significant period of time. Together, this data shows that Kog1-bodies create hysteresis (memory) in the TORC1 pathway and help ensure that cells remain committed to a quiescent state under suboptimal conditions.

      Gilsen, Leland, 1942- (The University of Arizona., 1976)
    • A systems model of the cost impact of new HIV/AIDS therapies: Applications of a Markov process

      Langley, Paul C.; Bhattacharyya, Samir Kumar, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The primary objectives of this research were to (1) estimate survival functions and the natural history of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who are using antiretroviral medication with a protease inhibitor and those who are under treatment protocols without protease inhibitors, and (2) estimate average lifetime treatment costs of infected patients for both drug regimens. A secondary objective was to provide a step by step discussion of the applicability of a Markov process in modeling survival and cost profiles of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a complex set of diseases, to managed care organizations. Data used in this study were collected using two techniques: expert physician panel interviews and a literature search. The transition rates for patients moving from one disease state to another were obtained from both sources. Cost estimates were calculated predominantly from published literature. The fundamental matrix solution of a Markov chain model was used to estimate survival functions, natural history profiles, and lifetime costs of therapy for HIV-infected patients. The research was conducted from the perspective of a managed health care organization. Results indicated that protease inhibitors significantly improved overall survival of infected patients by deterring the progression of disease and onset of various opportunistic infections. Lifetime costs of treatment, however, were substantially higher for treatment protocols using protease inhibitors as one of the components of recommended combination retroviral therapy. Estimates obtained from this study also indicated that unless significant reductions in high resource intensive events such as hospitalization can be achieved, protease inhibitors might not be cost efficient in treating HIV-infected patients. Lastly, this research showed that Markov modeling techniques can offer valuable benchmarks for both clinical and economic decision making in planning disease intervention to improve health outcomes and evaluate costs.
    • Systems of arrogance: Technology and the work of Navajo resistance.

      Sherry, John William.; Hill, Jane H.; Philips, Susan; Hutchins, Edwin (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This dissertation adopts the perspective of Cognitive Ethnography to examine the work of a grassroots, Navajo environmental organization called Diné Citizens Against Ruining our Environment. Specifically, I will examine the work and the challenges facing the members of this organization in order to evaluate how new communications and information technologies may be of use to them. This analysis begins, as Cognitive Ethnography mandates, with a general description of the tasks which constitute the work of Diné CARE. As will be discussed, these consist primarily in attempts to reassert what the organization's members consider to be traditional Navajo perspectives on economic development and the human relationship with the natural environment. Subsequently, I analyze the representations, measurements of work, and forms of organization required to accomplish Diné CARE's tasks. In all aspects of the work, members were constantly required to manage a dialogue between their preferred means of organizing or representing work, and the means required by the operating environment in which they found themselves, characterized primarily by relationships with various outside sources of legal, technical or financial support. The work of Diné CARE is thus extensively "dialogic." While members continually drew on Navajo traditions for viewing the relationship of human beings to the natural environment, for representing their work, and for building cooperative access to resources for resistance, they were nonetheless required at the same time to position these "traditional" approaches against approaches whose history of development have political, social and cultural roots in Western Europe and modem America. Often, this dialogue brought with it tension and even morally charged conflict for the members of Diné CARE. This tension extended to emerging technologies as well. In spite of many claims to the contrary, new communications and information technologies did little to alleviate the mismatch between "local" and "foreign" ways of doing work. Instead of "empowering" local communities by providing them access to information or the chance to be heard on their own terms, new technologies complicated the scenario of local resistance by requiring practices for representing work which were both difficult to master and often inappropriate.
    • Systems of safety: Representation, order and the chaos of terrorism in modern fiction.

      Hogle, Jerrold; Gatenby, Bruce.; Schneidau, Herbert; Bowen, Roger; O'Donnell, Patrick (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Poststructuralist literary theory has sought to question the foundations and assumptions concerning art and representation that have governed Western culture since the time of Plato. If something is not representable in language, in image, in sound, it supposedly does not exist. Thus non-representational concepts such as disorder, chaos and terror are codified, labelled, and controlled as threats to the system of representation. In order to maintain power, control, systems must repress the knowledge that the very foundation of their order (disorder, chaos, terror) are concepts at the very heart of the system itself. In effect, every system contains the elements of its own destruction, elements that are ironically empowered by the very attempt to repress their existence. Terrorism becomes a metaphor for the failure of systems such as history, philosophy, language, even civilization itself, to provide stable, absolute truths and meaning. In the history of Western metaphysics, terror, in its various manifestations, has always been a non-representable concept, both a threat to systems of order and a supposed vehicle for their change. The way that systems of power deal with the threat of terrorism has been a major subject for modern fiction; what follows is an investigation of the connections between what I call these "systems of safety," representation, terror, and modern fiction.
    • A Systems Perspective on Mental Wellbeing and Quality of Life: Testing a Model of Dietary Behavior, Physical Condition and Inflammation on Quality of Life in a Nationally Representative Dataset

      Raison, Charles L.; Janssen, Clemens Walter; Allen, John J. B.; Wahl, Richard; Steklis, Horst Dieter; Raison, Charles L. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      The current dissertation tested a model based on a systems perspective, where inflammation was hypothesized to mediate the influence of diet and physical condition on quality of life (base model) in a nationally representative U.S. dataset (NHANES). Three additional hypotheses, regarding social support (The Buffering Hypothesis), early microbial exposure (The Hygiene Hypothesis) and life history theory (The Tradeoff Hypothesis) were tested utilizing the base model. All analysis utilized a structural equation model. This study focused on objective measurements for dietary behavior and physical activity utilizing blood serum values of nutrients and metabolic markers and anthropometric data as well as blood serum concentrations of CRP and white blood cell count. Quality of life was assessed with the number of limitations in daily living, the number of days that were affected by mental, emotional and physical limitations and the self-reported general health condition. The hypothesized model fit well to the data and the results revealed that lower intake of healthy nutrients and reduced physical condition both predicted decreased quality of life, as mediated by inflammation and explained 31.9 % of the variation in quality of life (R² = .319, p<.001). Social support further predicted quality of life directly (β = .417, p<.001) and indirectly through dietary behavior and inflammation (β = -.106, p<.001), microbial exposure significantly moderated the relation between inflammation and quality of life (β = -.127, p<.001) and higher reproductive effort predicted lower intake of vital nutrients (β = .316, p<.001), physical condition (β = .352, p<.001) and subsequent inflammation. Reproductive effort also directly predicted reduced quality of life (β = .278, p<.001). These analyses indicated that inflammation can be considered a strong mediator between lifestyle factors and resulting quality of life and that social support, microbial exposure and reproductive effort each added unique predictive value to this model.
    • Systems thinking: Teachers' emerging conceptions and implementation

      Good, Thomas L.; Benson, Tracy Anne (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      A systems thinking approach to classroom instruction is a relatively new instructional method, and effects of this approach have not been comprehensively documented even though interest in this approach is growing rapidly. This study examines teachers, emerging conceptions and implementation of systems thinking as a instructional methodology. The investigation explores the challenge of developing a systems thinking orientation among educators. Findings are based on the learning experiences of four middle school teachers working in an urban Northwestern school setting. A case study, ethnographic approach was used to investigate the teachers' emerging conceptions and implementation of systems thinking in their classrooms. Data were derived from journal entries, interviews, observation and classroom artifacts. Findings suggested that teachers perceived systems thinking as a beneficial classroom methodology, yet evidence supporting the validity of this perception was insufficient. In addition, teachers viewed systems thinking as an important life-long orientation and incorporated this view in their teaching. The impact of professional development structures such as training, resources, coaching, planning time, outside assistance, and a collegial atmosphere was significant. It was evident that teachers involved with systems thinking developed and articulated theories about the effects of systems thinking on their students.

      Rydgren, A. E. (Alfred Eric), 1945- (The University of Arizona., 1975)
    • T-cell Receptor Vβ8.1 Peptide Reduces Coxsackievirus-induced Cardiopathology During Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Aging.

      Sepulveda, Ramon Tomas; Marchalonis, John J.; Payne, Claire; Ahmad, Nafees; Bernstein, Harris; Watson, Ronald R. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Infection of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as LPBM5 infection in mice results in progressive deterioration of the immune system in the majority of untreated hosts. Peptide immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in the stimulation or immunoregulation of T-helper 1 (TH1) and T-helper 2 (TH2) response subsets. In murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), TH1 deficiency enables the host to be susceptible to coxsackievirus infection, inducing cardiopathology in a short period. T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ8.1 peptide, a 16-mer peptide containing the entire CFR1 segment and part of the FR2 region of human Vβ8, showed both an immunoregulating and immunostimulating effect in murine AIDS. TCR Vβ8.1 peptide acts on T cells promoting interleukin-2 production and therefore enhancing a cellmediated immune response. It retarded development of cardiopathology due to coxsackievirus infection. Retrovirus infected mice treated with the peptide showed a longer life span than the nontreated retrovirus infected animals.
    • T. S. Eliot's civilized savage: Religious eroticism and poetics

      Schneidau, Herbert; MacDiarmid, Laurie J., 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Current studies of T. S. Eliot explore his social poetic, his religion, his sexuality, and his place in the history of modernism and contemporary poetics. "T. S. Eliot's Civilized Savage" links these interests, beginning with Eliot's controversial masculinity. Eliot constructs an impotent poet who engages in celibate heterosexual relationships; he uses comparative religious studies (such as Frazer's Golden Bough and Harrison's Themis) to transform these relationships into a social imperative. "The Death of Saint Narcissus," "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "Hysteria" compare Eliot's poet to Frazer's self-sacrificing god, pitting him against a voracious mother goddess who demands the poet's self-sacrifice. Eliot's lady poses as an alibi for his own hysteria and as a spiritual catalyst; the poet is reborn in the Father. By Ash Wednesday, Eliot rewrites heterosexuality using Christian iconography. "Tradition and the Individual Talent" exposes Eliot's ambivalent relationship to masculinity and maternity: though Eliot describes a purely scientific poetic reproduction, the essay bears traces of his maternal fascinations, though these images are sterilized by the rhetoric of Immaculate Conception. By 1927, Eliot converts to the Church of England, abandons Vivienne, rekindles a chaste romance with Emily Hale, develops his poetry of confession, and refashions the Lady. Now she acts as the perfect vessel for God's Word, and her "torn and most whole" body eliminates the threat of sexual intercourse. Subsumed in her, Eliot's poet becomes God's womb. Eliot's contemporary fall from grace seems to stem from repeated exposures of his erotic and religious masquerades. Christopher Ricks's publication of Eliot's notebooks foregrounds Eliot's racist, sexist and classicist ideology and Michael Hastings's Tom and Viv suggests that Eliot blamed his hysteria on Vivienne while profiting from the marriage. Eliot's mysticism appears to be an impotent attempt to escape domestic horrors, but a re-examination of this diagnosis may reveal our own construction of sexuality, poetics, politics and spirituality. As we recoil from Eliot's corrosive "conservatism" perhaps we safeguard our own.

      McRae, Lorin Pose, 1936- (The University of Arizona., 1968)

      Gray, Frederic Charles, 1918- (The University of Arizona., 1970)
    • Tai Chi for Driving Health: Cognitive and Physical Function Related to Safe Driving Performance among Older Tai Chi Practitioners

      Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Miller, Sally May; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Insel, Kathleen C.; Reed, Pamela G. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      By the year 2030 it is estimated that one in five licensed drivers in the United States will be over the age of 65. Driving allows engagement in the community for shopping, banking, maintaining social connections, and accessing health care. However, age-related decline can impact many of the cognitive processes and physical abilities necessary for safe driving performance. Exercise has beneficial effects on specific cognitive processes and physical function, many of which are related to safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise is known to benefit cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance. The aims of this observational study were to: 1) examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance, 2) compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance to normative reference values, and 3) explore potential predictors of safe driving performance. Fifty-eight current Tai Chi practitioners (mean age = 72.9), with a median of greater than three years of Tai Chi practice were recruited from community Tai Chi classes and Tai Chi events. Participants completed a study packet describing self-reported Tai Chi and non-Tai Chi exercise habits, driving habits, self-report measures of dispositional mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) and overall well-being (Vitality Plus Scale, VPS), personal history, and health history. Investigator-administered study measures included the DrivingHealth InventoryTM, digit span tests, the Driving Scenes Test, and the Right Foot Tapping test. Statistically significant correlations were found between several study measures. Compared to normative reference values participants performed better on several cognitive and physical measures, and on the MAAS and the VPS measures. Small to large effect sizes were calculated. The strongest predictor of safe driving performance was the digit span backward. Tai Chi exercise has the potential to positively impact cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance through aerobic exercise mechanisms, development of mindfulness, and beneficial influence on overall vitality. The results of this study support the need for further investigation of Tai Chi exercise as a strategy to maintain safe driving performance in older adults.
    • Tailings Storage Facility (TSF) Stability and Water Management

      Kim, Kwangmin; Jeong, Yongsik; Kemeny, John M.; Tenorio, Victor Octavio; Son, Young-Jun (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Tailings storage facilities (TSFs) are among the largest geotechnical structures in the world and operate for adequate and safe storage of tailings during and after mining activities. Ensuring the stability of these enormous structures has been a long-standing environmental liability for mining-related communities; the failures of TSFs can not only undermines the sustainable development of a mine, but also can cause irreparable hazards and damage to those communities and environments. This document presents research regarding three main topics related to TSFs water management. The first topic is development of site-specific guidelines for safe TSF water management. In this regard, the study focuses on determining the optimal beach distance from the decant pond to the crest, which can be a practical and easy monitoring criterion for securing TSF stability. 2D stress-seepage coupled analyses were conducted to evaluate geotechnical stability; additionally, water increments that increase due to unexpected weather conditions (heavy rainfall and strong wind) were considered for the optimal beach distance. The results of this research can be useful in developing a TSF risk level guideline of the testing site. The second topic is investigation of the potential of an environmentally-friendly polymer as a new drag reduction agent (DRA) to reduce frictional pressure loss and also to conserve water. Lab-scale pipe loop tests examined the effect of the polymer on the pressure loss of the tailings slurry in pipe flows. The experiment results confirmed the potential for using the polymer as a new DRA. Findings showed that pressure loss decreased with increasing polymer percentages up to 4%, but increased above concentrations of 4%. 3D numerical models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were developed and validated based on the pipe loop test results. The model provided the potential amount of water and transportation energy saving with minimal changes of pressure loss, induced by solid concentration increases. The final topic deals with usage of the new DRA. When the DRA is employed and solids concentration is increased, the study explored the relevant operating issues, such as settling of tailings particles in pipelines, and accelerating pipeline wear using 3D CFD numerical simulations. The polymer used in the second study reported here was expected to improve the efficiency of tailings slurry flows in pipelines. The results confirmed that by employing the new DRA, the minimal changes of pressure loss levels could be achieved even though there were increases in solids concentration. The polymer also increased the flow velocity, making it possible to transport tailings faster than the critical velocity at which the particle settlement begins. Also, the addition of the polymer resulted in an increase of the erosion rate, due to increased flow velocity, but the total amount of erosion was reduced at certain solids concentrations.
    • Tailoring k-Space Functionalities by Design in Phononic Crystals

      Deymier, Pierre A; Bucay, Jaim; Deymier, Pierre A; Raghavan, Srini; Erdmann, Robert G (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      K-space functionalities in 2-D phononic crystals (PCs) were studied through the use of the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) as well as the plane wave expansion method (PWE) to solve for the propagation behavior of acoustic waves in these periodic structures. Each of these methods are fully explained in sections 2 and 3 in Appendix A. Characteristics of the various structures were found which aid in the design of the PC to obtain very specific and controlled propagation behavior.Various refractive behaviors were studied which included positive, negative, or zero-angle refraction depending on the angle of the incident wave. For all three cases of refraction, the transmitted beam underwent splitting upon exiting the crystal. These properties are analyzed theoretically as well as demonstrated experimentally. Band structures and equifrequency surfaces (EFSs) show that the observed properties result from the unique geometry of the PC's EFSs as compared to that of the incident media. These properties were extended to the applications of multiplexing and demultiplexing in which the separation of information carried by acoustic waves was attributed entirely to their differences in wave vector. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a k-space multiplexing/demultiplexing device.Subwavelength resolution imaging capabilities of a flat lens composed of a phononic crystal (PC) were also studied. It was found that the image resolution of the PC flat lens beats the Rayleigh diffraction limit because bound modes in the lens can be excited by evanescent waves emitted by the source. These are modes that propagate only in the direction parallel to the lens surface. These modes resonantly amplify evanescent waves that contribute to the reconstruction of an image. The effect on the image resolution and focal point on various structural and operational parameters were studied. These parameters included source frequency, geometry of the lens, source position, and time. The mechanisms by which these factors affect resolution are discussed in terms of the competition between the contribution of propagative modes to focusing and the ability of the source to excite bound modes of the PC lens.
    • Takeovers and horizontal mergers: Policy and performance.

      Smith, Vernon L.; Wellford, Charissa Pepin.; Cox, James C.; Isaac, R. Mark; Oaxaca, Ronald L. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      The dissertation examines takeovers and horizontal mergers, considering whether or not current policy seems appropriate. Focus lies on both predicted and actual market performance effects. Horizontal mergers are investigated in a product market context and takeovers in an asset market environment. Horizontal mergers. The horizontal merger research is concerned with the relationship of industry concentration and anticompetitive market outcomes. Historically, economists treat concentration and competitive performance as inversely related, and the Department of Justice Merger Guidelines (DOJMG) continue to do so in the screening of mergers to be challenged. Laboratory analysis allows for direct control of variables such as market definition, scale economies, barriers to entry and concentration, thus permitting tests of the potential tradeoff of anticompetitive outcomes and production efficiency due to merger. The experimental design takes both the DOJMG and economic theory into account. When the merged firm enjoys economies of scale, the merger is observed to have a significant impact on industry performance, namely in the competitive direction. The data suggest that if the antitrust authorities rely on the Herfindahl-Hirshman Index (HHI) as measured by sales as opposed to capacity they inappropriately increase the number of cases to be challenged. It remains to be seen whether or not a more useful predictor of the anticompetitive effects of mergers exists. The data indicate that the HHI based on capacity accompanied by an alteration of the policy demarcation line would improve measurement of the effect. Takeovers. The takeover study focuses on two buyout policies, the tender offer and market takeover. The latter policy represents a prohibition of tender offers, but with acquisition attempts permitted via the asset market. Investment and operating skills of management are controlled for by holding profitability of the target firm constant. Laboratory analysis incorporates treatments of certain versus uncertain dividend values. Results suggest that shareholder value added (SVA) is greater when an acquisition is attempted than in its absence, regardless of takeover method or its success. SVA associated with the tender offer and market treatments do not vary significantly under both the uncertain and certain dividend value treatments.
    • Taking care of baby: Chilean state-making, international relationsand the gendered body politic, 1912-1970

      Gosner, Kevin; Black, Victoria Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2002)
      Starting in the early 1900s, Chileans began to address skyrocketing levels of infant mortality. Committed to establishing state welfare policies, health scientists led campaigns to improve infant health. They concentrated on reforming working class maternity. This began a historical connection among health science, public welfare and indigent mothers in Chile. Looking to expand their international role in medical philanthropy in the 1930s, the Rockefeller Foundation invested heavily in Chilean medicine. Following suggestions by leftist physicians, North American philanthropists expanded maternal and child health care. From the 1930s through the 1940s, Chilean and U.S. health professionals further collaborated to reform medical education, build schools of medicine, establish public clinics, open research centers and provide public health education. Cooperation between Chilean leftists and representatives of the Rockefeller Foundation finally succeeded in socializing medicine in 1952. The National Health Service constituted a significant part of Chile's growing welfare system. Supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and Chilean government, state medicine continued to focus on working class women and infants. Leaders from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division attempted to limit their role in Chilean medicine as early as 1940. After helping Chileans to expand public health, Foundation leaders planned to withdraw from Chile. Prominent nationals, particularly leftist health scientists connected with socialized medicine, strongly protested this departure. Mutual interest between Chilean and North American health scientists in family planning persuaded the Rockefeller Foundation to remain. North Americans connected to the Rockefeller Foundation and wealthy Chileans feared social problems caused by burgeoning population. Leftists in the Chilean government worried that public funds could not match popular demand for state services. Population control advocates from the U.S., in turn, feared that growing populations in developing countries would consume world resources. Working with like-minded nationals, North American philanthropists, academics, diplomats and politicians instituted family planning in Chile. Population programs based on the mass distribution and study of previously untested intrauterine devices mushroomed. Pressure from the newly elected Communist president, Salvador Allende, as well as high-ranking U.S. politicians finally ended Chilean population control programs in the early 1970s.
    • Taking Goffman on a Tour of Facebook: College Students and the Presentation of Self in a Mediated Digital Environment

      Lee, Jenny; Birnbaum, Matthew Gardner; Lee, Jenny; Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This study explores how college students present themselves on Facebook, a social networking website, and the impressions they want their fellow students to form of them when looking at their profiles. Goffman's dramaturgical and impression management framework served as a theoretical lens through which Facebook profiles were explored. Employing an ethnographic research design, data for this study were collected during eight-months of participant observation, 30 photo-elicitation interviews, and a photographic content analysis.Facebook has been rapidly adopted by undergraduate students who use it to maintain existing relationships and also as a medium in which to present themselves, especially through photographs. This study provides college administrators and student affairs professional some information about how undergraduates use Facebook and how Facebook can assist them in better understanding their institution's own student culture.Because photographs are instrumental to Facebook use, this study focused on the many images students place on their profiles. The use of photographs in social research is limited and it is hoped that this study will lay the ground work for further use of visual methods. This study found that college students believe that other college students are the primary audience for their profiles. Also, college students use six general "fronts" that lead audience members to see them as: (1) partier, (2) social, (3) adventurous/risk-taker, (4) humorous/funny/silly, (5) part of larger community, and (6) unique. Taken together, these fronts represent an "idealized" undergraduate. Students use props, settings, and gesture to provide their audience members visual cues to help them form the desired impressions. Much of the material that students place on Facebook is meant to be humorous or only understood by a small group of friends. Also, students only show a "narrow strip of activity" in their profiles.
    • Taking it to Court: Litigating Women in the City of Valencia, 1550-1600

      Nader, Helen; Karant-Nunn, Susan C; Gonzales, Cynthia Ann; Nader, Helen; Karant-Nunn, Susan C; Futrell, Alison (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This dissertation explores the history of women and litigation in the Spanish-Mediterranean city of Valencia between 1550 and 1600 through the examination of 114 civil suits filed in the appellate court of the Real Audiencia (Royal Supreme Court of the kingdom of Valencia). During this time, one-third of all legal cases reviewed by the Royal Supreme Court involved a female litigant as either the primary supplicant or defendant, and in some cases, women were both. Widows, wives, and daughters of Valencian artisans and merchants, farmers, and the elite initiated litigation over various socio-economic issues including disputed inheritances, dowries, yearly incomes, and urban and agricultural property. As good Valencian citizens, female litigants utilized the judicial system, particularly civil law courts, in order to negotiate their financial welfare during a time of economic prosperity in the city. In so doing, they demonstrated an understanding of local legal customs as well as their socio-economic rights, which they confidently defended. Historians have characterized early modern Spain as a litigious society, but there are few studies of Spanish litigation that focus primarily on the legal pursuits of women in civil court. Instead, scholarship has addressed Spanish women's involvement in criminal trials, an emphasis which tends to portray women as marginal to Spanish society. Civil litigation, however, presents women as individuals actively making daily decisions that impacted others from throughout their community. Moreover, the subject of women and litigation in Valencia reveals the degree to which local courts and the urban community, including men, supported women's legal and economic interests during the sixteenth century. Such local support further illustrates that women were central as opposed to marginal in early modern Spanish society.