Now showing items 19952-19971 of 20306


      Law, John H.; OSIR, ELLIE ONYANGO.; Wells, Michael; Grimes, William; Tischler, Marc; Berry, James; Price, Ralph (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      Manduca sexta vitellogenin is a phosphoglycolipoprotein (Mᵣ ∼ 500,000) that contains two copies of the apoproteins (apovitellogenin-I, Mᵣ 180,000 and apovitellogenin-II Mᵣ 45,000), 13 percent lipids, 3 percent carbohydrates and 0.6 percent phosphorus. The two apoproteins are immunologically distinct and apovitellogenin-II is not completely accessible to the aqueous environment in the intact molecule. The carbohydrate moiety located on apovitellogenin-I has a high mannose structure (Man₉ GlcNAc₂). Follicle membranes bind ¹²⁵I-labeled vitellogenin with high affinity and specificity (K(D) ≃ 1.3 x 10⁻⁸ M). Total binding sites were estimated at 4 x 10¹⁴ sites/g of follicle membrane protein. The binding was sensitive to pH and calcium. Competition studies showed that binding of vitellogenin was blocked by vitellin and deglycosylated vitellogenin but not by lipophorin, microvitellogenin or apovitellogenin-II. These results suggest that the uptake of vitellogenin involves binding to specific receptors on follicle membranes and the carbohydrate moiety and apovitellogenin-II are not involved in the interaction with the receptors.

      Hill, Frederick J.; Navabi, Zainalabedin, 1952- (The University of Arizona., 1981)
      Manual design methods used successfully up to now for SSI and MSI parts are inadequate for logically complex and densely packed VLSI circuitry. Automating the design process has, therefore, become an essential goal of present-day practice. Hardware description languages form a useful front-end to the design-automation process which ultimately generates masks suitable for chip fabrication. AHPL has long been in use as a vehicle for the description of clock-mode digital systems. Supporting software packages include a simulator which allows the designer to debug his design at a functional level. A subsequent 3-stage compiler extracts global information contained in the original AHPL description to produce a comprehensive data-base. It then generates hardware specifications suitable for down-stream design and manufacturing activities. The SLA is an evolution of the PLA concept. Design with SLA's has the notable advantage of allowing hardware representation of functional and layout information, while sidestepping the costly and time-consuming placement and routing problem. This dissertation describes a methodology for translation to an SLA form of hardware realization from an AHPL description. The global information extracted from the AHPL data-base plays a prominent part in guiding the heuristic placement and routing algorithms.

      Hill, Frederick J.; CHEN, DUAN-PING. (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      Reducing circuit complexity to minimize design turnaround time and maximize chip area utilization is the most evident problem in dealing with VLSI layout. Three suggestions have been recommended to reduce circuit complexity. They are using regular modules as design targets, using hierarchical top-down design as a design methodology, and using CAD as a design tool. These three suggestions are the basis of this dissertation project. In this dissertation, three silicon compilers were implemented which take an universal AHPL circuit description as an input and automatically translate it into SLA (Storage Logic Array), PPLA (Path Programmable Logic Array), and ULA (Uncommitted Logic Array) chip layout. The goal is to study different layout algorithms and to derive better algorithms for alternative VLSI structures. In order to make a precise chip area comparison of these three silicon compilers, real SLA and ULA circuits have been designed. Four typical AHPL descriptions of different circuits or varying complexity were chosen as comparison examples. The result shows that the SLA layout requires least area for circuit realization generally. The PPLA approach is the worst one for large scale circuit realization, while the ULA lies in between.

      CHIANG, CHEN HUEI. (The University of Arizona., 1982)
      A methodology for the automatic translation of a Hardware Description Language (HDL) formulation of a VLSI system to a structured array-type of target realization is the subject of this investigation. A particular combination of input HDL and target technology has been implemented as part of the exercise, and a detailed evaluation of the result is presented. The HDL used in the study is AHPL, a synchronous clock-mode language which accepts the description of the hardware at Register Transfer Level. The target technology selected is Storage Logic Array (SLA), an evolution of PLA concept. Use of the SLA has a distinct advantage, notably in the ability to sidestep the interconnection routing problem, an expensive and time-consuming process in normal IC design. Over the past years, an enormous amount of effort has gone into generation of layout from an interconnection list. This conventional approach seems to complicate the placement and routing processes in later stages. In this research project the major emphasis has therefore been on extracting relevant global information from the higher-level description to guide the subsequent placement and routing algorithms. This effectively generates the lower-level layout directly from higher-level description. A special version of AHPL compiler (stage 3) has been developed as part of the project. The SLA data structure formats and the implementation of the Data and Control Sections of the target are described in detail. Also the evaluation and possibilities for future research are discussed.

      Wilson, Malcolm Wetherill, 1935- (The University of Arizona., 1973)
    • Vocal health in the choral rehearsal: Common ground for operatically trained singers, studio voice teachers and choral conductors

      Chamberlain, Bruce; Weiss, John R. (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      Recent research and experimentation by Johan Sundberg, Ingo R. Titze, Mirano Hirano, William Vennard, and many others have contributed greatly to the understanding of voice physiology and function. Nevertheless, much anecdotal evidence reveals that there are continuing vocal problems experienced by operatically trained singers in the collegiate choral rehearsal. Although previous research has dealt with these problems in various specialized ways, no study has attempted to integrate contemporary voice research with vocal pedagogy and choral methodology. This study will summarize the last thirty years of research in the physiology and function of the singing voice. In addition, it will present relevant vocal health concerns, and discuss possible causes of vocal fatigue. Finally, this study will suggest some choral rehearsal techniques that incorporate basic knowledge of voice function. By utilizing these techniques, operatically trained singers should be able to participate in a collegiate choral ensemble without experiencing vocal fatigue, compromising vocal development, or risking vocal injury.
    • The Vocal Music of Henri Duparc

      Madsen, Mark L. (The University of Arizona., 1986)
    • The vocal repertoire of grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) living in the Congo Basin

      Pepperberg, Irene M.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; May, Diana L. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      This dissertation is a report on the investigation of the vocal behavior of free-living Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) that inhabit the Congo Basin in Central Africa. I observed Grey Parrots in the Central African Republic and Cameroon and made audio recordings of their vocalizations. The results of spectrographic analysis of vocalizations lend support to the assertion that Grey Parrots produce calls that fall into four major acoustical classes--tonal, harmonic, noisy-harmonic, and noisy--and that these call classes may be subdivided into as many as 39 different acoustical types. A reliability study of this classification scheme demonstrated that both clustering of these acoustical types into aggregate categories and the combined method of visual inspection and basic spectrographic measurement enable reliable classification of calls into classes, types and also subtypes. The majority of calls in the observed repertoire belong to pure tonal call class, which may suggest that a large proportion of Grey Parrot calling behavior is adapted for tonal call production. Grey Parrots may also adjust the acoustic characteristics of their calls to better adapt them to their environment and communication needs. Both observations of Grey Parrots and analysis of the acoustic and production characteristics of their calls indicate that Grey Parrots may share functional call types of some New World and Australian parrot species. Some Grey Parrot calling vocal behavior parallels that of captive Grey Parrots in the laboratory. I conclude with an exploration of possible reasons why Grey Parrots possess such a diverse vocal repertoire.
    • Vocalic Markers of Deception and Cognitive Dissonance for Automated Emotion Detection Systems

      Nunamaker, Jay F.; Burgoon, Judee K.; Elkins, Aaron Chaim; Nunamaker, Jay F.; Burgood, Judee K.; Golob, Elyse; Goes, Paulo B. (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      This dissertation investigates vocal behavior, measured using standard acoustic and commercial vocal analysis software, as it occurs naturally while lying, experiencing cognitive dissonance, or receiving a security interview conducted by an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA).In study one, vocal analysis software used for credibility assessment was investigated experimentally. Using a repeated measures design, 96 participants lied and told the truth during a multiple question interview. The vocal analysis software's built-in deception classifier performed at the chance level. When the vocal measurements were analyzed independent of the software's interface, the variables FMain (Stress), AVJ (Cognitive Effort), and SOS (Fear) significantly differentiated between truth and deception. Using these measurements, a logistic regression and machine learning algorithms predicted deception with accuracy up to 62.8%. Using standard acoustic measures, vocal pitch and voice quality was predicted by deception and stress.In study two, deceptive vocal and linguistic behaviors were investigated using a direct manipulation of arousal, affect, and cognitive difficulty by inducing cognitive dissonance. Participants (N=52) made verbal counter-attitudinal arguments out loud that were subjected to vocal and linguistic analysis. Participants experiencing cognitive dissonance spoke with higher vocal pitch, response latency, linguistic Quantity, and Certainty and lower Specificity. Linguistic Specificity mediated the dissonance and attitude change. Commercial vocal analysis software revealed that cognitive dissonance induced participants exhibited higher initial levels of Say or Stop (SOS), a measurement of fear.Study three investigated the use of the voice to predict trust. Participants (N=88) received a screening interview from an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) and reported their perceptions of the ECA. A growth model was developed that predicted trust during the interaction using the voice, time, and demographics.In study four, border guards participants were randomly assigned into either the Bomb Maker (N = 16) or Control (N = 13) condition. Participants either did or did not assemble a realistic, but non-operational, improvised explosive device (IED) to smuggle past an ECA security interviewer. Participants in the Bomb Maker condition had 25.34% more variation in their vocal pitch than the control condition participants.This research provides support that the voice is potentially a reliable and valid measurement of emotion and deception suitable for integration into future technologies such as automated security screenings and advanced human-computer interactions.
    • Vocalises for choir: A collection of vocal exercises with a study of their value and of principles for their effective use.

      Skones, Maurice H.; Nesheim, Paul Jonathan.; Knott, Josef; Wilson, Gary (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      For an untold number of years the vocalise has had an integral place in many of the methods used for the training and development of singers. Commonly referred to and used as "warm-ups" in the choral rehearsal, vocalises are considered by many conductors to have a usefulness that surpasses that of simply preparing voices for the singing which is immediately at hand. It remains a tendency in many cases, however, for vocalises to be used in an indiscriminate fashion without a clear understanding of the purposes of the vocalises used and/or using a method of presentation of vocal exercises that can diminish their usefulness or perhaps even have detrimental effects on the singers. A common additional plight facing many choral conductors seems to be the lack of availability of practical, printed resources for choral vocalization. Conductors can feel forced to rely only on exercises passed onto them by colleagues or by their own teachers. Either because of this lack of understanding of purpose or because of a lack of knowledge of vocalise repertoire, or both, a conductor might choose to limit or avoid entirely the use of vocal exercises in the choral rehearsal, depriving the conductor and the singers of what is perhaps one of the best tools for vocal development and conditioning. This study attempts to contribute toward the alleviation of the problems mentioned above. The study provides an extended collection of vocalises arranged with optional piano accompaniments by the author for use in the choral rehearsal, including original exercises, as well as those borrowed from colleagues in the solo and choral music fields and from selected printed sources. In addition, through a review of the writings of noted authorities in the field of voice education, the study discusses the usefulness of vocalises in the development of specific elements of good singing, with reference to the vocalises contained in the collection. Included in this discussion is a determination, based on these writings, of certain principles for the effective use of vocalises in the choral rehearsal. Finally, this study provides a selected list of known, available resource material that specifically contains vocalises for choir.

      FEDERHAR, DAVID BERNARD. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      This study examined the developmental role of creativity on vocational and avocational interests of gifted students grades 7 to 12. Prior research has assumed that choices made by gifted and creative students were unique. This study was aimed at determining if there were relationships between background characteristics (age, sex and creativity) of gifted students and their preferences for leisure and work activities. Higher scores on creativity tests were significantly correlated with more leisure pursuits. The sample studied was significantly different from Torrance's norms. This sample's norms were presented. In this sample the overall creativity and leisure skills were highly correlated with component scores. Lower grade level was the most important factor in predicting certain leisure activities. Creativity was also a significant predictive factor. Male-female similarities emerged. Lower creativity was the most important factor in predicting certain vocational interests. Sex, grade level, and overall leisure were also significant factors. Some grade level differences and similarities were evidenced. Discussed are implications for future gifted programs, possible generalization limitations, and future cause-effect research.
    • Vocational identity, field of study and college choice

      Dinham, Sarah M.; Kohn, Paul Robert (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      In the past, the issue of college choice has been studied as a matter of determining the characteristics of students and institutions that affect decisions regarding the selection of a university or college. Forty years of research in this area demonstrates the importance of understanding college choice among institutional planners, educational psychologists, and the consumers of higher education. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of field of study in college choice behavior. The Chapman (1993) multistage model of college choice provided the theoretical framework for the examination of college choice among students selecting the field of agriculture. Data were collected from students enrolled in The University of Arizona College of Agriculture between 1997 and 1999. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were utilized to examine the influence of field of study in college choice. The roles of information quality and accuracy, information sources, information types, timing of contact, individual attributes, and institutional characteristics were shown to be unrelated to field of study. This study showed that the field of study of agriculture does not influence college choice. Student recruitment efforts, whether they be discipline-, department-, college-, or university based, presuming that field of study influences the college choices of prospective students should be modified to reflect this finding. Further, the additional variable, field of study, does not enhance the Chapman model of college choice.

      BUTLER, WILLIAM DAVID.; Leung (The University of Arizona., 1982)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that vocational rehabilitation services have on the employability of learning disabled adults in Arizona. Vocational rehabilitation case files of 134 learning disabled adults were reviewed. The services rendered fell into four categories: psychotherapy, learning disability remediation, vocational training, and counseling provided by the vocational rehabilitation counselor. It was found that the incidence of employment did not vary significantly across services. Additionally, the incidence of employment subsequent to provision of services did not vary significantly from that of vocational rehabilitation clients who were not learning disabled. The results suggested that vocational rehabilitation services had a positive effect on the employability of the learning disabled adults. Demographic, input, and outcome data was included in the appendices.
    • Vocational Rehabilitation Outcome in Clients with Traumatic Brain Injury

      Schonbrun, Staci; Sales, Amos; Kampfe, Charlene; Moore, Susan; Erin, Jane; Liaupson, Carl (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      This research provides an analysis of the relationship between demographic information and between specific vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcome in RSA consumers with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The findings suggest that these is a relationship between a consumers' race (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, and Hawaiian), level of education, and presence of substance abuse. No relationship was identified between a consumers' gender, age, or race of Asian or American Indian consumers. When specific services of assessment, job placement, job search, and diagnosis/treatment were provided consumers were more likely to obtain employment. The specific services of job placement, job search and diagnosis/treatment also predicted consumers' employment outcome. Only three of these services, job placement, job search, and diagnosis/treatment were significantly related to consumers' weekly earnings at case closure. Diagnosis/Treatment was positively related, while job placement and job search were negatively associated.
    • Vocational students' economic status and prestige following training at a rural community college on the Mexican border: A field study informed by critical theory of the state

      Slaughter, Sheila; Shelden, Mary Lee Moat, 1941- (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This study identifies overt mechanisms by which working class students at a rural community college were aligned with entry level service employment following the AAS degree. It examines socio economic and state constraints upon the college, its vocational faculty and students. These models explain the state structuring process on social institutions: Brint and Karabel's political niche, Carnoy and Levin's dominant class ideology, and O'Connor's value theory of crisis during late capitalism. The literature review looks at critical sociology, including the reproduction school as well as vocational education literature on the community college. The data were structured interviews with 74 students and four faculty. Classrooms were also observed. A critical theory of the state provided the interpretative frame for analysis. Recommendations for greater student choice to provide for increased equity and equality are offered in conclusion.
    • Voces de Las Madres: Traumatic bereavement after gang-related homicide

      Glittenberg, JoAnn E.; Campesino-Flenniken, Maureen (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      This narrative ethnography analyzed cultural processes influencing bereavement following Latino gang-related homicide in the Southwestern U.S. A hermeneutic approach explicated bereavement experiences of two mothers, one Mexican American and one Pascau Yaqui/Mexican, whose sons were killed in the same gang-related event. Responses to gang-related deaths from Latino communities were also studied. The mothers' bereavement included six processes: (1) dehumanization; (2) ongoing shock; (3) diversity in bereavement responses; (4) spiritual and religious aspects; (5) construction of meaning; and (6) emerging self-transcendence. Mothers' bereavement responses were highly reflective of their own cultural contexts. The process of dehumanization was an important reflection of the social stigma the mothers felt about gang-related deaths. The process of self-transcendence indicated the mothers utilized personal and cultural resources to develop new perspectives that enhanced their lives in the context of great suffering. Two themes emerged among Mexican American communities one-week following gang-related deaths. First, rituals embodied four communal functions: (1) providing community support; (2) honor and recognition for the deceased; (3) helping the deceased; and (4) support in expression of emotions. Second, public discourse functioned to rehumanize the deceased and their communities and reinforced reciprocal relationships between the living and dead. Among Mexican American parents struggling to integrate the violent death of a child, four themes were identified: (1) sharing the process of bereavement; (2) sensing spiritual connections with the child; (3) creating space and place for the child; and (4) contesting dehumanizing public domains. Findings from this study have implications for practice, research, and theory in nursing and other human science disciplines. Parents grieving stigmatized deaths may suffer greatly due to dehumanizing judicial proceedings and media representations that complicate the bereavement process. The use of narratives, or storytelling, was an important strategy in rehumanization and an effective vehicle for the establishment of a therapeutic relationship. Conceptually and methodologically, studies on traumatic bereavement may need to account for and measure the simultaneous presence of distress and wellness during people's healing trajectories. Bereavement theorists may need to re-evaluate notions of maladaptive grieving to account for disorganized states of being that may accompany people's evolution in healing trajectories.
    • Voice and argument structure in Yaqui.

      Jelinek, Eloise; Escalante, Fernando.; Demers, Richard A.; Hill, Jane H.; Lehrer, Adrienne; Zepeda, Ofelia (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      This thesis is a description, analysis and functional interpretation of voice and argument structure in Yaqui, a Uto-Aztecan language spoken in Southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. Yaqui is a SOV language with a complex verbal morphology, and voice alternations are morphologically marked. I begin with the analysis of argument structure in basic clause types, and describe lexical and clitic arguments. The voice alternates I identify are Passive, Impersonal, Anti-passive, Impersonal Anti-Passive and Unaccusative. I also provide an analysis of Dative and Applicative constructions, and a type of Possessive sentence where the head of the Possessed NP is incorporated into the verb. Each of these construction types has a specific function in discourse. The speaker selects the construction type that places an argument with a particular theta role in focus position, determines what other arguments are present, and determines which arguments are referential. This functional perspective gives us an integrated view of voice and argument type in Yaqui.
    • The voice of deceit: Comparing acoustic and perceptual data.

      Rockwell, Patricia Ann.; Buller, David; Burgoon, Judee K.; Jacobs, Scott; Green, Kerry; Qi, Yingyong (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      This study examined the nature of deceptive vocal behavior in interactive situations. It compared those vocal features of deception that can be measured by acoustic equipment with those vocal features of deception that can be measured perceptually by human coders. As deception researchers traditionally measure vocal behavior with either acoustic or perceptual methods, it is uncertain what correspondence, if any, exists between these two methods. This study attempted to determine this correspondence. Deceptive interactions from an earlier study (Buller, Burgoon, Buslig & Roiger, 1993; Burgoon, Buller, Ebesu, White, and Rockwell, 1994) were used to conduct a detailed analysis of vocal features of deceptive speech. The vocal samples were analyzed perceptually and acoustically. Results indicated moderate correlations between some acoustic and perceptual variables, with neither measurement type proving conclusively superior to the other in discriminating between truth and deception. Of three categories examined (time, pitch, and intensity), the time variables of shorter message length, longer response latencies, slower tempo, and less fluency best discriminated between truthful and deceptive statements. Other variables that discriminated truth from deceit were increased intensity range, increased pitch level and variance, and less pleasant vocal quality. Analyses of deception type showed that fabricated deceptions were louder and lower pitched than equivocal deceptions. An analysis of deception planning, showed that planned deceptions exhibited more fluency, a lower pitch level, and less pitch variance than unplanned deceptions. An examination of correlations between deceiver/receiver evaluations of deceiver honesty and deceiver vocal behaviors showed moderate correlations occurred between these evaluations and length of response latencies, pitch level, pitch range, and pitch variance. In general, these findings provide further confirmation of Interpersonal Deception Theory.
    • The voice of emotion: Acoustic properties of six emotional expressions

      Wetzel, Mary C.; Baldwin, Carol May; Lauter, Judith L.; Lansing, Robert W.; Daldrup, Roger J.; Christensen, Oscar C. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.