Now showing items 19972-19991 of 20421

    • Vegetative and environmental characteristics of high elevation riparian communities in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

      Guertin, D. Phillip; Danzer, Steven Jay (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Fifteen canyons in the Coronado National Forest, in southeastern Arizona were sampled in order to study the woody riparian overstory. Vegetative and environmental data were collected from 99 high elevation (>1050 meters) sites within these canyons that had a woody riparian overstory. Vegetative data included abundance and diameter at breast height (DBH) of each woody tree, and abundance and root collar diameter of each woody shrub in the sample plot. Environmental site data included elevation, stream gradient, stream width and depth, terrace height, stream direction, and watershed area. The vegetative data for each site were classified into one of six possible community types using an average linkage/euclidean distance clustering algorithm. Clustering was performed using DBH data and abundance data in order to compare the two types of approaches. This study suggests that in high elevation areas, typical riparian community vegetation include shrub species such as Baccharis and Robinia, as well as facultative upland species such as Abies, Acer, Juniperus and Ouercus. Platanus and Salix are also commonly found, while Populus is rare. The environmental data were summarized by community type. Binary recursive partitioning was used to produce a classification structure to determine which environmental variables were most effective to differentiate between the communities and the larger sample set. Elevation and stream gradient were the most important parameters when measuring communities by their relative abundance. Elevation was the most important parameter when measuring communities by DBH.
    • Vehicle dynamic simulation with a comprehensive model for pneumatic tires.

      Nikravesh, P. E.; Gim, Gwanghun.; Vincent, T. L.; Simon, B. R. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      This study presents an analytical approach for the mechanics of the pneumatic tires and the vehicle dynamic simulation. Most of tire dynamic parameters in this study are derived by using the tire geometry rather than experimental data. For the tire dynamic properties, explicit formulations are derived analytically as functions of slip ratio, slip angle, camber angle, and other tire dynamic parameters. These formulations can be efficiently used for the general vehicle simulations of braking/traction and steering maneuvers with a varying camber angle at irregular terrains. For on-highway vehicle simulations, a conceptual sports car is modeled as a twenty-six degrees of freedom multi-body system, while the military 1/4 ton truck M151-A2 is modeled as a fourteen degrees of freedom multi-body system for off-highway vehicle simulations. To study vehicle ride comfort, stability, and maneuverability, numerous vehicle simulations are performed using the comprehensive tire model, steering, braking, traction, nonlinear suspension, and realistic irregular terrains. For these simulations, a general-purpose multi-body dynamic analysis code (named MBOSS) has been developed.
    • Velar Palatalization: Catalan, Spanish and Bilingualism

      Simonet, Miguel; Ramírez Martínez, Marta; Simonet, Miguel; Carvalho, Ana M.; Colina, Sonia; Wedel, Andrew (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The present investigation examines the process of velar palatalization, a feature of Catalan, as seen in the Catalan and in the Spanish of the bilingual speech community of Majorca, Spain. Velar palatalization involves a change in a velar consonant’s place of articulation from velar to palatal; that is, /k, g/ acquire a secondary palatal articulation or acquire a completely new place of articulation. Velar palatalization usually occurs before /i, e, ɛ/ due to coarticulation. Some languages, however, also present this feature before /a, ə/ and word-finally. This is the case of certain dialects of Majorcan Catalan. Traditional descriptions have observed (a) the presence of velar palatalization before front vowels in all dialects of Majorcan Catalan (non-palatalizing area), and (b) the presence of velar palatalization also before /a, ə/, and word-finally only in certain areas of Majorca (palatalizing area). The aims of this dissertation are threefold. The first aim is to provide acoustic data for /k/ in the Catalan spoken in the traditionally palatalizing area, taking as an example the dialect of Manacor, a town of 43,000 inhabitants on the southeastern area of Majorca; and in the Catalan spoken in the non-palatalizing area, taking as an example the dialect of Artà, a town of 7,400 inhabitants on the northeastern coast of Majorca. Providing acoustic data for this contrast is relevant because it has only been documented through descriptive observations. Secondly, my dissertation analyzes vowel /a/ in the Catalan spoken in the two areas. It has been suggested that velar palatalization before /a/ can occur in languages in which /a/ is especially fronted (e.g. French). A comparison of /a/ production from both areas can provide clues regarding the relationship between the process of /k/ palatalization and /a/ fronting (i.e., if /a/ is equally fronted for both areas but there is a palatalization distinction, this could be interpreted as evidence that /a/-fronting triggered /k/-palatalization for the palatalizing area). The third aim of this dissertation is related to societal bilingualism. In situations of language contact, it is not unusual for cross-linguistic transfer to occur; that is, it is common for a bilingual’s language A to affect the perception and production of this bilingual’s language B speech sounds. In particular, this dissertation examines whether velar palatalization, for the individuals that prove to manifest it in their Catalan, is transferred from their first to their second language. The results suggest, first, that there exists, in fact, a difference in the distribution of the process of velar palatalization between the two communities and, importantly, that the process of velar palatalization has been phonologized for the speakers of the palatalizing area. Secondly, the findings suggest that the processes of velar palatalization and /a/-fronting might have stemmed from a relationship of mutual influence in its inception. Finally, there is no evidence of phonological transfer of the process of velar palatalization from dominant to non-dominant speech. The implications of these findings to theories of phonologization as well as of consecutive bilingualism are discussed.
    • Velocity-tuned resonances in atomic diffraction by a standing-wave light field.

      Glasgow, Scott Alan.; Meystre, Pierre; Wright, Ewan; Moloney, Jerome; Ercolani, Nicholas; Indik, Robert (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Multi-photon Doppleron resonances are investigated for the diffraction of atoms by a classical standing-wave optical field in the regime where energy conservation limits the diffraction orders. In this regime, atomic recoil is incorporated into the description, and consideration of the dynamical shift of the resonance condition from the purely kinematic results becomes critical to observing the desired diffraction of the atomic wave function. Special attention is given to the development of a technique for evaluating the resonances which constitutes a significant simplification of the usual degenerate perturbation theory approach for a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian. Also developed is a specialized off-resonant atom-field interaction which is shown to be maximally efficient at producing high-order diffraction of the atomic wave function. Suggestions for its implementation are given.
    • Velopharyngeal orifice areas during tasks used clinically to stimulate improved velopharyngeal closure.

      Tomes, Lucrezia Aida.; Shelton, Ralph; Curlee, Richard; Glattke, Theodore (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      Data-based evidence supporting behavioral treatments of velopharyngeal impairment is sparse. This study examined the initial step in some behavioral treatments--testing stimulability for improved velopharyngeal closure--to explore whether velopharyngeal orifice areas for obstruents produced during stimulability tasks are smaller than areas for the consonants produced without special stimulability instructions. Subjects were eight children between 5 and 15 years of age who had audible nasal emission during pressure consonants. Six subjects were born with overt or submucous palatal clefts and two showed no evidence of palatal clefting. Three kinds of tasks were used to probe each subject's stimulability for reduced velopharyngeal orifice during one or more pressure consonants: (a) increasing a consonant's intraoral air pressure and slowing rate of syllable production, (b) moving from oral blowing to production of a consonant, and (c) moving from an obstruent produced with a relatively smaller velopharyngeal opening to production of another obstruent that was typically produced with a relatively larger velopharyngeal opening. Velopharyngeal orifice areas were computed during obstruents produced in the stimulability task conditions and during the obstruents produced with no special instructions. Performance of each subject on each task was classed as meeting criteria for strong, moderate, weak, or no evidence of stimulability. For each stimulability task, the performance of all subjects was summarized. One subject's velopharyngeal areas were consistently reduced when she produced obstruents with greater intraoral air pressure during single syllables. None of the children had smaller velopharyngeal areas when speaking at a slower rate. Obstruents shaped from oral blowing were produced with smaller velopharyngeal areas in five of the eight subjects. Of the six subjects for whom production of /s/ was shaped from /∫/, /Θ/, or /t/, three showed smaller velopharyngeal areas. These results indicate that, for at least some individuals with velopharyngeal impairment, the stimulability tasks involving shaping from oral blowing or other obstruents may yield relatively immediate reductions in velopharyngeal area. However, the reductions in velopharyngeal area will be of clinical significance only if they are accompanied by improvements in speech and if the child can learn to use the improved velopharyngeal behavior in spontaneous speech.
    • Venerable Doe. [Original opera].

      Steinke, Greg A.; Golden, Carol Anne; Steinke, Greg A.; Cook, Gary; Asia, Daniel; Murphy, Edward; Kolosick, Timothy (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      This work is a setting of "Venerable 'Doe,' " and original story and libretto by the composer. "Venerable 'Doe' " is the temporary appellation of Javanese music spirit whose true name is not known. It is also the name of the gamelan over which the spirit reigns and in whose pusaka gong he resides. The work combines traditional Western dance, instruments, orchestration, notation and theory and traditional Javanese court dance, instrument, instrumentation, performance practice and theory with the composer's innovations created to facilitate the combining of two divergent worlds of music. The language of the libretto and the selection of pitch material have been determined by an original, extended, soggetto cavato technique. This technique accommodates all letters of the English alphabet and all pitch classes of both the Western and Javanese scales used in the work. While the soggetto cavato technique expands upon techniques used in the works of J. S. Bach, Venerable Doe's continuous rather than sectional deportment, devotion to symbolism and personification of specific sound patterns as 'motives' continue innovations of Richard Strauss. Venerable Doe is an opera containing two major formal divisions, a fantasy-ballet "Overture," the score of which constitutes the "original composition" portion of this dissertation, followed by four acts of the opera's main body. The "Overture" is designed to be performed with the main body of the opera or as an independent composition. The programmatic content of the "Overture" is drawn from the first half of the story, "Venerable 'Doe,' " while the program of the four acts is from the second half. The work is set in English, and uses Javanese terminology, as well as Swedish, German and Latin translations of Psalm 23. It is scored for full Western orchestra, Javanese gamelan, chorus, soloists, Western and Javanese dancers. Lighting, costuming, dance, stage and visual projection directions appear on the score and in preliminary pages.
    • THE VENULAR NETWORK OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AND MICROCIRCULATORY HOMEOSTASIS.

      Johnson, Paul C.; HOUSE, STEVEN DONALD. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      It has been deduced from indirect evidence that significant adjustments of vascular resistance take place in the venous network when blood flow changes in a organ. In the following experiments, we attempted to test the hypotheses that changes in postcapillary resistance in skeletal muscle may be due to changes in venous diameter, changes in the number of venules with blood flow, and/or changes in the apparent viscosity of blood in venules. The hypotheses were tested by observing the response of cat sartorius muscle venules (7-200 μm diameter) during arterial pressure reduction and muscle contraction. There was no observable change in venular diameter during any of the above perturbations. There was a significant decrease in the already low normalized velocity of blood in venules from a mean of 13 sec⁻¹ under control conditions to 5 sec⁻¹ during arterial pressure reduction to 20 mm Hg. At very low pressures, the number of venules with blood flow decreased. Combining our findings with Lipowsky's (1975) in vivo viscometry data, it was predicted that resistance in venules would increase 100% as a result of increases in blood viscosity when blood flow was reduced 60%. During post-contraction hyperemia the normalized velocity of blood in venules increased from 16 sec⁻¹ to 38 sec⁻¹ and the number of venules with blood flow increased a modest amount. Combining our observations with Lipowsky's data, we predict that venular resistance would fall 54% when blood flow increased 250% If shear rate changes cause substantial changes in blood viscosity in venules as suggested by the findings cited above, hydrostatic pressure in the small venules should tend to remain relatively constant as flow is altered. To determine whether this is the case, pressures of venules were measured using the servo-null technique during arterial pressure reduction. Pressures in the larger venules were a linear function of blood pressure and blood flow with an intercept not significantly different from the systemic venous pressure. Pressures in the smallest venules studied (24 μm), however, were somewhat insensitive to alterations in blood pressure (intercept of 10.4 mm Hg) and blood flow (intercept of 13.2 mm Hg). The stability of pressure in 40 venules supports the hypothesis that variable blood viscosity maintains the pressure drop in the venous network and the capillary hydrostatic pressure somewhat constant during changes in blood flow.
    • VERB SERIALIZATION AND PREDICATE COMPLEMENTATION IN SARAMACCAN (CREOLE, UNIVERSALS, LANGUAGE, GRAMMAR, SYNTAX, SURINAME).

      BYRNE, FRANCIS, JR. (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      One of the most striking features of Saramaccan syntax is the almost categorically finite status of its sentential complements and serial verbs. In fact, a study of these constituents in the language is to primarily observe how characteristics of finite sentential structures are beginning to be lost in certain instances. The first three chapters are largely preliminary in nature. Chapter I briefly introduces Saramaccan, discusses the Government and Binding grammatical model and outlines why it is superior to competing approaches. This chapter also defines many of the pertinent concepts needed for the analyses. Chapter II looks at tense, modality and aspect markers and determines when a +Tense value is possible for a clause. In this context, we find that the complements of perception verbs are finite. The remainder of Chapter II and all of Chapter III determine the dislocation patterns and identifying parameters of various categories. The next three chapters investigate serial structures. In Chapter IV, it is found among other things that complementizer-like fu (from for) and taa 'say, that' are main verbs. Chapter V analyzes the Instrumental, Benefactive and Dative serials. We conclude that the Instrumental and Benefactive are contained within finite clauses, while the Dative serial verb is either an infinitive or has been deleted. Finally in Chapter VI, the many serials discussed exhibit a wide range of features which lead us to believe that some are fully finite, others are infinitives, and one has reanalyzed to another category. It is claimed in the last chapter, based on the evidence, that there is really no difference between sentential complements and serial structures; both are or were finite clauses. In addition, based on the nature of serials reported in the literature for West African languages, Saramaccan appears to be significantly different. This leads to the conclusion that serials spontaneously emerged in Saramaccan during the creolization process rather than being a continuation of such structures from West African languages.
    • VERBAL AND NONVERBAL PROCESSING AMONG LEFT- AND RIGHT-HANDED GOOD READERS AND READING-DISABLED CHILDREN.

      Obrzut, John; CONRAD, PAMELA FANKHAUSER. (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      Differences in cerebral lateralization of verbal and nonverbal stimuli between left- and right-handed good readers and left- and right-handed reading-disabled children were examined. The study utilized the dichotic listening paradigm and examined the effects of directed attention on the processing of consonant-vowel (CV) and tonal stimuli by the four groups. The sixty subjects included fifteen right-handed good readers (eleven females and four males, mean age 10-3), fifteen left-handed good readers (eight females and seven males, mean age 10-5), fifteen right-handed reading-disabled children (six females and nine males, mean age 10-5), and fifteen left-handed reading-disabled children (four females and eleven males, mean age 10-8). All left-handed subjects had sinistral relatives. A three-factorial analysis of variance resulted in a significant left ear advantage (LEA) for tonal stimuli across all directed attention conditions for all groups. When presented with CV stimuli, the right-handed good readers produced a significant right ear advantage (REA) across all attentional conditions. The left-handed good readers and left-handed reading-disabled children were left ear (LE) dominant in the free recall and directed left conditions but produced a shift toward the right ear (RE) during the directed right condition. Right-handed reading-disabled children demonstrated a REA during free recall and directed right but were able to direct attention to the LE in the directed left condition. The study provided initial findings on the auditory processing of simple tonal stimuli among anomalous groups of children and documented the strong LEA found in previous studies of adult subjects. Verbal processing results for right-handed good readers and reading-disabled children confirmed previous findings with these populations. Reversed verbal processing (right hemisphere) was documented in both left-handed groups in two of the experimental conditions. The results provide additional support for the structural theory of lateralization and suggest reversed or bilaterialized processing abilities for language in strongly left-handed good reader children. Components of the attentional bias model are necessary to explain the effects of directed attention on the auditory perceptual asymmetry found in the reading-disabled groups.
    • Verbal and visual learning in a sample of Native American children: A study of the effects of practice on memory

      Mishra, Shitala P.; Shah, Minoo Gunwant, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of learning and rehearsal on verbal and visual memory in 15 Native American students ranging in age from 9 to 16 years. Subjects were administered the Verbal Learning (VL) and Visual Learning (VIL) subtests of the WRAML. These subtests assess the ability to retain verbal (list of words) and visual (location of designs) information presented over 4 trials. A 5th trial assesses retention after a short delay. The study additionally aimed to relate scores on these tasks with overall scores on the WRAML, the WISC-III and the DAS. A description of mean standard/scaled scores for each of these measures is provided. Concurrent with previous research, mean Verbal IQ on the WISC-III was significantly below the normative mean while the Performance IQ was in the average range. Mean Verbal and Visual Memory Indexes on the WRAML reflected this pattern. Performance on all three subtests of the DAS (Arithmetic, Spelling, Word Reading) were significantly below average. Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVAs based on z scores indicate no significant difference from the norm in overall performance on both learning subtests. However, z scores on the VL subtest showed a significant difference across trials. While performance on the VL subtest was slightly below the normative average on trial 1, this difference appears to have been erased by trial 2. Performance on delayed recall trials for both subtests were comparable to the norm group. Correlation coefficients show a significant relation between the learning subtests and the Visual, Learning and General-Memory Index scores on the WRAML. They also show a significant relation between the VL subtest and the Verbal and Full Scale IQs on the WISC-III. Neither of the learning subtests shows a significant correlation with subtests on the DAS. Results argue against a verbal learning "weakness" in Native American children. Findings also suggest that instead of focusing on teaching to the Native Americans' "visual strength," the use of a multi-trial approach when presenting Native American children with verbal material in English would enhance learning and retention.
    • Verbal interaction among teachers and elementary learning-disabled students engaged in directive and interactive prereading strategies

      Anders, Patricia L.; Gallego, Margaret Anne; Mitchell, Judy N.; Moll, Luis C.; Fuentevilla, Arminda R.; Johnson, Donna M. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      Interactive teaching approaches have been documented as viable and effective methods of comprehension instruction. This study identified the components characteristic of interactive and directive teaching. The language employed by teachers and learning disabled (LD) students engaged in one of three interactive strategies or a directive strategy are described and compared with student performance. A written summary and a multiple choice comprehension test served as dependent measures. Subjects were upper elementary bilingual, LD students and their teachers in eight self contained or resource classrooms. Classes were randomly assigned to one of four instructional conditions: (a) semantic mapping, (b) semantic feature analysis, (c) semantic syntactic feature analysis, or (d) direct instruction. Teacher utterances were coded according to general, directive, and interactive teaching functions. Student utterances were coded according to prior knowledge categories including elaborate, specific, restrictive, and response, and other. Results reported indicate findings regarding classroom interaction, condition effects, and theoretical tenets. Teacher and student interaction patterns revealed (a) no difference in the amount of teacher talk across assigned conditions, (b) "no response" as the most frequent student response to teacher utterances, and (c) the most student to student conversation occurred in the semantic feature analysis and the semantic syntactic feature analysis condition. Condition effect findings reported significant difference on prior knowledge and cohesiveness of written summaries. Student performance on the multiple choice test exhibited no significant difference on vocabulary items. Theoretical divergence was represented by interactive and directive teaching functions that were most differently used. These differences characterize interactive and directive instruction. Findings indicate that learning disabled students are capable of benefiting from interactive instruction; and, teachers engaged in interactive instruction employ teaching functions that encouraged student participation in classroom discussion.
    • Verbal Learning and Memory Functions in Students with Reading Disabilities

      Obrzut, John E.; Oyler, James Douglas; Obrzut, John E.; Mather, Nancy; Mishra, Shitala (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      There is agreement in the learning disability (LD) literature that reading problems in children can be attributed to difficulties in coding linguistic information. One explanation for this is that students with LD have impaired verbal memory ability. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these memory impairments are not well understood, especially in adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to compare the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) to normal adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test. The Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test (BTVLT), English version, modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), is a multiple trial test designed to measure memory acquisition, retention, retrieval, and forgetting rates, as well as the ability to organize and retrieve the information from memory according to the phonological (surface) and semantic (lexical) features of words. Twenty subjects with RD and 20 control subjects with a mean age of 15.2 years, matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, participated in the study. Results indicated that the RD group learned significantly fewer list items and did so at a slower rate than the controls. Although the RD group was equally able to retain information once learned, they did demonstrate inefficient elaborative rehearsal strategies. The RD group also recalled fewer words in both the semantic and phonetic cued recall conditions, but the effect size was significantly greater in the phonetic cued recall condition. Taken together, the data suggest that students with RD have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms but normal retention. Retrieval also appears normal except under conditions that require information to be recalled based on phonetic codes.
    • Verbal learning and memory in closed head injured individuals.

      Caffrey, Jill Teresa.; Kaszniak, Alfred W.; Beeson, Pelagie; Garrett, Merrill; Glisky, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Closed head injury (CHI) typically results in diffuse damage to the brain with particular damage to the frontal and temporal regions. Individuals who have suffered a CHI often exhibit impaired verbal learning and memory. It has been noted that CHI individuals do not use semantic organizational encoding strategies to the same degree as non-CHI individuals. This failure is presumed to contribute to the observed verbal learning and memory impairment and is likely associated with frontal region damage and related frontal system dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the effect of providing CHI subjects with guided semantic encoding and (b) describe the nature of the relationship between frontal system functioning and ability to benefit from guided semantic encoding. Twenty-four closed head injured subjects and 24 demographically matched control subjects participated in this study. Verbal learning and memory was measured using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987). The CVLT involves learning a sixteen word list containing four words from four categories. The CVLT was administered in both standard and non-standard, guided semantic encoding formats. Frontal system functioning was measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Grant & Berg, 1948) and FAS Generative Naming (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967). Results from this study indicate that verbal learning and memory performance improves following guided semantic encoding. CHI subjects benefit to relatively the same degree as control subjects. This suggests that, with external guidance, CHI subjects have the ability to benefit from organizational cuing in a qualitatively similar manner to control subjects. However, performance of CHI subjects did not reach that of controls, even with guided semantic encoding, indicating additional processing deficits. Guided semantic encoding facilitates performance for both low and high frontal system functioning subjects on free and cued recall tests. Guided semantic encoding particularly helps low frontal system functioning CHI subjects in long delay recall and recognition discriminability. The finding that CHI subjects take advantage of semantic encoding strategies, when encouraged to do so, is similar to that reported for Korsakoff's syndrome and focal frontal lesion patients.
    • VERBAL PATTERNS OF AN INFORMAL GROUP WHICH EMPLOYS DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES

      Bishop, Towne Charles, 1939- (The University of Arizona., 1972)
    • Verbatim memory and gist extraction in elementary school children with impaired language skills.

      Kiernan, Barbara Jean.; Swisher, Linda; Reyna, Valerie J.; DeFeo, Anthony B.; Curlee, Richard F.; Matkin, Noel D. (The University of Arizona., 1993)
      Two experiments were conducted to determine which of three proposals (memory limitations, inferential reasoning deficits, or task-related interference) best accounts for gist-extraction deficits observed in children with impaired language skills (LI group) relative to age-matched children developing language normally (NL group). Sixteen children between the ages of 8;0 and 10; 11 (years;months) from each group participated in each experiment. Experiment 1 utilized a comprehension paradigm (instructions focused on meaning) to investigate children's recognition of true and false premises, paraphrases, and inferences in short passages. Experiment 2 utilized a sentence-verification paradigm (instructions focused on verbatim form) to investigate children's ability to recognize presented premises in these same passages, and differentiate them from nonpresented items. In both experiments, passages were read aloud to each child, half of the passages were accompanied by pictures, and immediate and delayed recognition testing was conducted. In Experiment 1, previously documented inference-recognition deficits were associated with the auditory-only presentation of passage information. Gistextraction deficits involving inaccurate recognition of true paraphrases and acceptance of false foils were also observed. However, when pictures accompanied passages, the LI group's overall recognition of gist improved significantly relative to the auditory-only condition, and between-group differences were eliminated. Forgetting rates did not differ significantly as a function of language group in either the picture or no-picture condition. In Experiment 2, there were no significant between-group differences in the recognition of presented premises, with both groups erroneously recognizing nonpresented true sentences more frequently than false sentences (gist intrusions). Nevertheless, the LI group was significantly less likely than the NL group to differentiate presented premises from nonpresented items. Findings from both experiments indicated that gistextraction deficits observed in LI groups were not associated with either memory limitations or deficits in inferential reasoning. Instead, in line with fuzzy-trace theory (e.g., Brainerd & Reyna, 1990), difficulties these children had in extracting meaning from linguistic input presented auditorily appeared to interfere with (i.e., degrade) the simultaneous processing of verbatim input associated with presented premises. Comparable interference effects were not observed for children developing language normally.
    • Verdi's Fulcrum: The Aria Form Before and After Don Carlos

      Stuckey, Andrew; Moreno Moran, Ramon Octavio; Rosenblatt, Jay M.; Stokes, Cynthia S. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) codified a formula for arias, duets, and finales that made it easy for him to compose at an accelerated rate. This structure, known as the Rossini code, was followed by the Italian composers that came after him, among them Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901). As late as La Forza del Destino (1862), Verdi shows traces of the form utilized by Rossini. It is only in Don Carlos (1867), and his final two operas, Otello (1887), and Falstaff (1893), where we see a distinguishable evolution from the Rossini code aria form to the form that Verdi utilized after Don Carlos. To determine the elements, both in the text and the music, which illustrate the influence of French aria form and the effect caused on Verdi’s arias, three arias from three different operas will be analyzed: “Di Provenza il mar” from La Traviata (1853), “C’est mon jour suprême” from Don Carlos, and “Credo in un Dio crudel” from Otello. The comparison of these arias will bring light to the compositional tools, such as melody, tempi, key, and orchestration, as well as stanzaic structure that includes syllable count, accented syllables, and organization which show a clear adoption by Verdi, both direct and indirect, of French musical and linguistic style.
    • Verification of a Novel Hearing Aid Fitting Guide for Humanitarian Audiology

      Dean, James; Denny, Nicole; Norrix, Linda; Duncan, Burris; Velenovsky, David
      When fitting a hearing aid, it is necessary to verify that the prescribed gain matches the in-situ gain determined from an individual’s hearing loss. Audiologists use a verification process known as Real Ear Measures (REMs) to ensure that the hearing aid is providing ample gain across frequencies for a particular hearing loss. However, in underserved communities, there are economic barriers to these services and few, if any, trained professionals to fit hearing aids using REMs. In this study, a hearing aid fitting guide created specifically for the GN Resound Match hearing aids was evaluated by comparing the hearing aid output across frequency and various speech input levels for test box simulated real ear measures (SREMs) versus on ear real ear measures (REMs) from 10 different ears. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the GN Resound Match hearing aids using electroacoustic test box verification measures to ensure they met quality standards for the distribution and procurement of hearing aids in low to middle income countries. The second aim of this study was to verify the use of this novel, easy to use, hearing aid fitting guide for fitting the GN Resound Match devices adequately and efficiently across low resource countries without the need for technology, extensive training and expensive equipment.
    • Verification of River Stage Forecasts

      Sorooshian, Soroosh; Welles, Edwin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Davis, Donald R.; Shuttleworth, William J. (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      Little verification of hydrologic forecasts has been conducted to date, and therefore little is known about the skill of hydrologic forecasts. This dissertation presents a verification study of river stage forecasts with lead-times up to three days for sixteen locations in the United States for a period spanning the past decade. The verification metrics from this limited sample indicate that the below flood stage forecasts are skillful, and so are the day 1 above flood stage forecasts. However, by day 3, the longer lead-time, above flood stage forecasts appear to have little skill (when compared with simple persistence). Further, they have not improved during the period of record despite a number of forecast process improvements. A path to improving the forecasts is suggested, via a new approach to selecting enhancements to the hydrologic forecast process. In support of this method, two fundamental building blocks of a robust verification program are presented: a method to pinpoint sources of skill in forecasts, and a standardized process for verifying forecasts.One element of a complete verification system is a process to determine why forecasts behave as they do. Forecasters need to be able to determine what causes a forecast to be good and what causes it to be bad. Therefore, an operationally implementable method for conducting this type of verification analysis is described and demonstrated. The method is used to evaluate the influence of model calibration, model initial conditions, and precipitation forecasts on the skill of single-valued (deterministic) river forecasts.A second important element of any forecast process, is a well defined, standard verification methodology. This dissertation proposes a standard verification system for deterministic river forecasts as a foundation for future discussions and for development of a well accepted set of verification practices for hydrologic forecasts. The proposed standards account for the needs of users, forecasters, scientists and administrators and are designed to be easily implemented within the constraints of an operational system.
    • The vertical experience in English and Japanese spatial discourse

      Hill, Jane H.; Kataoka, Kuniyoshi, 1960- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The importance of 'deixis' is that it is anchored to the immediate interactive context and resists a pre-given formulation of truth-value without taking into account such factors as when, where, to whom and even how it is said. This fact serves as an acute reminder for linguists that language use fundamentally concerns face-to-face communication and is not solely based upon the biological construals of the linguistic faculty. In this study, I will exclusively focus on spatial deixis and also closely examine spatial expressions such as coordinate terms, locative phrases, and (deictic) motion verbs. The selection of these elements largely depends on the current interest among cognitive linguists/anthropologists in preferred 'lexicalization' patterns and spatial motions/configurations, which promote image-schematic projection of the source concept. These phenomenological extensions of space will most palpably be embodied in stretches of discourse which particularly incorporate somatic descriptions and mental imageries. The novelty of the research is thus characterized by exclusive attention to 'vertical' space realized in 'on-going discourse' about spatial experience. The data types are mainly audio-(and occasionally video-)taped conversation and narration. I look at the utterance by the people who are experientially familiar with the concepts of verticality, rock climbers. They routinely and intensively exploit spatial notions for various purposes such as body-movement instructions, negotiation of geographic locations, and narration of 'danger-of-death' experience. There, multiple frames of reference and coordinate systems emerge and compete for the most suitable perspective which the speaker prefers to assume in accordance with cognitive, linguistic, and experiential constraints. I specifically ask the following questions: (1) is the vertical dimension conceptualized as the source or target domain for the image-schematic projection of the horizontal plane?, (2) are the orders of spatial descriptions constrained by language-specific 'lexicalization' patterns and/or habitualized cognitive styles?, (3) how are experientially salient portions in 'danger-of-death' narratives (e.g., Climax/Peak) related to particular modes of perspective-taking (e.g., intrinsic or extrinsic)?, and finally, (4) what is the role of 'experience' in achieving spatial coherence in the 'way-finding' negotiation? I conclude that verticality may be a more complex concept than has been previously conceptualized and has covert but influential consequences on cognitive processes and linguistic representations.
    • VERTICILLIUM WILT OF COTTON: STUDIES OF POSSIBLE SEED TRANSMISSION

      Brown, J. G.; Allen, Ross Marvin, 1917- (The University of Arizona., 1953)