Now showing items 20194-20213 of 20330

    • The Wild West: Archaeological and Historical Investigations of Victorian Culture on the Frontier at Fort Laramie, Wyoming (1849-1890)

      Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Sheridan, Thomas; Wolff, Sarah Elizabeth; Pavao-Zuckerman, Barnet; Sheridan, Thomas; Majewski, Teresita; Walker, Danny; Stiner, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      This dissertation addresses how Victorian class hierarchy persisted on the frontier, and manifested in aspects of military life at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. Historians have argued that Victorian culture was omnipresent, but forts were located on the frontier, which was removed from the cultural core. While social status differences were a central aspect of Victorian culture, few studies have investigated how resilient class divisions were in differing landscapes. The U.S. western frontier was a landscape of conflict, and under the continual stress of potential violence, it is possible that Victorian social status differences weakened. While status differences in the military were primarily signaled through rank insignia and uniforms, this research focuses on subtle everyday inequalities, such as diet and pet dogs. Three independent lines of evidence from Fort Laramie, Wyoming (1849–1890) suggest that Victorian social status differences did persist despite the location. The Rustic Hotel (1876–1890), a private hotel at Fort Laramie, served standardized Victorian hotel dishes, which could be found in urban upper-class hotels. Within the military, the upper-class officers dined on the best cuts of beef, hunted prestige game birds, and supplemented their diet with sauger/walleye fish. Enlisted men consumed poorer cuts of beef, hunted smaller game mammals, and caught catfish. Officers also owned well-bred hunting dogs, which were integrated into the family. In contrast, a company of enlisted men frequently adopted a communal mongrel as a pet. This project increases our knowledge of the everyday life on the frontier and social relationships between officers and enlisted men in the U.S. Army. It also contributes to a larger understanding of Victorian culture class differences in frontier regions.
    • Wilderness, Incorporation, and Earthquakes: Christo, Jeanne-Claude, Niki de St. Phalle and the Embodied California Landscape

      Moore, Sarah J.; Warner, John-Michael Howell; Moore, Sarah J.; Morrissey, Katherine G.; Soto, Sandra K.; Albers, Kate P. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s Running Fence, begun 1972 and installed in 1976, and Niki de St. Phalle’s Queen Califia’s Magical Circle, dedicated 2003, in northern and southern California respectively, reexamine the ways landscape art historically shaped ideological constructs, lived experience, and cultural economics. Christo, Jeanne-Claude, and St. Phalle draw on well known representations of the frontier and American West from the nineteenth century including, antebellum landscapes such as Thomas Cole’s The Oxbow, 1836 and Emmanuel Leutze’s Westward the Course of Empire, 1862 as well as Reconstruction Era landscapes including Andrew Russell’s The Golden Spike, 1869 and John Gast’s American Progress, 1872. When Christo, Jeanne-Claude, and St. Phalle’s West Coast art are viewed together, questions about history and tradition, the relationship of economics to cultural production, and aesthetics informed by place and environment, emerge as salient. Through the artists’ interest in time, place, and environment, as well as sustained engagement with community, Running Fence and Queen Califia’s Magical Circle construct representations of the local and interpret the histories and cultures of Sonoma and Marin Counties and Escondido. Running Fence and Queen Califia’s Magical Circle critically engage with artistic convention, state construction, capitalism and cultural production, and the construction of race, gender, and sexuality. As art historian William Truettner explained historical representations of the western frontier as “national pictures,” so too Running Fence and Queen Califia’s Magical Circle reinterpret historical images of the American West through an emphasis on community and place rather than nation-building and nationalism.
    • Wildfire and climate interactions across the Southwest United States

      Comrie, Andrew C.; Crimmins, Michael Alan (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      Variability in climate and wildfire activity are inextricably linked through complex and often poorly understood processes. The studies presented in this dissertation examine fire-climate relationships across the southwestern United States at different temporal and spatial scales. Collectively, they identify that low-frequency and high-frequency changes in climatic variables important to wildfire are connected through teleconnection patterns originating in the tropical and extratropical Pacific Ocean (El Nino-Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO]). Variability in precipitation years prior to a wildfire season appears to affect the overall number of fires and total area burned by either promoting or limiting the growth of fine fuels and also controlling moisture levels in heavy fuels. The same mechanisms (ENSO & PDO) that play a role in precipitation variability across the Southwest also appear to modulate the frequency of extreme fire weather events during the spring fire season. Identifying links between high and low frequency climatic variables important to wildfire variability provides additional insight into the complex mechanisms that link wildfire and climate. The results of this dissertation will aid in improving wildfire planning efforts that extend seasons to decades into the future.
    • Wildfire Impacts on Ecosystem Resources: Case Studies in Arizona's Ponderosa Pine Forest Following the Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire of 2002

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Stropki, Cody Lee; Neary, Daniel G.; Rasmussen, Craig; DeBano, Leonard; Ffolliott, Peter F. (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire the largest in Arizona's history at the time of burning damaged and disrupted ecosystems resources and functioning in a largely mosaic pattern throughout the ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) forests exposed to the burn. Impacts of this wildfire on ecosystems resources and functioning were studied from shortly after the cessation of the wildfire in late summer of 2002 through the spring of 2007 on two previously instrumented watersheds located on sandstone derived soils within the burn. One watershed was burned by a high severity (stand-replacing fire), while the other watershed burned in a low severity (stand-modifying) fire. This dissertation focuses on the effects fire severity had on watersheds resources and functioning in terms of the tree overstories, herbaceous understories, large and small mammals, avifauna, hydrologic functioning, soil water repellency, hillslope soil movement, and fuel loadings. The results of these studies indicated the cumulative impacts incurred to ecosystem resources, hydrologic functioning, and flammable fuels were much greater on the watershed exposed to the high severity (stand-replacing) fire. It is anticipated that the overall ecological and hydrologic function on the watershed burned by a high severity will not approach pre-fire conditions for many years. The watershed burned at a low severity, however, was approaching pre-fire conditions nearly five years after fire and is expected to be recovered within the next few years.
    • Wildlife resources of Kuwait: Historic trends and conservation potentials.

      Shaw, William W.; Alsdirawi, Fozia Abdul-aziz.; Russell, Stephen; Krausman, Paul; Mannan. R. WIlliam; Davis, Dan (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      Kuwait is an arid small country with a severe climate, but an interesting and diverse biological heritage. Historically Kuwait was the home for 28 mammalian, over 300 bird, and 40 reptilian species. Expanding human population and technology are increasingly altering Kuwait's natural habitat. Currently, 8 mammalian species are locally eradicated from Kuwait, but available elsewhere in the Arabian Peninsula. On the endangered list is 4 mammals, 5 birds. The status of most reptiles is unknown. A comprehensive overview of Kuwait's historic and contemporary wildlife is described. Major wildlife habitat types are identified and mapped. A conservation strategy addressing the wildlife and their habitats in Kuwait is suggested. The key to a successful strategy is habitat restoration and protection combined with legal protection of the wildlife. In addition, a program for re-introducing locally eradicated species to their historic range in Kuwait is suggested.
    • THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE

      Bennett, Anna Katherine (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His Life and Career in Music Education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950-2012

      Cooper, Shelly; Stephens, April; Hamann, Donald; Draves, Tami; Cooper, Shelly (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the life of William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923) and his contributions to music education. The study is divided into a prologue, six chapters, and an epilogue: Early Life (1923-1941), College Studies and Military Service (1941-1948), Central Christian College: The Formative Years (1948-1960), Oklahoma Christian College: The Department of Music (1960-1980), The Department of Music (1980-2012), and Discussion and Conclusion. Fletcher, the first faculty member at Central Christian College (1950), dedicated his career to creating a strong music program for the college (now named Oklahoma Christian University). For the first thirteen years of its existence, Fletcher was the music department's sole full-time faculty member. He conducted, taught, and produced musical productions that were well received by the community. His contributions to music education include teacher, composer, conductor, and philosopher. Though not maintaining a highly politicized career, Fletcher's contribution to the field of music education remains substantial. His teaching methods and passion for music have inspired students for more than sixty years. Fletcher has received multiple honors for his teaching including the dedication of the Oklahoma Christian University music department as "The Harold and Mary Helon Fletcher Center for Music." This dissertation presents a glimpse of William Harold Fletcher the teacher, musician, composer, and free-spirited individual.
    • William Walton's "Facade: An Entertainment".

      Pearlman, Leonard; Lasansky, Enrique Leon; Hirst, Grayson; Kirkbride, Jerry; Asia, Daniel (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      Facade: An Entertainment is a composition for six instrumentalists and reciter based on Edith Sitwell's "Facade" poems. While much has been written regarding this composition in general terms, relatively little has been said concerning the relationship between the poetry and the music. The purpose of this study is to examine this relationship and to provide a more in-depth analysis of the music than has previously been published. Several works that may have influenced Walton in the composition of Facade: An Entertainment and Facade II will also be examined.
    • THE WIND AND THE TREE: A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE POETRY OF ROSARIO CASTELLANOS

      Rebolledo, Tey Diana, 1937- (The University of Arizona., 1979)
    • Winning Lebanon: Popular Organizations, Street Politics and the Emergence of Sectarian Violence in the Mid-Twentieth Century

      Hudson, Leila; Baun, Dylan James; Nassar, Maha; Boum, Aomar; Ghosn, Faten; Hudson, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      This project takes popular organizations in mid-twentieth century Lebanon as its focus. These socio-political groupings were organized at the grassroots, made up of young men, and included scout organizations, social justice movements, student clubs and workers' associations. Employing a cultural history approach, the dissertation examines the cultural productions of these types of groups, ranging from group anthems to uniforms, letters of the rank and file to speeches of leaders. With these primary sources, it captures the cultures that took shape around five main actors in the field of street politics: the Lebanese Communist Party, the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, the Kata'ib Party, the Najjadeh Party and the Progressive Socialist Party. And as these groups condoned and committed acts of sectarian violence in the 1958 War and the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1990, this dissertation also investigates the distinct cultures that formed around these groups during wartime. In the end, I argue that both inside and outside of moments of conflict, popular organizations cultivate and mobilize multiple, interactive identities to make sense of their actions, sectarian or otherwise. Moreover, I find that a critical site to explore these complex processes is their routine practices grounded in duty, strength and honor. Part I of the dissertation examines identity formation within these five groups, and the physical and symbolic spaces they produced in Beirut during the 1920s-1950s. Informed by Pierre Bourdieu's theories on social life, this historical background shows how organizational attempts to project uniqueness, win over recruits, and make partisan, often sectarian, claims over the whole Lebanese nation created boundaries between these groups. Also, the lives of individuals within these groups, regardless of the group's distinct vision for Lebanon, were colored by cultures of discipline and defense, working to normalize practices linked to violence. In Part II the dissertation takes up the two historical events of social mobilization and conflict in which these groups participated: the 1958 War (where the Kata'ib, once a nationalist scout group, serves as the focus for the investment in sectarianism) and the Two-Year War of 1975-1976 (where the Lebanese National Movement - specifically the Lebanese Communist Party, once a workers' association, and the Progressive Socialist Party, once a social justice movement - serve as the focus for the investment in anti-sectarian frames). First, through investigating the changing positions of these popular organizations throughout these two wars, the dissertation argues that these groups are active agents in producing sectarian violence, adding nuance to past characterizations of conflict in Lebanon. Second, by capturing the quite seamless shift towards practices of violence, it finds that the quotidian and routine also lay at the center of violence. Finally, by analyzing the textual and visual productions of these groups leading up to and during war, the dissertation finds that multiple and interacting identities, such as national, populist (i.e., fulfilling the needs of people and winning their support in a particular locality) and sect are mobilized to perform violence. Accordingly, sectarian violence, as it emerged in the mid-twentieth century, is sectarian because these groups defined it in sectarian (and antisectarian) terms, not because the violence was rooted in immutable sectarian differences. Collectively, “Winning Lebanon: Popular Organizations, Street Politics and the Emergence of Sectarian Violence in the Mid-Twentieth Century” seeks to bring the local level and the cultural into the study of conflict, and add nuance to the understanding of sectarianism and sectarian violence in Lebanon and the broader Middle East.
    • Winning the Catholic Reformation through the Conversion of Female Protestants: The Education of Les Nouvelles Catholiques in Seventeenth-Century France

      Karant-Nunn, Susan C.; Kang, Julie H.; Karant-Nunn, Susan C.; Lotz-Heumann, Ute; Milliman, Paul (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      This dissertation examines the gendering of heresy and general ignorance in relation to the making of a centralized state in Catholic Reformation France. It studies the strategies of reformers and propagandists in France during the seventeenth century, whose main ambition was to extirpate heresy, namely, the religion of the French Reformed Church. In so doing, they targeted female Protestants in their efforts to establish a French state unified under the single religion of Catholicism. Established in Paris in 1632, the Propagation de la foi (Propagation of Faith) began to spread out to other regions of France in the mid-seventeenth century. Until the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the deliberation records of the meetings of the provincial compagnies reveal an intense focus to convert Huguenot girls and women. Taking into account the significance of the early modern family in the making of a moral society, the Propagation’s plan to find new homes, often in the way of marriage, resonated with their ultimate objective and that of the French Catholic Reformation. Financial incentives drew in new female converts and at the same time allowed individual women and the families of girls to take advantage of the Propagation. In addition, religious reformers who denigrated the early modern female body created a binary comparison such that pious women could take part in French Catholicism’s war against Protestantism. Female missionaries, patrons, and maternal models defined, in opposition to idolaters and heretics, idealized aspects of femininity. Through a good upbringing or “education,” France was poised to become the kind of state that zealous Catholics envisioned. Early modern writers such as Fénelon could not emphasize enough a proper education for girls, whose primary teachers were their mothers. Parents and especially mothers, therefore, had the civic responsibility to raise their daughters well: to be modest and chaste. By reforming the family, reformers sought to make good Catholic daughters who would curtail the development of future generations of unruly Huguenot girls and women.
    • Winslow Orange Ware and the ancestral Hopi migration horizon

      Adams, E. Charles; Schiffer, Michael B.; Lyons, Patrick Daniel (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      This project involved instrumental neutron activation analysis of 428 ceramic vessels and clays, typological analysis of 1135 vessels, and stylistic analysis of more than 400 bowls. Most of the items analyzed were recovered from the Homol'ovi villages, a group of eight Pueblo III--Pueblo IV (circa A.D. 1250--1400) sites located near Winslow, Arizona. These studies were conducted in order to address the question of the origin(s), geographically speaking, of the ancient inhabitants of the Homol'ovi villages. The results of the compositional analysis indicate local production of Winslow Orange Ware at Homol'ovi and in the Petrified Forest. Circulation of Winslow Orange Ware to the Anderson Mesa area, the Tonto Basin, and the Verde Valley is also evident. Furthermore, among the earliest ceramic assemblages from the Homol'ovi sites were found locally-produced versions of ancestral Hopi pottery types and vessel forms. The compositional data also point to local production of Roosevelt Red Ware at Homol'ovi and in the Petrified Forest. The whole vessel study resulted in the observation that most Winslow Orange Ware vessels represent attempts to produce Jeddito Orange Ware using materials indigenous to the Middle Little Colorado River Valley. An examination of the dating and distribution of different kiva forms revealed that Homol'ovi ceremonial architecture reflects western Kayenta and Tusayan patterns, supporting the ceramic-based inference of ancestral Hopi migration. Placing these results in broader context, it is possible to discern an ancestral Hopi migration horizon which corresponds with what has been called the Salado archaeological culture or the "Salado phenomenon." By examining Hopi oral texts, it was observed that many include information that correlates with archaeological and anthropological models of Hopi origins. By hypothesizing that these accounts represent significantly restructured texts, it is possible to resolve apparent disconformities between Hopi oral tradition and anthropological inferences. This conception of Hopi migration accounts allows resolution of conflicting interpretations of Homol'ovi, i.e., the idea that it is an ancestral Hopi place because its inhabitants moved to the Hopi Mesas circa A.D. 1400, versus the notion that it is an ancestral Hopi place because its inhabitants were immigrants from the Hopi Mesas.
    • Winters in America: Cities and Environment, 1870-1930

      Morrissey, Katherine G.; Prins, Megan K.; Irvin, Benjamin; Vetter, Jeremy; Morrissey, Katherine G. (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      An environmental and cultural history of cities between 1870 and 1930s, "Winters in America" explores the changing material and cultural relationship that Americans formed with winter in the urban spaces of the country. During this period of immense demographic, social, and technological change most Americans encountered winter nature in the industrial city, and subsequently formed their environmental experiences and knowledge of the season through city life. Using case studies of five cities - Boston, Chicago, St. Paul, Tucson and Phoenix - this study shows how winter labor, leisure, and culture in the Gilded Age city not only informed built environments but was also marshaled by Americans to interpret the appearance of the season, resulting in an emerging urban environmental and seasonal culture. Indeed, the growth of cities in combination with social and technological changes played a significant role in reorienting how many residents experienced and understood winter in their lives. Access to and control over winter narratives were not inclusive, however, and the evolving culture of winter typically favored particular classes of citizens. Winter celebrations, employment aid, work, and winter health resorts, for example, shifted the experiences and social values injected into the season. Ultimately, an examination of winter in the city during this period demonstrates the continued environmental power of season in the lives of urban Americans, while exposing the cultural power many Americans ascribed to the coldest season.
    • Wireless Self-Protection System

      Hariri, Salim; Fayssal, Samer Nabih; Hariri, Salim; Rozenblit, Jerzy W.; Akoglu, Ali (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      The increased deployment of ubiquitous wireless networks has exponentially increased the complexity to detect wireless network attacks and protect against them. In this research, we investigated the vulnerabilities in wireless networks, developed a comprehensive taxonomy of wireless attacks that has been used to guide our approachto develop, and successfully implement a self-protection wireless system capable of detecting and protecting wireless networks from a wide range of attacks.In the past few years, more security improvements took place, but the network is still vulnerable to complex, dynamic, and knowledgeable attacks; in addition, a large number of last-generation unsecured network cards are still available on the market. This dissertation presents an anomaly-based wireless intrusion detection and response system, which is capable of detecting complex malicious attacks. Our approach is based on multi-channel online monitoring and analysis of wireless network features with respect to multiple observation time windows. These features are related to Data Link Layer framebehaviors and the mobility of stations. We have successfully designed and implemented A Wireless Self Protection System (WSPS) that has the following significant features: it monitors wireless networks, generates network features, tracks wireless-network-state machine violations, generates wireless network flows (WNetFlows) for multiple time windows, and uses the dynamically updated anomaly and misuse rules to detect complex known and unknown wireless attacks and take appropriate proactive actions. To evaluate the performance of WSPS and compare it with other wireless intrusion detection systems, we present an evaluation approach that uses different metrics such as adaptability, scalability, accuracy, overhead, and latency.We validate the WSPS approach by experimenting with normal traffic and more than 20 different types of wireless attacks; and compare the WSPS performance with several well-known intrusion protection systems. Our experimental results show that the WSPS approach can protect from wireless network attacks with an average detection rate of 99.13% for all the experimented attacks.
    • Wireless transactions: The rhetorical appeals of consumer electronics marketing

      McAllister, Ken; Moeller, Ryan M. (The University of Arizona., 2004)
      This dissertation critiques the techniques used to market and distribute consumer electronics products in the United States. Using the wireless networking industry as a case study, I argue that the consumer electronics industry is at the cutting edge of the commercial, consumer nature of U.S. culture and that it operates according to the ideological moorings of what the Frankfurt School called "the culture industry." These moorings include the obscuring of contradiction and the politics of production behind a unified product image, the erasure of individual consumer choice in favor of efficient means of product distribution to an infinite consumer base, an exaggerated presentation of cultural values in product packaging that teach consumers what they should believe and how they should act, and a carefully constructed use of statistical data and quantified consumer behavior to maintain a mass, homogenized culture that opposes characterizations of diversity or heterogeneity that do not expand the consumer base or the target demographic. The rhetorical appeals of consumer electronics marketers depend upon recycled consumer values to create desire through a universal product image, through carefully designed product information, and through highly developed language. The dominant appeals in wireless networking products are to mobility, security, and entertainment. I explicate these appeals using a methodology derived from social-epistemic rhetoric, a rhetoric that examines sites of conflict and contradiction as the arbiters of culture. I explore the contradictions in what I call choicing, or the prediction and manipulation of consumer choice through the marketing, distribution, and use of mass-produced goods. These contradictions include several consumer tactics that confront choicing strategies.
    • WISC-R performance patterns of referred Anglo, Hispanic, and American Indian children.

      Mishra, Shitala P.; Snyder, Barbara Jean; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.; Obrzut, John (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance patterns of Anglo, Hispanic, and American Indian children on the WISC-R. The WISC-R is the most commonly used measure of ability for students who are referred for psychoeducational evaluation to determine special education placement. For this study, the WISC-R was administered to 48 American Indian children from various tribes, 64 Hispanic children, and 64 Anglo children who attended an urban school in a large Southwestern city. The subjects of the study, who were in 1st through 8th grades, were referred for evaluation based on their academic difficulties or were being reevaluated to determine the necessity for continued placement in learning disability programs. An examination of mean differences between the Verbal and Performance scores of the three groups revealed that differences between the Verbal and Performance scores were smallest for Anglo subjects. The Hispanic and American Indian groups each had a difference of one standard deviation between their Verbal and Performance scores. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in differing factor structures for each group. The Anglo children demonstrated the three factor structure defined by Kaufman (1975). The principal axis factoring extracted four factors for the Hispanic group. Three factors were extracted for the American Indian subjects; however, Factor 1 and Factor 2 differed from those of the Anglo subjects. Factor 3 was similar to that of the Anglo subjects. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the equivalency of a hypothesized factor structure and Kaufman's (1975) three-factor structure among the three groups. The hypothesized model was found to fit across the three groups. The best fit for this model was between the Anglo and American Indian subjects. The poorest fit was between the American Indian and Hispanic students. No fit between the Anglo and Hispanic students was found for Kaufman's three-factor model. Implications of these results and recommendations for future research examining the assessment of children from minority cultures are discussed.
    • Withdrawing from public urban high school: Explanations based on theories of college student departure.

      Sabers, Darrell; Christie, Nancy Gail. (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      This study tested the usefulness of Tinto's (1975) and Hossler and Bean's (1990) models of college student departure in explaining dropout in public urban high schools. The "fit" of the models to high school data was tested using path analysis. The sample consisted of 2,625 high school students from the High School and Beyond Study. The findings showed that Tinto's model alone did not provide a good representation of high school data, but that adding causal paths from the constructs of organizational and environmental variables to other variables in Tinto's model, as proposed by Hossler and Bean (and as modified through the findings of this study), produced a model that was a good explanation of the processes leading to high school dropout. The implications of these findings for theory, policy, and future research concerning high school withdrawal are discussed.
    • Within-Species Variation in Hawkmoth Foraging Behavior: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences

      Bronstein, Judith; Papaj, Daniel; Smith, Gordon; Davidowitz, Goggy; Venable, D. Lawrence (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Within-species variation is ubiquitous in nature and can have large consequences for both ecological and evolutionary processes. The major drivers of this variation, as well as their consequences, remain poorly understood for some interaction types. This is especially true in plant-pollinator mutualisms, where intraspecific variation in pollinator behavior has only been minimally studied. As many plants rely heavily on animal pollen vectors for their reproduction within-species variation has the potential to have large consequences for plant fitness. My dissertation focuses on intraspecific variation in the behavior of nectar-foraging hawkmoths, especially variation associated with sex. To examine this variation, I have used a variety of methods including literature reviews (Appendix A), long-term field observations (Appendices C and D), behavioral experiments (Appendices B and C) and experimental physiology (Appendix C). First, I show that sex is associated with large, discrete, and predictable variation in foraging behavior across all major pollinating taxa (Appendix A). In particular, female pollinators frequently gather more and different resources from flowers based on the requirements associated with offspring provisioning, while males frequently show more mobile and dispersive foraging patterns. These general patterns, however, emerge primarily from work on bees, and very rarely assess the consequences of these differences for visited plants. Second, I show that female hawkmoths show strong links between their nectaring and oviposition behavior (Appendix B). These links can have large consequences on their foraging choices, to the point that females may lay eggs on inferior larval hosts if those hosts offer nectar rewards. Third, I show that males and females of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata vary extensively and consistently in their foraging behavior in the field over five years, such that females carry larger and more species rich pollen loads than do males (Appendix C). This difference does not appear to be due to differences in floral fidelity, as wild-foraging males and females did not differ in their rate of switching between floral resources. Males do, however, invest more heavily into their flight apparatus and have higher flight endurance in the lab than females; males may therefore be bypassing resources in nature as they fly long distances looking for females. Finally, I show that individuals vary extensively in their diet breadths below the species level in several hawkmoth species (Appendix D). Across species, individuals carried pollen loads with similar species richness, but species evenness was lower for the specialist species than for the generalist. Together, these results demonstrate the importance and magnitude of variation below the species level in pollinator behavior, and highlight the need for further study across species to understand its impacts on plant-pollinator communities.
    • Within-subject variability in the absolute latency of the auditory brainstem response.

      Oyler, Robert Francis. (The University of Arizona., 1989)
      The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that has achieved widespread acceptance as a technique for evaluating the status and function of the auditory nervous system. For many diagnostic applications, the latency of an obtained ABR peak is compared to clinical norms. One who uses this approach makes some basic assumptions regarding between-subject and within-subject variability of latency. Although a great deal is known about between-subject variability of ABR latency, virtually nothing is known about such variability within a single subject. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the nature of within-subject variability of ABR latency. Nine male subjects participated in the study. Each met the following criteria: 10-12 years of age; normal speech and language development; normal academic progress; normal hearing; and, normal middle ear pressure. A repeated measures design was employed. Four sessions were scheduled for each subject and five ABRs were obtained at each session for each of three stimulus conditions: monaural left, monaural right, and binaural. Stimuli were 100 μs condensation clicks presented at 80 dB nHL. For each ABR peak, the within-subject distribution of latencies was analyzed with regard to symmetry, kurtosis, range, and standard deviation using the SPSSx "Descriptives" procedure. For every subject, variability of latency was observed. Most often, the latencies were normally distributed and the magnitude of variability was small. The variability of latency, as indexed by the standard deviation, was less within any single subject than is commonly reported for groups of subjects. It was concluded that: (a) standard parametric techniques would be appropriate for subsequent analysis of such data; and, (b) by establishing a baseline, the sensitivity of the ABR might be increased for certain within-subject monitoring applications.
    • Witnessing In a Digital Age: Rhetorics of Memory Spaces after September 11, 2001

      Kimme Hea, Amy C.; Haley-Brown, Jennifer; Licona, Adela C.; Baca, Damian; Kimme Hea, Amy C. (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      This project offers an extended inquiry into the ways that multimodality and digitality influence contemporary practices of public memorialization. My project has two primary ambitions. First, I revisit methodologies for analyzing multimodal public memorials. Second, I advocate for public memorials that advance social justice by inviting and protecting a multiplicity of diverse, even competing memory discourses. Chapters 1 and 2 trace the development of public memory studies, spatial rhetorical studies, and multimodal studies. I argue that space, modality, time, lived practices, and marginalized practices must all be addressed to adequately understand how public memorials form discursive networks of power and meaning. This argument is heavily informed by the work of Chicana feminist and decolonial scholars, who contend that socially just history-making uncovers and recovers narratives that have been suppressed or ignored. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze two case studies of multimodal public memorials commemorating September 11, 2001: The Garden of Reflection Memorial in Pennsylvania and the National September 11 Memorial and Museum in New York City. Chapter 5 offers a methodology for analyzing multimodal public memorials as memory ecologies. I end the project by suggesting several options for deploying multimodality and digitality in public memorials in order to encourage socially just and multivocal memory practices.